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THE 


JOURNAL 


ROYAL  ASIATIC  SOCIETY 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND. 


VOLUME  THE  EIGHTH. 

LONDON: 
JOHN   W.    PARKER,    WEST   STRAND. 


M.DCCC.XLVI. 

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CONTENTS   OF   VOLUME   VIII.  ^  r}-> 


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ORIGINAL  COMMUNICATIONS. 


PAGE 

A  ST.  I.~Oii  the  Greographical  Limits,  History,  and  Chronology  of  the 

Chera  Kingdom  of  Ancient  India.    By  Ma.  J.  Dowsok       .        .      l 

Akt.  II. — On  the  Rock-Cut  Temples  of  India.    By  James  Feboussok, 

Esq.  ........     30 

Ab.t.  III. — ^Notee  on  Indian  Agriculture,  as  practised  in  the  Western  or 
Bombay  Provinces  of  India.  By  Alexander  Gibson,  Esq., 
Superintendent  of  the  Botanic  Garden  of  Daporee  .  93 

AmT.  IV. — A  Letter  to  Richard  Clarke,  Esq.,  Honorary  Secretary  to 
the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  on  the  Oriental  MSS.  in  the  Library  of 
EtonCoUege  .  .  .  .  .  .  .104 

Art.  V. — Abstract  of  a  Discourse,  by  Dr.  Falconer,  on  the  Fossil 

Fauna  of  the  Sewalik  Hills  .  .  .  .  .107 

Art.  VI. — On  the  Identification  of  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture.  By 
J.  Forbes  Rotle,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  L.8.,  and  G.S.,  &c..  Professor 
of  Materia  Mediea  and  Therapeutics,  King's  College,  London        .  113 

Art.  VII. — Summary  of  the  Geology  of  Southern  India.    By  Captain 

Newbold,  F.R.S.,  &c.,  Assistant  Commissioner  for  Kumool        .  138 

Art.  VIIL^A  {&k  Observations  on  the  Temple  of  Somnath.  By  Cap- 
tain Postans       .  .  .  .  .172 

Art.  IX. — Report  on  some  of  the  Rights,  Privileges,  and  Usages  of  the 
HiU  Population  in  Meywar.  By  Captain  W.  Hunter,  of  the 
Meywar  Bhil  Qorp^  .  .  .  .  17(; 

Art.  X.— On  the  Hyssop  of  Scripture.  By  J.  Forbes  Rotle,  M.D., 
F.R.S.,  L.S.,  and  G.S.,  &c.»  Professor  of  Materia  Medica  and 
Therapeutics,  King's  College,  London         .  .  .193 

Art.  XI. — Summary  of  the  Geology  of  Southern  India.     By  Captain 

Newbold,  F.R.8.,  &c..  Assistant  Commissioner  for  Kumool         .213 

Art.  XII.* The  Chenchwars;  a  wild  Tribe,  inhabiting  the  Forests  of 
the  Eastern  Ghauts.  By  Captain  Newbold,  F,R.S.,  &c.. 
Assistant  Commissioner  for  Kumool.  .  .  27 1 

Art.  Xin. — Account  of  Aden.    By  J.  P.  Malcolmson,  Esq.,  Civil  and 

Staff  Surgeon  .......  2'iit 


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IV  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Art.  XIV. — Narrative  of  an  Excursion  from  Peshdwer  to  Sh£h-Biz 

Ghari.    By  C.  Masson,  Esq.  .  .  .  .293 

Art.  XV. — On  the  Kapur-di-Giri  Rock  Inscription.     By  Mr.  E.  Norris  301 
Note  by  the  Director        ......  308 

Geology  of  Southern  India  .  .  .316 

Art.  XVI. — ^Analysis  of  the  Granesa  Purina,  with  epecial  reference  to 

the  History  of  Buddhism.    By  the  Rev.  Dr.  Stevensov  .  319 

Art.  XVJI. — The  Ante-Brahmanical  Religion  of  the  Hindus.    By  the 

Rev.  Dr.  Stevenson       ....  .  .  330 

Art.  XVIII.^Memorandum  on  certain  Fossils,  more  particularly  a  new 
Ruminant  found  at  the  Island  of  Perim,  in  the  Grulf  of  Cambay. 
By  At.remarle  Bettington,  Esq.,  of  the  Bombay  Civil 
Service,  F.G.S.,  M.R.A.S.  .  .  .  .340 

Art.  XIX. — ^Extract  from  a  Letter  addressed  by  Professor  Wester- 
gaard  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  Wilson,  in  the  year  1843,  relative  to  the 
Gabrs  in  Persia       .......  349 

Art.  XX.— Visit  to  the  Bitter  Lakes,  Isthmus  of  Suez,  by  the  bed  of  the 
ancient  Canal  of  Nechos,  the  ^  Khalij  al  Eadim"  of  the  Arabs,  in 
June,  1842.    By  Cap* ain  Newbold,  F.R.S.        .  .  .365 

Art.  XXI. — On  the  Secret  Triad  Society  of  China,  chiefly  from  Papers 
belonging  to  the  Society  found  at  Hong  Kong.  By  the  Rev. 
C.  GUTZLAFF  ....  .  .361 

Art.  XXII. — The  Cinnamon  Trade  of  Ceylon,  its  Progress  and  Present 

State.    By  Jobn  Capper,  Escl    .....  308 

Art.  XXII L— Reports  on  the  Manchur  Lake,  and  Aral  and  Narra 
Rivers.  By  Captain  Postans,  and  R.  G.  Knioht^  Esq*,  com- 
municated by  Captain  Postans  ....  381 

Art.  XXIV.—On  the  traces  of  Feudalism  in  India^  and  the  condition  of 
Itfinds  now  in  a  comparative  state  of  Agricultnnd  Infancy.  By 
the  late  Augustus  Prinsep,  Esq.  ....  390 

Art.  XXV.— Extracts  from  a  Report  on  Chota  'Nagpore.     By  S.  T. 

Cuthbert,  Esq.,  Magistrate,  Ramghur    .  .  .407 

Notes  on  the  Perim  Fossil.     By  Professor  Owen  .  .  .  417 


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CONTENTS  OF  N^  XV. 

Part  I. 


PA«R 

Art  I. — On  the  Greographical  Limits,  History,  and  Chronology  of  the 

Chera  Kingdom  of  Ancient  India.     By  Mr.  J.  Dowson  .        1 

Art.  II. — On  the  Rock-Cut  Temples  of  India.     By  James  Fer- 

oussoN,  Esq.        .......      30 

Art.  III. — Notes  on  Indian  Agriculture,  as  practised  in  the  Western 
or  Bombay  Provinces  of  India.  By  Alexander  Gibson,  Esq., 
Superintendent  of  the  Botanic  Garden  at  Dapoi-ee         .  .      93 

Art.  IV. — A  Letter  to  Richard  Clarke,  K<«q.,  Honorary  Secretary  to 
the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  on  the  Oriental  MSS.  in  the  Library 
of  Eton  College  .  .  .  .  .  .104 

Art.  V. — Abstract*  of  a  Discourse,  by  Dr.  Falconer,  on  the  Fossil 

Fauna  of  the  Sewalik  Hills.       .  .  .107 


Proceedings  of  the  Twenty-first  Annitersart  Mbbtino. 
Ltrt  of  Mrmdbrs  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society. 


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THE  ROYAL  ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


Art.  I, — On  the  Geographical  Limits^  History^  and  Chronology 
of  the  Chera  Kingdom  of  Ancient  India,  by  Mr.  J.  Dowson. 

Tradition  and  native  records  represent  the  southern  portion  of  the 
Indian  peninsula  as  being  anciently  divided  into  three  contemporary 
kingdoms.  1.  The  Pandya.  2.  Chola  or  Sora.  3.  Chera,  Sera  or 
Konga.  Of  the  first,  a  valuable  account  has  been  supplied  by  Professor 
Wilson,  in  Vol.  III.  of  the  Society's  Journal ;  and  of  the  other  two, 
slight  sketches  have  been  given  by  the  same  learned  writer,  in  the 
Introduction  to  his  Catalogue  of  the  M'Kenzie  Collection:  a  more 
detailed  notice  of  the  last  is  the  object  of  this  paper. 

The  notices  of  this  kingdom  which  have  been  published,  have  been 
<lrawn  chiefly  from  a  Tamil  memoir,  in  the  M^Kenzie  Collection,  called 
"  Konga  desa  Charitra,"  or  "  Konga  desa  R&jakkal,"  of  which  a  trans- 
lation exists  in  the  Library  at  the  Eajst  India  House;  it  has  been 
noticed,  in  Professor  Wilson's  Catalogue,  at  p.  199,  Vol.  L,  and  in 
page  1  of  the  Rev.  W.  Taylor's  Analysis  of  that  Collection. 

This  Memoir  gives  the  history  of  the  Chera  dynasty,  of  those  Chola 
monarchs  who  held  the  country  of  Chera  by  conquest,  and  also  of  the 
Hoyis&la  or  Bellala  and  the  Vijayanagara  dynasties,  into  whose  power 
it  successively  fell.  It  is  the  only  paper  in  the  collection  from  which 
any  useful  notices  of  the  Chera  monarchs  can  be  obtained,  and  the 
liistory  of  that  dynasty  rests  at  present  mainly  upon  it.  In  style  it 
is  stated  to  be  very  different  from  the  generality  of  Hindu  writings  of 
this  class,  and  independently  of  its  being  our  only  authority,  it  merits  a 
fuller  notice  than  has  yet  been  given  of  it.  From  the  before-men- 
tioned translation,  the  following  Abstract  of  the  first  portion  which 
relates  to  the  Chera  dynasty  and  its  Chola  conquerors,  has  been  pre- 
pared, in  which  all  important  and  useful  information  on  that  subject 
has  been  retained;  the  parts  relating  to  the  Bellala  and  Vijayanagara 
kings  will  be  useful  in  any  future  accounts  of  those  dynasties,  but  are 
unnecessary  for  our  present  purpose. 

TOL.  VIII.  B 

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2  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

The  Rev.  W.  Taylor  speaks  of  this  memoir  in  high  terms  of  com- 
mendation :  he  made  a  translation  of  the  whole  of  it,  which  he  intended 
for  insertion  in  the  "Journal  of  the  Bengal  Asiatic  Society;"  it  has 
however  never  appeared.  In  his  Analysis  of  the  M'Kenize  Collection, 
he  says  it  "is  for  the  most  part  free  from  the  mythological  fable  which 
usually  disfigures  Hindu  documents,  and  is  well  supported  by  dates,  in 
general  referred  to  inscriptions  which  are  mentioned,  and  many  grants 
of  land  are  specified  with  such  reference.  On  the  whole  this  is  one  of 
the  best,  and  most  valuable  manuscripts  in  the  collection."  In  quali- 
fication of  this  praise  however,  it  must  be  observed  that,  the  accounts 
it  gives  of  the  Hoyisala  and  Vijayanagara  kingdoms  differ  in  some 
instances  from  others,  particularly  in  reducing  the  number  of  kings ; 
and  that  implicit  credence  cannot  be  given  to  the  dates  in  the  first 
Part,  will  be  seen  from  the  observations  which  follow  the  Abstract; 
those  of  the  second  and  third  Parts  appear  to  be  tolerably  correct. 

The  translation  of  this  document  in  the  volume  of  MSS.  at  the 
India  House,  is  preceded  by  an  introductory  note,  and  an  analysis  of 
the  first  part  relating  to  the  Chera  desa ;  to  these  no  name  is  attached, 
but  they  are  evidently  the  work  of  an  European.  The  introductory 
matter  supplies  some  valuable  geographical  information,  which  has 
been  incorporated  into  the  following  observations  upon  that  subject. 

We  will  now  give  the  abstract  of  the  memoir,  reserving  further 
comment  for  the  inquiry  which  will  follow  it. 

1.  The  first  king,  named  Sri  Vira  Rdja  Chakravarti,  was  bom  in 
the  city  of  Skandapura^  and  was  of  the  Reddy '  or  Ratta  tribe  (culani)) 
and  of  the  S(!irya  vamsa  (solar  race) ;  he  obtained  the  government  of 
the  country  and  ruled  with  justice  and  equity. 

2.  Govinda  Raya,  son  of  Vira  R&ja,  was  the  next  king. 

3.  Krishna  Raya,  son  of  Govinda  Raya,  ruled  next. 

4.  Kala  VaUabha  Raya,  son  of  Krishna  Raya,  was  next  in  succession. 
Of  these  kings  nothing  more  than  their  equity,  justice,  and  renown 

is  recorded. 

5.  Govinda  B,ky%  son  of  Kala  Vallabha,  was  the  fifth  in  succes- 
sion; he  conquered  the  hostile  rajas,  exacted  tribute  from  them,  and 
ruled  his  country  with  justice  and  renown.  This  king  made  a  grant  of 
land  to  a  Jaina  Brahman,  named  Arist^an,  for  the  performance  of 
worship  in  the  Jaina  basti  (temple)  of  Kongani  Varma,  in  Vaisakha, 
A.  Sil.  4, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Subhanu  (a.d.  82). 

6.  Ghaturbhtija  Kanara  Deva  Chakravarti  succeeded;  he  was  of  the 

1  A  Telugu  tribe.    See  Ellis's  Minsi  Right,  p.  xiL 

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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  O 

same  race,  but  his  parentage  is  not  mentioned.  He  is  stated  to  have 
had  four  hands';  he  waa  versed  in  the  art  of  archery  and  various 
sciences,  and  ruled  with  equity  and  renown,  "obtaining  the  honorary 
insignia  of  all  the  other  rdjaa.*' 

A  jaina  named  Naga  Nandi,  a  learned  and  venerable  man,  was 
minister  to  the  three  last  named  rajas. 

7.  Tirn  Vikrama  Deva  Chakravarti  L,  son  of  GhaturbhtSja  Kanara, 
snooeeded,  and  was  installed  in  A.  Sal.  100  (a.d.  178),  at  Skanda- 
pnra.  The  celebrated  Sankaracharya  (called  in  the  MSS.  Sankara 
Deva)  came  to  this  king  and  converted  him  from  the  Jaina  to  the 
Saiva  faith.  After  his  conversion  he  marched  into  the  southern  country 
and  conquered  the  Chola,  P&ndya,  Kerala,  and  Malay&lma  countries, 
afi»r  which  he  returned.  He  made  many  grants  in  charity  and  in 
encouragement  of  the  learned;  a  deed  of  grant,  dated  Vais^ha-sud 
A.  Sal.  100, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Sidharthi  (a.d.  178),  to  Narasimha 
Bhatt,  Guru,  of  the  Bharadwaja  gotra,  is  stated  to  be  in  the  temple 
of  Sankara  Deva,  at  Skandapura.  This  king  governed  the  Kam&ta 
as  well  as  the  Konga  desa 

8.  Kongani  Varma  Raya  succeeded;  he  was  of  the  Konavar  or 
Konvayan  tribe  and  Ganga  kula,  and  was  installed  at  Vijaya  Skanda- 
pura in  A.  Sal.  Ill, — year  of  the  cycle,  Pramoduta  (a.d.  188),  and 
reigned  for  fifty-one  years;  he  exacted  tribute  from  many  rdjas  whom 
he  conquered,  and  "  by  his  munificence  and  charity  cleared  away  the 
sins  of  his  predecessors  of  the  Ganga  race;'*  his  title  was  Srimat 
Sampati  Kongani  Varma  Dharma  Mahddhi  R&ya. 

9.  Srimat  M^uihava  Mahadhi  R&ya,  son  of  Kongani  Varma,  suc- 
ceeded, and  was  installed  in  the  government  of  the  Konga  desa,  at 
Skandapura;  he  was  learned  in  all  the  sciences  and  maxims  of  justice, 
ruled  with  equity,  and  was  renowned  for  his  munificence  to  the  learned 
and  the  poor. 

10.  Srimat  Hari  Varma  Mahddhi  R4ya^  son  of  Madhava  Rdya,  suc- 
oeeded;  he  was  installed  at  Skandapura,  but  '^  resided  in  the  great  city 
of  Dah&vanpnra,  in  the  Kamdta  desa.'*  He  exacted  tribute  from 
many  different  r&jas,  and  was  renowned  ajs  an  eminent  hero  among  all 
kings;  he  ruled  according  to  the  maxims  of  polity,  and  being  very 
wealthy  made  many  grants  of  land,  one  of  which  is  recited,  viz.,  a 
grant  of  land  in  Tagat6r,  a  petta  (suburb)  of  Talakad  to  the  Brahmans 
for  the  worship  of  JVKilasthin  Iswara  in  that  place,  dated  Panguni, 
A.  Sal.  210, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Saumya  (a.d.  288). 

*  The  writer  of  the  MSS.  has  evidently  understood  the  title  Chatur-bh{^, 
**(imr  anned,**  as  having  a  personal  and  literal  reference  to  this  prince;  it  is  how- 
ever a  tiiie  of  Vishnu,  which  is  frequently  aaeumed  by  his  followers. 

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4  ON   THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

11.  Vishnu  Gopa  Mahadhi  Raja,  son  of  Hari  Varma,  succeeded, 
and  was  installed  at  T^lakdd  or  Dalavanpura;  he  conquered  the 
Purva-dik  (eastern  country)  and  was  renowned  as  a  great  warrior;  he 
made  many  grants  to  Brahmans  and  to  the  poor,  and  being  a  zealous 
votary  of  Vishnu,  erected  many  temples  to  that  deity ;  hence  he  derived 
his  name  of  "  Vishnu  Gopa."  "  The  Konga  and  Kam^ta  desas  were 
both  under  his  command :"  having  no  children  he  adopted  a  lad  of  his 
own  race,  named  him  M&dhava,  and  resigned  the  crown  to  him. 

12.  Mddhava  Mahadhi  R&ya,  adopted  son  of  Vishnu  Gopa,  was 
installed  at  Dalavanpura,  and  ruled  for  some  time  under  the  orders  of 
his  father;  but  a  son  being  bom  to  Vishnu  Gopa,  that  son  was  installed 
in  the  government. 

13.  Krishna  Varma  Mah&dhi  Biya,  son  of  Vishnu  Gopa,  was 
installed  at  Dalavanpura,  and  on  that  occasion  he  granted  some 
"  countries  near  the  Kanavdi  and  the  mountains  to  his  adoptive  brother, 
M^Mlhava  Mahadhi  R^ya,  who  had  lately  ruled;"*  he  governed  the 
kingdom  equitably;  he  was  a  zealous  votary  of  Siva,  and  having  set 
up  a  Linga  at  Dalavanpura  granted  some  lands  for  its  support :  he  had 
no  son. 

14.  Dindikdra  Raya,  son  of  Kul&ti  R&ya,  of  the  family  of  Vishnu 
Gopa's  adopted  son  M&dhava,  ruled  for  some  time,  but  was  deposed  by 

he  Mantri  Sen&pati  of  the  late  r&ja,  who  installed 

15.  Srimat  Kongani  Mahadhi  Raya^  son  of  Krishna  Varma's 
younger  sister,  in  A.  Sal.  288, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Parabhava  (a.d. 
366).  This  prince  was  learned  in  sciences  and  in  languages,  ''he 
conquered  all  the  desas  and  took  tribute  from  their  rdjas,"  and  granted 
many  charities.  A  person  named  Yirachandra  Dindik^Lra  Raya,  who 
had  some  desas  under  his  charge  during  the  reign  of  this  king,  made  a 
grant  of  the  village  of  Parola-kan(ir  near  Al(ir  gr£ma. 

16.  Durvaniti  Raya^  son  of  Kongani  Raya  IL,  succeeded  and  ruled 
the  Konga  and  Kam&ta  desas.  This  prince  is  represented  to  have 
been  deeply  versed  in  magic  and  the  use  of  mantrams ;  by  repeating  the 
mystical  word  cm  when  his  enemies  were  drawn  up  against  him,  they 
were  enervated  and  dispirited,  so  that  he  obtained  easy  victories  over 
them.  He  conquered  the  countries  of  Kerala,  Pandya,  Chola,  Dr&vida^ 
Andhra,  and  Kalinga,  and  exacted  tribute  from  the  rajas  thereof ;  ail 
hostile  kings  were  afraid  of  him,  and  hence  he  was  called  Doony 
Veeroota  R£ya  (Dharma  virodhi,  or  Punya  virota)  the  unjust 
Riiya. 

17.  Mdshakira  R4ya,  son  of  Durvaniti,  succeeded,  he  was  learned 
in  the  military  art,  and  took  tribute  from  those  r^jas  whom  his  father 
had  conquered,  keeping  them  in  subjection  and  fear.     He  resumed  the 


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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  5 

grants  which  had  been  made  to  the  Brahmans  and  the  poor;  and  hence 
he  obtamed  the  title  of  Brahmahatya  Rdja. 

18.  Tini  Vikiama  II.,  son  of  Muahakara,  succeeded;  he  was  a 
learned  man  and  well  versed  in  the  science  of  government;  ^'he 
obtained  possession  of  all  the  desas/'  and  ruled  them  with  justice. 

19.  Bhd  Vikrama  lUja,  son  of  Tiru  Vikrama  succeeded,  and  was 
installed  in  A.  Sdl.  461, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Sidharthi  (a,d.  539).  He 
ruled  the  two  countries  of  Konga  and  Karnata,  and  conquered  many 
other  countries.  From  the  great  number  of  elephants  which  he  pro- 
cured, the  title  of  Gajapati  was  given  to  him;  he  had  several  weapons 
made  of  ivory  which  he  kept  by  him  as  trophies  of  victory.  He 
maintained  all  the  charitable  and  religious  grants  which  had  been 
made  by  his  ancestors  in  the  countries  which  they  had  conquered,  as 
well  as  in  the  Chera  and  Kam^ta  countries. 

20.  Kongani  Mahddhi  Raya  III.,  succeeded  his  father  Bhli  Vik- 
rama, and  governed  the  countries  with  justice  and  equity.  He  made 
his  brother  commander  of  his  armies,  and  several  rajas  having  refused 
to  pay  tribute,  he  collected  his  armies  and  conquered  the  Chola, 
Pand3ra,  Dravida,  Andhra,  Kalinga,  Varada,  and  Mahadushtra  desas,  as 
far  as  the  Nerbadda  river,  and  took  tribute  from  them;  he  then  returned 
to  his  capital,  Dalavanpura,  which  he  strongly  fortified,  and  made  many 
benefactions.  The  title  of  Bhd  Vikrama  Aaya  was  taken  by  him. 
He  acted  in  these  campaigns,  and  in  the  government  of  the  country, 
nnder  the  advice  of  his  youngest  brother  Vallavagi  R&ya. 

21.  Raja  Govinda  Raya  succeeded  his  father,  and  ruled  the  country 
with  equity  and  renown,  subduing  all  the  hostile  rajas.  He  waB 
''  esteemed  a  most  pure  person  in  the  Gangakula,"  and  from  his  attach- 
ment to  the  Ling&dh&ri  sect,  was  called  Nandi  Varma.  This  prince 
resided  for  some  time  at  the  city  of  Muganda-pattana. 

22.  Sivaga  Mahd  Raya,  brother  of  Govinda  Raya,  succeeded;  he 
was  installed  at  Dalavanpura,  but  resided  for  some  time  at  Muganda- 
pattana,  ruling  the  kingdom  justly.  In  A.  S6l.  591, — ^year  of  the  cycle, 
Pramodiita  (a.d.  668),  he  made  a  grant  of  the  village  called  Halihalli 
to  a  learned  Brahman  of  Drdvida  desa. 

23.  Prithivi  Kongani  Mahadhi  Mya,  grandson  (son's  son)  of 
Sivaga,  succeeded ;  his  commander-in-chief,  Purusha  Raya,  conquered 
the  hostile  rdjas,  and  the  king  conferred  upon  him  a  grant  of  twelve 
villages  near  Skandapdra^  and  the  title  of  Chavurya  Parama  Narendra 
Senadhipati,  in  Chaitra,  A.  Sal.  668, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Parthiva 
(a.d.  746).  This  king  ruled  the  country  in  felicity,  and  was  known 
by  the  title  Siva  Mahd-rSja. 

24.  Raja  Malla  Deva  I.,  son  of  Vijayaditya  Raya,  younger  brother  of 

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b  ON    THE    CHKRA    KINGDOM 

Prithivi  Kongani  UkjA,  succeeded,  and  ruled  the  Konga  and  Karn&ta 
desas.  This  prince  always  dressed  with  magnificence  and  elegance. 
He  is  recorded  to  have  made  a  grant  to  his  Senadipati  "  of  twelve 
villages  belonging  to  Vijaya  Skandapura,  situated  above  the  Kanavdi, 
along  with  Vijaya  Skandapura."  The  mantris  of  his  tribe,  the  nobi- 
lity, and  the  Mallik^una  Swfimf,  were  declared  witnesses  to  the  grant. 

25.  Ganda  deva  Mah&-rd,ya,  son  of  Malla-deva^  succeeded;  he  was 
a  powerful  prince,  and  obtained  the  different  insignia  of  all  the  rajas. 
He  fought  with  the  Dravida  Raja  in  Kdnchi  desa,  defeated  him  and 
exacted  tribute  from  the  country ;  he  fought  also  with  the  Chola  Raja, 
"  into  whom  he  carried  terror,  and  afterwards  established  amity  with 
him."  He  maintained  a  friendship  with  the  P&ndya  Raja,  and  was 
renowned  among  the  Gangarkula  for  protecting  the  kingdom. 

26.  Satya  Vakya  Raya  succeeded  his  father  Ganda  deva,  and  ruled 
the  kingdom  in  equity  and  justice,  punishing  the  wicked  and  protecting 
the  good.  He  waa  never  failing  in  truth,  hence  he  obtained  the  title 
of  Satya  Vakya  Raya  (the  truth-speaking  king). 

27.  Gunottama  Deva,  brother  of  Satya  Vakya,  was  installed  at 
Dalavanpura ;  he  ruled  the  kingdom  in  an  equitable  manner,  allowing 
many  charities,  and  maintained  friendship  with  the  other  rdjas. 

28.  Malla  Deva  R&ya  II.,  younger  brother  of  Gunottama,  succeeded 
during  the  life-time  of  the  latter,  whom  he  is  stated  to  have  kept 
at  Vijaya  Skandapura.  This  king  was  a  very  valiant  man  and  defeated 
the  Pdndya  Raja,  who  had  attacked  him. 

In  the  reign  of  this  prince,  his  brother  Gunottama  made  a  grant  of 
land  in  Ani,  A.  Sal.  800, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Vikari  (a.d.  878),  to  a 
Jaina,  for  the  performance  of  worship  to  a  Jaina  deity. 

On  the  7th  Vais^ha  sud,  A.  Sal.  816, — ^year  of  the  cycle,  Ananda 
(a.d.  894),  a  person  named  Tiruinalayan,  built  a  temple,  and  to  the 
west  of  it  erected  an  image  of  Vishnu,  which  he  called  Tirumala  Deva, 
upon  some  land  "  in  the  midst  of  the  Cdvery,"  where  in  former  times 
the  western  Ranganad  Swdmi  had  been  worshipped  by  Gautama  Rishi; 
but  which  was  then  entirely  overrun  with  jungle.  This  place  he  called 
Sri  Ranga  pattana  (Seringapatam). 

Chola  Conquest. 

20.  V^ijaya  Raya  Aditya  Varma,  son  of  Vijayada'  Raya,  who  had 
been  installed  at  Tanjore  as  King  of  the  Chola-desa,  came  into  the 
Chera-desa,  conquered  the  "  Vedar*"  Rajas  thereof,  reduced  the  capital 

'  Tlie  introductory  note  calls  him  "Virata." 
'  A  tribe  of  hunters,  said  to  be  the  aborigines  of  the  peninsula. 


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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  7 

Talakad,  and  governed  the  country.     He  made  many  charitable  grants 
in  Chera. 

30.  Vira  Chola*  R&ya,  eon  of  Aditya  Vanna,  was  installed  at 
Tanjore,  and  became  King  of  the  Chera  and  Kamdta  desas.  He  was  a 
rery  valiant  man  and  conquered  many  desas ;  hence  he  obtained  the 
title  Vira  (hero),  and  from  being  a  zealous  follower  of  Vishnu  he  was 
called  N&r&yana;  thus,  Vira  Chola  N^yana.  ''He  and  the  P4ndya 
Raja  both  conquered  many  desas;  he  went  to  Sinhala  desa  and  con- 
quered the  raja  thereof,  thereby  obtaining  great  fame.'*  He  granted 
many  agrah^rams  in  free  gift  to  Brahmans;  one  situated  on  the  banks 
of  the  C^v^ry  in  Cholardesa,  was  named  Vira  N4r&yanapur.  He  one 
day  saw  on  the  sea-shore  the  Sabh&pati  of  Ohillambara  (Siva),  attended 
by  Parvati,  dancing  and  beating  the  damaraka  (a  kind  of  drum) ;  he 
therefore  expended  great  sums  of  money  in  building  the  Kanaka  or 
golden  Sabha.  Having  many  sons,  he  appointed  D^oditya  JRaya  to 
be  King  of  the  Chola-desa,  and  Arunjeya  R&ya  to  the  Drdvida  desa,  and 
died. 

31 .  Ddsoditya  Raya  wa^  installed  at  Tanjore,  and  then  performed 
the  installation  of  his  elder  brother,  Arunjeya  R&ya,  as  King  of  the 
Drdvida  desa.  He  ruled  the  Chera  country  in  an  equitable  and  charit- 
able manner;  he  granted  four  agrahdrams  on  the  C6v6iy,  and  named 
them  Chatur  samudram ;  he  died  childless. 

32.  Parandaka  R4ya,  son  of  Ddsoditya's  brother  Arunjeya,  con- 
quered the  Pandya  raja  and  took  tribute  from  him.  He  married  a 
virgin  named  Chittiri,  daughter  of  Chati  Raya;  by  her  he  had  a  son, 
who  having  conquered  many  enemies,  waj3  called  Arimalli;  he  died 
before  his  father,  who  by  the  same  wife  had  many  other  sons.  This 
king  granted  many  agrah^rams,  and  other  charities. 

33.  Divya  R&ya,  son  of  Parandaka,  succeeded,  and  ruled  the  DtA- 
vida,  Chera,  and  Kam&ta  desas.  He  was  alarmed  by  Vira  P^dya, 
who  came  to  Tanjore  to  fight,  but  defeated  him  and  cut  off  his  ears, 
upon  which  the  Pandya  Raja  returned  to  Madura;  from  this  feat  he 
was  called  Arititu  Raya.  He  then  went  to  conquer  the  Uttara  desa 
(northern  country),  leaving  his  mantri  in  charge  of  the  public  affairs  at 
Tanjore,  but  remaining  absent  a  long  time,  quarrels  arose  between  his 
relations  and  the  mantri,  whose  authority  was  unheeded;  upon  hearing 
of  which,  he  returned  and  restored  tranquillity,  and  punished  those  who 
had  rebelled.  After  this  he  conquered  Satya  K^ak^,  of  the  Vaitonda 
vanisa,  and  despoiled  him  of  a  great  quantity  of  precious  stones,  which 

>  A  note  in  the  MSS.  stateK)  that  ''accordiDg  to  the  Condatoor  MSS.  he 
reigned  from  Saliviihaiia  849  to  «^  (a.d.  927  to  977)." 


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8  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

he  gave  to  the  Brahmans  in  cbarity,  in  order  to  obtain  the  favour  of 
Narayana.  He  caused  many  canals  on  the  Cdv6ry  to  be  dug,  and 
made  many  charitable  grants ;  he  had  no  sons,  he  therefore  installed 
his  younger  brother,  Ari  Vari  Dera. 

34.  Ari  Vari  Deva,  brother  of  Divya  Rdya,  ruled  the  desaa  of 
Chola,  Drdvida,  Konga,  and  Kamdta.  His  brother,  Divya  Raya, 
marched  with  an  army  to  Madura,  defeated  the  Ptodya  Raja,  and  forced 
him  to  take  flight:  he  then  reduced  the  Pandyardesa,  and  having 
plundered  Virenjipuram  ^  returned  to  Tanjore.  The  mother  of  the 
defeated  and  fugitive  P^ndya  Raja,  being  a  near  relative  to  the  Chola 
Raja,  the  latter,  after  having  received  large  quantities  of  jewels  and 
money,  restored  Madura  to  the  Pandya  king,  and  lived  afterwards 
in  amity  with  him.  "  The  Senddhipati  (commander)  of  the  Pandya 
Raja,  who  was  a  near  relation,  came  to  the  Chola  Raja;"  his  name  was 
Amra  Bhojangan,  and  the  king  being  pleased  with  him  gave  him  the 
command  of  an  army,  with  which  he  marched  as  far  as  Saha  parvata 
to  the  west,  and  from  thence  into  the  Kerala  desa,  the  raja  of  which 
attempted  to  defend  the  country,  but  Amra  conquered  the  Kollur, 
Indra-giri,  and  Nila-giri  countries;  "and  that  raja  having  lost  every- 
thing, and  being  defenceless,  embarked  on  ship,  and  fled  to  the  islands 
in  the  midst  of  the  ocean."  By  command  of  his  master,  he  buried  all 
the  treasures,  jewels,  and  whatever  he  had  plundered,  in  the  Kanav&i 
sthala  of  Siva;  Bhima  BAys>,  having  heard  of  these  events,  attacked 
him,  but  was  defeated,  and  lost  his  son.  Amra  then  marched  into  the 
Kallnga  desa,  and  took  tribute  from  the  rdja,  and  proceeded  from 
thence  to  the  Narmada  river,  where  he  conquered  many  rajas ;  having 
subdued  Vaitonda  R^ya,  K&maranava  R&ya,  Dana  Pallia  Bhima  Raya, 
and  Am&n  R&ya,  and  taken  from  them  money,  jewels,  the  ladies  of 
their  palaces  and  tribute,  he  returned  to  the  raja,  bringing  among  the 
plunder  the  golden  statue  of  Bhima  Raya,  having  planted  the  "  vic- 
torious tiger-standard"  in  the  Pushkama-dik  (western  country),  on  the 
Narmada  river  and  on  Mahendra-giri.  The  raja  was  highly  pleased  on 
seeing  the  treasures,  and  observing  that  his  grandfather  had  built  only 
a  Kanaka  Sabh^  to  the  Chillambara  deity  (Siva) ;  he  built  Gopuras 
(spires,  towers),  Maddals,  (inclosures),  Mandapams  (image-houses),  and 
Sabh^  (holy  places  or  apartments),  and  granted  many  jewels  to  the 
deity.  He  resided  at  Tanjore,  and  ruled  both  the  Konga  and  Kamdta 
desas,  making  numerous  grants  of  land  and  other  donations.  He  made 
a  grant  of  the  village  of  Kiriyur,  in  TdlakM,  to  the  north  of  the 
Chera  desa,  in  agrahdram  to  the  Brahmans  of  Tdlakad,  placing  Vaisyas 

1  There  is  a  place  of  this  name  in  the  Drilvida  desa;  it  is  situated  a  little  to  the 
west  of  Vellore. 

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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  ^ 

in  cluurge  of  it,  and  called  it  R^ja-r^ja-pura.  He  thus  made  many 
grants  on  the  5th  Mdgha  and,  A.  6al.  926, — ^year  of  the  cycle, 
Viswav^sn  (a.d.  1004). 

The  notice  of  the  Chola  djniasty  here  ends  abruptly,  and  the  MS. 
proceeds  to  the  history  of  the  Belldla  rulers. 

The  first  point  of  inquiry  which  presents  itself  is  that  which  relates 
to  the  Geography  of  the  Chera  Kingdom ;  its  boundaries,  the  situation 
of  its  capitals,  and  the  locality  of  the  several  desas  and  cities,  which 
are  mentioned  in  the  preceding  paper;  referring  more  particularly  to 
countries  which  were  under  the  Chera  rule. 

The  boundaries  and  extent  of  Chera,  as  defined  by  Tamil  classic 
writers,  are  given  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Rev.  W.  Taylor's  Trans- 
lations of  Historical  MSS.^  in  the  following  words: 

Stanza  supposed  to  be  by  Avyar. 
"  The  northernmost  place  is  Pazhani  (Pjniey),  the  most  eastern  is 
Chengodu  (Trichengode),  the  most  western  is  Kozhikudu,  on  the  south 
is  the  shore  of  the  sea ;  in  all  eighty  kadams  (eight  hundred  miles),  is 
called  the  boundary  of  the  Sera  country.'' 

Stanza  by  Avyar. 
"  The  northernmost  place  is  Pazhani,  to  the  south  is  the  southern 
Kasi,  to  the  west  is  Kolikudu,  the  sea-shore  on  the  south  is  called  the 
boundary  of  the  Chera  kingdom." 

A  PB08E  description  PRESUMED  TO  BELONG  TO  MiRTANJEYA  PaTTAR. 

"On  the  north  Pazhani,  to  the  east  the  great  town  (or  Penir),  on 
the  south  the  sea,  on  the  west  the  great  mountain;  from  east  to  west 
forty  kadams  (four  hundred  miles),  from  south  to  north  forty  kadams 
(fonr  hundred  mUes),  making  together  eighty  kadams  (eight  hundred 
miles).  Its  revenue  ten  miUions  of  pattans,  of  which  four  make  a  kali 
pan." 

To  these  may  be  added,  that  quoted  by  Professor  Wilson,  in  his 
Catalogue  of  the  M'Kenzie  Collection*. 

Tamil  verse. 

"  The  Palini  river  on  the  north,  Tencasi  in  Tinnavelly  on  the  east, 
Malabar  on  the  west,  and  the  sea  on  the  south." 

Professor  Wilson,  in  the  Introduction  to  the  Catalogue  of  the 
M'Kenzie  Collection,  founding  his  description  chiefiy  on  the  last  verse, 

>  Tay]or*0  MSS.  App.  vol.  ii.  p.  26.  •  Wilson^s  M<Kenzie  Cat.  i.  198. 

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10  ON    THB    CHERA    KINGDOM 

says,  ''  The  northern  limits  of  Cfaera  varied  at  different  periods,  being 
originally  placed  aft  Palini  near  Dhardpora,  whilst  at  a  subsequent 
period  the  capital,  Dalavanpura  or  Tdlak&d,  above  the  Mysore  Gh^ts, 
indicates  a  considerable  extension  of  the  boundary  in  that  quarter,  and 
the  Ghera  principality  probably  included  the  greater  portion  of  Kar- 
n^ta.  Its  eastern  limits  were  the  possessions  of  Chola  and  Pdndya, 
and  the  western  those  of  Kerala.  In  its  early  state,  however,  it  com- 
prehended the  extreme  south  of  the  Malabar  coast  or  Travancore,  and 
consisted  of  that  province,  Wyndd,  the  Nilgiri  mountain  district,  the 
southern  portion  of  Coimbetore,  and  part  of  Tinnevelly.  In  this  tract, 
we  have  in  Ptolemy  the  people  called  Caret,  and  not  far  from  it, 
Carura  Begia  Cerebothri,  in  which,  making  an  allowance  for  inac- 
curacies of  sound  and  expression,  we  have  the  Cheras,  and  Gdrdr  still  a 
city  in  this  district,  and  Cherapati  the  sovereign  of  Chera  \** 

The  foregoing  memorial  verses  are  upon  the  whole  tolerably  con- 
current ;  all  four  make  the  sea  to  be  the  southern  boundary,  and  Calicut 
(Kozhikudu)  or  Malabar  the  western.  The  first  makes  Trichengode  in 
Salem,  and  the  last  Tenkdsi,  or  the  southern  Kdsi,  in  Tinnevelly,  to  be 
the  eastern  boundary;  the  second  verse  makes  two  southern  bound- 
aries (the  sea  and  Tenk^i),  omitting  entirely  the  eastern,  we  may 
therefore  reasonably  include  that  Tenkdsi  is  intended  for  the  eajstem ; 
the  third  verse  gives  "  Per6r"  as  on  the  frontier,  but  as  that  term 
means  simply  "  great  town,"  it  cannot  be  definitely  applied.  Trichen- 
gode and  Tenk^si  are  at  a  great  distance  from  each  other,  but  each 
might  be  considered  as  an  eastern  boundary,  one  being  situated  towards 
the  northern  extremity  of  ^the  kingdom,  the  other  toward  the  southern ; 
a  line  drawn  from  one  to  the  other  might  therefore  be  considered  the 
eastern  frontier :  such  a  line  would  pass  a  little  to  the  west  of  Cdrur, 
mentioned  by  Ptolemy  as  included  in  the  Ghera  desa;  and  this  town 
was,  as  Golonel  Wilks  informs  us,  so  near  the  frontier,  that  it  was 
alternately  in  the  possession  of  the  Chera,  Chola,  and  Pdndya  sove- 
reigns'. The  northern  frontier  cannot  be  so  easily  settled;  the  first 
three  verses  give  Pazhani  as  the  boundary;  the  fourth,  however,  says 
the  Palini  river  (the  same  name  but  a  different  orthography) ;  the  Paz- 
hani of  the  first  three  verses  has  been  considered  to  be  the  town  of  that 
name,  variously  spelt  Palini,  Pulney,  and  Pyney ;  this  town  is  situated 
in  the  south  of  Coimbetore  below  Dhardpura,  whereas,  Calicut  and 
Trichengode  are  both  far  to  the  northward;  the  Cdr6r  of  Ptolemy  is 
also  north  of  it.  This  town  then  could  not  have  been  the  northern 
boundary;  the  Palini  river  of  the  fourth  verse  may  help  us  in  dis- 

'  Wilson's  M'Kenzio  Cnt.  Int.  p.  92. 
'  Wilkfi*8  Sketches  of  Myiore  HiBtory,  i.  p.  8. 


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OP    ANCIENT    INDIA.  II 

coyering  the  oonect  frontier.  After  diligent  search  no  river  of  this 
n&me  has  been  found ;  but  yarious  circumstances  lead  to  the  belief  that 
the  riyer  Bhowanj^  which  running  eastward,  falls  into  the  Cdvery  at 
Bhowany  kudal,  or  as  it  is  sometimes  written  Boviny  Coral,  a  little 
aboye  Erode,  is  intended. 

The  words  in  the  lines  quoted  from  the  Tamil  poetess  Ayjdr,  as 
giyen  bj  Mr.  Taylor,  are,  Vadakku-talam  Pazhani,  t.  e,,  north  the 
sthalam  Pazhani.  A  sthalam  is  a  holy  place,  a  place  where  a  temple 
18  erected  in  honor  of  some  deity;  now  we  haye  only  to  suppose  an 
easy  clerical  error  of  one  letter  to  haye  crept  into  the  yerse,  and  we 
shall  remoye  the  only  obstacle  to  the  tracing  of  a  consistent  line  of 
boundary  from  the  accordant  testimony  of  the  authorities  referred  to. 
If  we  substitute  t?  for  zh  in  the  word  Pazhani  we  haye  Bhayani, 
(for  the  same  symbol  in  the  imperfect  alphabet  of  the  Tamil  ex- 
presses p  and  b  and  their  respectiye  aspirates,)  and  Bhayani  would  be 
a  legitimate  feminine  form  of  Bhavan,  signifying  the  wife  of  Bhayan 
or  Siya,  the  goddess  P&ryati,  who  has  giyen  name  to  the  sthalt^  still 
known  as  Bhowany.  Whether  this  conjecture  be  right  or  not,  it 
appears  highly  probable  that  the  riyer  Bhowany  was  near  the  northern 
frontier,  which  must  in  all  probability  haye  been  nearly  the  same  as 
that  between  the  British  district  of  Coimbetore  and  Salem  and  the  ter- 
ritories of  the  Mysore  Raja,  as  the  following  observations  will  show. 

1.  A  line  drawn  from  Calicut  on  the  Malabar  Coast  to  Trichengode 
in  Salem,  these  places  being  respectiyely  mentioned  in  the  Tamil 
yerses  as  the  western  and  eastern  boundaries,  would  pass  in  the  imme- 
diate yicinity  of  the  Bhowany  riyer. 

2.  The  introductory  note  to  our  MSS.  informs  us,  that  Skandapura, 
the  capital  of  the  Chera  kingdom,  was  situated  a  short  distance  west 
of  the  Guzzelhatty  Pass;  no  direct  confirmation  of  the  locality  here 
assigned  to  Skandapura  has  been  met  with ;  it  appears,  howeyer,  to  be 
verified  by  our  MSS.,  which  says  that  Tiru  Vikrama  (No.  7),  marched 
southward  to  Chola  desa,  and  it  may  therefore  be  admitted  as  correct. 
The  situation  thus  given  to  Skandupura,  and  the  fact  of  Tiru  Vikrama 
marching  southward  to  Chola,  render  it  necessary  to  place  the  frontier 
as  Celt  north  as  the  boundary  proposed. 

3.  Mr.  Buchanan,  in  the  Narrative  of  his  Mysore  Journey,  makes 
a  few  incidental  observations  which  also  confirm  it;  he  mentions 
Sanklidrug,  a  little  to  the  north  of  Trichengode  in  Salem,  Satiman> 
gal%  near  Danaikancotta  in  Coimbetore,  and  Nidi  Cdvil,  about  forty 
miles  N.N.W.  of  Sanklidrug,  as  included  in  the  Chera  desa,  Nidi 
Cavil  being  aa  he  states,  upon  the  frontier  between  Chera  and  Karn^ta' ; 

'  BuchaoaD*8  Mysore  Journey,  vol.  ii.,  p.  XH'A,  1»5,  237  and  248. 

.,. /Google 


12  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

he  further  mentions  Coleagala  and  Arootdr  (the  former  of  which  is 
situated  a  short  distance  in  the  Mysore  territories^  and  the  latter,  on 
the  borders  of  Goimbetore,)  as  being  towards  the  southern  extremit j 
of  Kam&ta*. 

Concluding  then  upon  the  foregoing  grounds,  that  the  northern 
boundary  must  have  been  nearly  the  same  as  that  of  the  modem 
Coimbetore  and  part  of  Salem;  the  outlines  of  Ghera  may  be  stated  as 
follows : — 

To  the  north  it  had  the  country  of  Kamata,  which  it  joined  among 
the  Ghats,  nearly  upon  the  present  Mysore  frontier :  stretching  from 
thence  eastward  it  penetrated  into  the  district  of  Salem  as  far  as  San- 
klidrug  or  Trichengode:  from  thence  it  proceeded  southward  (Chola 
and  P^ndya  being  to  the  eastward,  and  the  towns  of  G^riir  in  Goimbe- 
tore  and  Tenkasi  in  Tinnavelly  near  the  frontier  line,)  to  the  coast  of 
Travancore;  and  it  included  the  western  coast,  as  high  up  as  Calicut 
in  Malabar*. 

The  Malabar  district  cannot,  although  included  in  the  Chera  king- 
dom, be  considered  as  part  of  the  Ghera  desa,  for  it  was  included  in  the 
ancient  Kerala  desa;  the  northern  parts  of  Malabar  above  Calicut 
may  be  regarded  as  remnants  of  the  ancient  Kerala  kingdom,  which, 
together  with  the  district  of  Wjnidd,  did  not  fall  under  the  sway  of  the 
Chera  rajas  before  the  conquest  of  Kam&ta,  in  which  desa  Wyn&d  wa« 
included". 

The  boundaries  thus  assigned  to  Chera,  are  in  accordance  with  the 
general  description  of  that  country  usually  given,  as  consisting  of 
Coimbetore  and  Salem  ^  To  define,  however,  the  boundaries  of  this 
or  any  other  of  these  ancient  kingdoms  with  exactitude  is  quite  impos- 
siblcj  as  they  were  continually  varying  according  to  the  strength, 
ability,  and  ambition  of  their  respective  rulers. 

The  seventh  king  in  our  MSS.  is  represented  as  "ruling  the  country 
together  with  the  Kam&ta  desa;"  this  was  undoubtedly  a  conquest,  but 
whether  of  his,  or  of  his  predecessors,  we  are  not  informed.  This 
country  is  always  mentioned  in  our  MSS.  as  distinct  from  the  Chera 
desa,  although  Dalavanpura  or  T^ak&d  in  Kamdta,  became  at  a  later 
period  the  capital  of  the  extended  kingdom. 

>  Bachanan*8  Mysore  Journey,Vol.  iL,  p.  242. 

*  A  list  of  titles  of  the  Chera,  Chola,  and  Pdndya  sovereigns,  (Wilson^a 
M'Kenzie  Cat,  vol.  ii.,  p.  cxxix.,  No.  24),  gives  the  following  among  fourteen 
titles  of  the  Chera  Rajas.  ^^  Malayaman,**  Lord  of  Malaya :  "  Colly  verpen,**  Lord 
of  the  Colly  mountain  in  Salem. 

>  Bachanan*s  Journey,  vol.  ii.,  p.  484. 

*  Wilks*s  Sketches,  Ac,  vol.  i.,  p.  8.;  Buchanan*s  Journey,  vol  ii.,  p.  183, 
185,  and  304.  ^    _  ^  _ 


OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  13 

The  bonndariee  of  ancient  Karndta  are  no  better  defined  than  those 
of  Chera;  it  consisted  of  the  central  districts  of  the  peninsula,  including 
the  Mysore  territories  of  the  present  day.  The  ghdts  present  a  good 
natural  frontier,  and  for  some  distance  on  the  east  and  west  are  recog- 
nised as  its  bounds ;  the  southern  frontier  appears  to  have  joined  the 
Chera  dominions,  and  is  therefore  defined  by  the  northern  boundary  of 
that  kingdom.  An  inquiry  into  the  position  of  the  northern  frontier  of 
Kamdta  is  unnecessary  for  our  present  purpose,  as  it  seems  clear  that 
the  whole  desa  could  never  haye  come  under  the  rule  of  the  Chera 
monarchs,  for  the  Kadamba  djaastj  ruling  at  Banavdsi  by  the  Varada 
river  upon  the  frontier  between  the  modem  Mysore  and  Canara,  and 
the  Chalukya  monarchs,  whose  capital  was  Kdlyan,  and  whose  con- 
quests appear  to  have  extended  as  far  southward  as  Banavisi,  were  in 
existence  before  the  extinction  of  the  Chera  rule,  and  must  have  occu- 
pied a  considerable  portion  of  the  north  and  west  of  Kam&ta.  Of  the 
former  race,  Professor  Wilson  mentions  inscriptions  from  a.d.  168  to 
1336,  throwing  some  doubt  however  upon  the  first  date'.  Mr.  Walter 
Elliott  fixes  the  era  of  one  king  of  this  line  about  a.d.  580  or  600 '. 
In  reference  to  the  latter  or  Chalukya  djniasty,  Mr.  Elliot  remarks, 
that  proofs  have  been  obtained  of  the  possession  of  sovereign  authority 
by  the  Chalukyas,  from  about  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century  of 
-our  era'. 

The  city  of  Dalavanpura  or  Tdlak&d,  which  under  the  tenth  prince 
became  the  capital  of  the  extended  dominions  of  the  Chera  monarchs, 
was  situated  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Cdvery,  about  thirty  miles  east 
of  Seringapatam,  and  immediately  upon  the  frontiers  of  the  present 
Mysore  and  Salem;  its  ruins  are  still  known  by  the  name  of  Tdlak&d. 
The  introductory  note  to  our  MSS.  informs  us,  that  ^'  it  must  have  been 
a  very  splendid  and  extensive  city,  the  C^very  inclosing  its  forti- 
fications on  three  sides;  it  was  called  the  southern  Gayd;  five  or  six 
celebrated  temples  are  still  standing,  many  inscriptions  being  visible  on 
their  walls."  When  Mr.  Buchanan  visited  T&lakdd,  he  found  only  one 
temple  which  was  dedicated  to  Siva,  many  others  having  been  over- 
whelmed with  sand,  the  tops  of  them  alone  remaining  visible;  an 
inscription  upon  the  preserved  temple  he  could  not  decipher\  Could 
these  inscriptions  have  been  procured,  they  would  probably  have  thrown 
some  valuable  light  either  upon  the  Chera  or  Hoyisdla  dynasties, 
Talak&d  having  been  at  successive  periods  the  capital  of  each. 

Mngandarpattana,  at  which  the  twenty-first   and  twenty-second 

1  WilflK>ii*8  Catalogue  of  M'Kenzie's  Collection,  vol.  L,  Int.  xcviii. 

t  Journal  of  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  vol.  iv.,  p.  36.  'lb.  p.  4. 

*  Buchanan*s  Mysore  Journey,  vol.  ii.,  p.  162. 


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14  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

princes  are  said  to  have  restded,  was,  aooording  to  the  introductory 
note,  about  forty-eight  miles  north-east  of  Seringapatam,  but  the  name 
cannot  be  traced  in  the  maps. 

By  ^<  the  Kanavdi"  is  probably  intended  the  Guzzelhatty  Pass,  the 
word  meaning  in  Tamil,  "  a  narrow  pass  in  the  mountains  >." 

The  frequent  reference  in  the  MSS.  before  us,  as  well  as  in  all 
native  historical  memorials,  to  the  great  geographical  divisions  of 
peninsular  India,  known  to  the  Hindus  from  the  earliest  times,  and 
still  familiar  to  all  among  them  who  have  any  pretensions  to  the  cha- 
racter of  scholars,  renders  it  desirable  to  take  a  rapid  view  of  the  limits 
assigned  to  them  by  the  best  authorities,  as  far  as  the  industry  of  Euro- 
pean research  ha^s  been  enabled  to  trace  them.  The  accompanying 
Map  will  assist  the  understanding  of  the  following  summary. 

Proceeding  from  Cape  Comorin  up  the  eastern  side  of  the  peninsula 
we  have  first  the  kingdom  of  Pandya,  which  is  said  to  have  extended 
from  thence  to  the  Vellar  river:  but  here  a  difficulty  arises,  for  the 
river  of  that  name  falling  into  the  sea  at  Porto  Novo,  would  have  to 
the  south  Tan j ore  and  Trichinopoly,  the  first  of  which  is  acknowledged 
to  have  been  the  capital,  and  the  second,  a  place  of  importance  in  the 
Chola  desa.  Is  it  not  probable  that  the  frontier  river  intended  was 
the  Vayaru  or  Vaygaru?  The  frontier  was  probably  a  little  higher 
up  than  the  Vayaru,  and  extended  further  northward  in  the  interior 
than  on  the  coast;  our  introductory  note  says  it  was  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Dindigal,  and  Colonel  Wilks's  observation  upon  Carur  before 
adverted  to,  makes  it  still  higher  than  the  latter  place.  The  capital 
cities  of  Pfindya  were,  Kurkhi,  (supposed  by  Professor  Wilson  to  be 
the  Kolkhi  of  the  Periplus),  next  Kalyanapur,  and  lastly,  Madura*. 

Adjoining  Pandya  to  the  northward  was  the  Chola  desa,  which 
extended,  according  to  the  introductory  note,  as  high  up  a£i  Chillam- 
bram  on  the  Vellar  river,  and  according  to  other  authorities  higher  up, 
ajs  f ar  as  the  Pennar  or  southern  Pinakini  river,  which  appears  to  be 
the  correct  line  of  boundary.  Territories  beyond  both  these  rivers 
were  governed  by  the  Chola  rajas,  but  those  situated  to  the  north  of 
the  Pennar  formed  part  of  Dravida  proper.  The  capitab  of  Chola  were 
Wariur  (properly  Uriur,  supposed  by  Professor  Wilson  to  be  the 
Orthoura  of  Ptolemy,)  on  the  Cdv^ry,  Kumbhakonam  and  afterwards 
Tanjore\ 

>  Rottler^s  Dictionary. 

■  Journal  of  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  vol.  iiL,  p.  203;  Tamil  verses,  in  Taylor's 
MSS.,  vol.  u,y  App.  p.  25. 

'  Wilson's  M^Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol.  i.,  Int.,  p.  Lxxxi;  Tamil  venes,  in 
Taylor's  MSS.  vol.  ii.,  App.  p.  26. 


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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  15 

The  title  Dr^vida  has  been  used  in  a  wide  sense,  as  including  the 
three  kingdoms  of  Chera,  Chola,  and  Pdnd3ra,  throughout  which  the 
Tamil  language  was,  and  is,  vernacular'.  But  in  its  more  restricted 
and  proper  acceptation  as  employed  in  our  MSS.,  it  designates  the 
oountry  which  extended  from  the  northern  boundary  of  Chola  on  the 
Penn^  river,  as  high  up  as  Calastiy  or  Tripathi ;  the  ghats  bounding  it 
on  the  west  and  the  sea  on  the  east*.  Its  limits,  south  and  north,  cor- 
respond with  those  marked  out  by  Mr.  Ellis,  in  his  valuable  ^^Replies 
to  the  questions  on  Mirasi  right,'*  as  the  boundaries  of  Tondaman- 
dalam.  The  capital  was  Kdnchi  or  Kanji-puram  (Conjeveram).  The 
twenty-fifth  prince  in  our  MSS.,  is  stated  to  have  fought  with  the 
Drdvida  Rdja  in  Kdnchi  desa;  this  may  have  been  either  a  Chola 
viceroy,  this  desa  having  been  conquered  by  the  Chola  rdjas  at  an 
early  period,  or  it  may  have  been  a  chief  possessing  power  in  terri- 
tories not  then  subject  to  the  Chola  rule.  The  assertion  of  our  MSS. 
that  the  last  Chola  raja  mentioned,  plundered  Yirenjipura,  a  place 
as  before  stated  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Vellore  in  this  desa,  would 
indicate  that  the  whole  of  this  desa  was  not  then  subject  to  the  Chola 
kings. 

Northward  of  Drdvida  were  two  desas,  Kalinga  occupying  the  sea- 
coast  up  to  Odra  or  Orissa,  of  which  the  capitals  were,  first  Srikakula 
(Cicacolef)  and  afterwards  Rdjamahendri ;  and  Andhra  desa  occu- 
pying the  interior  of  the  country®. 

Proceeding  from  the  southern  extremity  of  the  peninsula  up  the 
western  coast,  Kerala  in  its  widest  sense  occupied  all  the  country 
below  the  ghats  from  Cape  Comorin  to  the  Konkana.  This  tract  was 
however  divided  into  four  or  five  desas,  and  the  term  Kerala,  in  its 
proper  and  limited  signification,  appears  to  be  applicable  to  modem 
Malabar,  and  according  to  Buchanan  extended  as  high  up  as  Chandra- 
giri  in  Canara,  where  a  river  separated  it  from  Tuluva*.  Kerala  and 
Malaya  are  by  some  considered  to  be  the  same,  but  in  our  MSS.  they 
are  always  mentioned  as  distinct  countries;  from  the  meaning  of  the 
word  Malaya,  the  mountainous  districts  are  evidently  intended. 

The  Konkana  extended,  as  at  present,  along  the  coast,  from  the 
northern  boundary  of  Kerala,  below  the  modem  Goa^  to  the  latitude  of 
Bombay;  the  Mahdrdshtradesa,  or  Mahratta  country,  is  to  the  east  and 
north  of  it;  and  G^rjara  is  the  modem  Guzerat. 

>  Wilion's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol  i..  Int.,  p.  xxviii. 
■  Bachaiiaii*fi  Mysore  Journey,  voL  iii.,  pp.  90  and  469. 

*  Wilfion*B  M^Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol.  i.,  Int.,  pp.  cxvii.  and  exxii. 

*  Mr.  Ellis  in  Profeesor  Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  i.,  p.  xlv.      Bucha- 
nan's Mysore  Journey,  vol.  il,  pp.  347,  474;  vol.  iii.,  p,  14,  and  map  in  vol.  i. 


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16  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

The  next  point  to  which  we  may  direct  our  attention  is  the  time  in 
which  the  princes  recorded  in  our  MSS.  reigned.  Mr.  Taylor  remarks 
in  respect  of  our  MSS.  that  it  is  well  supported  by  dates :  it  is  cer- 
tainly true  that  the  notices  it  affords  of  the  reigns  of  the  various  sove- 
reigns, contain  a  greater  number  of  dates  than  is  common  to  such 
tracts,  yet  it  will  be  found  that  little  use  can  be  made  of  those  dates 
without  considerable  modifications,  though  they  would  afford  valuable 
data,  in  connexion  with  inscriptions  recording  gifts  of  the  Chera 
princes,  to  adjust  the  chronology  of  that  kingdom. 

The  M'Kenzie  Collection  contains  nearly  five  hundred  inscriptions 
procured  in  the  country  subject  to  these  kings,  some  of  which  pro- 
bably belong  to  this  dynasty,  but  unfortunately  none  of  them  appear 
to  have  been  translated '. 

That  the  dates  given  in  the  MSS.  (which  are  mostly  referred  to 
grants  of  land),  will  not,  if  taken  collectively,  produce  a  result  claim- 
ing our  credence  on  the  general  principles  applied  in  such  cases,  will 
appear  from  the  following  abstract. 

A.  D. 

The  Fith  king  made  a  grant  in  ....     82 

Seventh  king  installed  and  made  grant  in    .         .178 

Eighth  king  installed  in 188 

Tenth  king  made  a  grant  in        .         .  .288 

*  WUson^s  M^Kenzie  Catalogue,  yoL  ii.,  App.  pp.  125,6. 

In  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  for  April,  1839,  there  is  a 
translation  of  a  copper  grant,  which  Mr.  H.  T.  Prinsep  conjectured  to  have  been 
made  by  a  king  of  this  dynasty.  It  is  a  grant  of  Und  by  the  Bija  of  Lilta,  a 
country  mentioned  in  most  of  the  lists  of  desas,  but  of  which  the  exact  locality  has 
not  been  determined.  Professor  Wilson,  in  the  second  edition  of  his  Dictionary, 
calls  it  ''the  upper  part  of  the  Dekhan,'*  and  this  agrees  with  the  grant  in  question, 
from  which  we  learn,  that  at  the  period  at  which  it  was  made  there  were  four 
kingdoms  occupying  part  of  the  Dekhan  and  Hindustan,  namely,  Qdrjara,  west- 
ward, Mtiwa,  centrical,  Graura,  eastward,  and  Lita,  southward;  the  capital  of  the 
last  named  kingdom  was  Elapur,  founded  by  Krishna  Raya.  The  date  of  the 
grant  is  a.d.  812,  and  the  princes  mentioned  in  it  are,  1.  Govind  Raja;  2.  Karka, 
his  son;  3.  Krishna,  his  son ;  4.  Dhruva,  his  son,  who  died  at  AlUh&b&d;  5.  Go- 
vind II.,  son  of  Dhruva;  6.  Indra,  brother  of  Govinda;  7-  Karka,  son  of  Indra, 
the  author  of  the  grant,  whose  heir  presumptive  was  Danti  Varma,  his  brother. 
The  date  agrees  with  that  of  our  dynasty,  and  Mr.  Prinsep,  by  supposing  Karka  to 
be  the  same  with  Kongani,  traces  all  the  above-mentioned  princes  in  the  Chera 
list  with  the  exception  of  India.  Independently,  however,  of  the  difference 
between  the  names  Karka  and  Kongani,  supposing  them  to  belong  to  the  same 
person,  the  succession  of  the  princes  differs  entirely  from  that  given  in  our  MSS., 
in  which  neither  the  kingdom  of  Llita,  nor  any  of  the  events  recorded  in  the  grant^ 
are  noticed.  Hence  it  seems  clear  that  the  grant  must  belong  to  a  different 
dynasty,  ruling  over  a  country  far  to  the  north  of  Chera,  the  Lita  desa  being 
probably  situated  immediately  south  of  the  Nerbadda  river. 


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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  17 


A.D. 


The  Fifteenth  king  installed 366 

Nineteenth  king  installed  in       ....        .  539 
Twenty-second  king  made  a  grant  in  .  669 

Twenty-third  king  made  a  grant  in     .         .        .  746 
Twenty-eighth  king  made  two  grants  in    878  and  894 

Reckoning  from  the  earliest  of  the  above  dates  a.d.  82,  to  the  last 
A.D.  894,  daring  which  twenty-four  princes  are  shown  to  have  reigned, 
the  average  length  of  the  reigns  wonld  be  nearly  thirty-four  years 
each,  a  period  longer  than  the  settled  principle  of  such  calculations 
shows  to  be  admissible.  We  may  remark  further,  that  two  of  these 
kings  (Nos.  12  and  14)  ruled  only  for  a  short  time,  and  others,  a^ 
Nos.  11  and  27  abdicated.  We  must,  therefore,  endeavour  to  find 
some  well  authenticated  date  from  which  we  can  apply  the  test  of 
average  duration ;  an  approximation  to,  if  not  a  correct  date,  seems  to 
be  presented  in  that  of  the  last  independent  Chera  prince  of  our  list, 
Mallardeva  Rdya  II.  (No.  28). 

In  the  account  of  this  prince,  our  MSS.  relates  the  building  of  a 
temple  to  Vishnu  in  a.d.  894,  and  we  must  infer  from  the  mention 
of  it^  that  the  transaction  took  place  during  the  continuance  of  his 
authority,  and  that  the  Chola  conquest  was  not  effected  till  after  that 
period. 

We  learn  from  the  Tamil  verses  which  give  the  boundaries  of  the 
kingdom,  that  a  part  of  Kerala,  or  Malabar,  was  subject  to  the  Chera 
sovereigns,  but  their  authority  appears  to  have  been  represented  by  a 
viceroy.  These  viceroys  seem  to  have  borne  the  title  of  "  Cheraman 
Perumal,"  or  viceroy  of  the  Chera  sovereign,  in  which  light  Mr.  Ellis 
has  regarded  them\  The  last  of  these  viceroys  revolted  from  his 
government  and  embraced  the  religion  of  Islam ;  this  event  evidently 
indicating  a  decline  in  the  power  of  his  superior  happened,  as  Pro- 
fessor Wilson  informs  us,  in  the  ninth  century',  and  our  MSS.  fixes 
the  Chola  conquest  at  the  same  period,  which  seems  thus  far  to  be 
borne  ont. 

Mention  is  made  of  the  religious  reformer,  Sankardch&rya,  in  the 
reign  of  Tim  Vikrama  I.,  the  seventh  prince,  about  a.d.  180,  accord- 
ing to  the  date  in  our  MSS ;  this  statement  would  give  to  that  reformer 
a  much  greater  antiquity  than  is  allowed  by  the  best  authorities;  his 
era,  it  is  true,  has  not  been  conclusively  determined,  though  the  con* 
current  opinion  of  some  of  the  greatest  Oriental  scholars  places  him  in 

'  EUIb's  Minuu  Right,  p.  xvi. 
'  Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Cataioi^ae,  vol  L,  Int.,  p.  xcvii. 

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18  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

the  ninth  century '.  It  may  be  remarked,  that  the  M SS.  represents 
Tim  Vikrama  I.  (No.  7),  to  have  been  converted  to  the  faith  of  Siva 
by  the  reformer,  and  the  sacoeeding  monarchs  appear  to  have  been 
votaries  of  the  Hindu  deities,  some  of  Siva  and  others  of  Vishnu ;  this 
would  accord  with  the  supposition  of  the  conversion  of  the  king  having 
been  the  work  of  Sankarach&rya.  It  may  not  be  unfair,  however,  to 
suppose  that  the  compiler  of  the  MSS.  may  have  placed  this  reformer 
in  the  reign  of  Tiru  Vikrama  I.,  instead  of  in  that  of  Tiru  Vikrama  II. 
(No.  18),  according  to  the  favourite  practice  of  native  authors  assign- 
ing the  most  remote  antiquity  to  their  venerated  teacher'.  A  calcu- 
lation on  the  principle  of  average  length  of  reign,  reckoning  back  from 
894  the  date  given  in  our  MSS.  as  that  of  the  last  Chera  sovereign, 
would  place  Tiru  Vikrama  I.  in  the  sixth,  and  Tiru  Vikrama  II. 
in  the  eighth  century. 

Assuming  a  period  nearly  corresponding  with  a.d.  900,  as  the 
date  of  the  Chola  conquest,  we  may  proceed  to  check  the  dates  by 
allowing  to  each  prince  a  reign  of  eighteen  years,  the  period  usually 
adopted".  The  number  of  Chera  princes  in  our  MSS.  is  twenty-eighty 
which  multiplied  by  eighteen,  gives  us  five  hundred  and  four  years, 
and  this  being  deducted  from  a.d  900,  gives  the  year  a.d.  396,  as  the 
probable  period  at  which  this  dynasty  arose.  The  reigns  of  some  of 
the  kings,  appearing,  as  before  observed,  to  have  been  of  short  dura- 
tion, it  may  be  a  question  whether  in  this  case  the  allowance  of 
eighteen  years  is  not  too  much;  we  may  however  look  upon  the  year 
A.D.  400,  or  more  widely  the  fifth  century,  as  the  time  indicated  by  our 
MSS.  for  the  rise  of  this  dynasty;  a  period  which  has  received  the 
sanction  of  Professor  Wilson,  and  in  which  we  have  proof  of  the 
existence  of  Chera  kings,  as  an  inscription  of  the  Chalukya  dynasty 
dated  a.d.  490,  refers  to  the  princes  of  Chera  along  with  the  Chola  and 
Pdndya  princes*. 

*  Wil8on*8  Sanscrit  Dictionary,  Preface,  p.  xv.;  Asiatic  Researches,  xvil.,  p.  177. 
'  See  Buchanan*s  Journey,  vol.  i.,  p.  143;  ii.,  p.  74;  iii.,  p.  91  and  301. 

*  Ellis*8  Mirasi  Right,  p.  xltL 

*  Professor  Wilson,  in  his  Catalogue  of  the  M'Kenzie  Collection,  ttates  the 
number  as  twenty-mx,  omitting  No.  12,  Mfidhava  Mah&dh£  Rdya,  and  No.  15, 
Kongani  MahlUlhi  Raya  II.,  and  an  unnecessary  conmia  has  been  inserted  in  the 
press  between  Chaturbhtija  and  Kumara  or  Kanara  deva  (No.  4),  thus  making 
the  actual  number  of  names  twenty-seven.  (See  Catalogue,  vol.  i.,  p.  199.) 
Mr.  Taylor  has  adopted  the  list  with  its  errors;  (Taylor's  MSS.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  64;) 
as  has  also  Mr.  Prinsep,  in  his  Tables,  in  the  latter,  however,  Raja  Malla  deva 
(No.  24),  is  divided  into  two  names,  viz.,  Rfija  Deva  and  Malla  Deva;  and  Malla 
Deva  IL  the  last  prince  is  entirely  omitted.    (Prinsep*s  Tables,  p.  121.) 

*  Journal  of  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  voL  v.,  p.  343. 


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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  19 

Wb  may  now  tum  our  attention  to  that  part  of  our  MSS.  which 
rehkteB  to  the  conquest  of  Chera  by  the  Chola  monarchs^  and  to  the 
history  of  those  Chola  kings  who  are  represented  as  keeping  the  Konga 
and  Kamita  deeos  under  their  rule. 

The  great  source  of  the  difficulty  that  we  shall  encounter  in  our 
inquiry^  and  in  comparing  our  MSS.  with  other  notices  of  the  Chola 
kings,  arises  from  the  indiscriminate  use  of  names  and  titles.  Although 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Taylor  questions  the  probability  of  the  same  king  being 
known  by  more  than  one  title,  we  have  the  authority  of  Professor 
Wilson  and  Mr.  W.  Elliott  for  the  fact  ^ ;  the  MSS.  which  we  are  now 
considering  furnishes  frequent  instances  of  such  double  titles',  and 
Mr.  Taylor  himself,  in  his  Analysis  of  the  M'Kenzie  MSS'.,  thus 
describes  one  of  the  documents.  '' Another  list  of  the  Chola  princes  is 
giyen  with  the  explanation  of  the  names ;  and  showing  three  different 
names  sometimes  given  to  the  same  individual." 

The  names  given  to  the  Chola  princes  in  our  MSS.,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Vira  Chola  and  Deva  Rdya,  do  not,  as  far  as  can  be  discovered, 
appear  in  any  of  the  other  Hats  of  Chola  kings  ^  it  would  therefore  seem 
probable  that  the  same  sovereigns  must  have  been  called  by  different 
names  or  titles.  Professor  Wilson  suggests  the  possibility  of  Kulottunga 
and  Rajendra  being  titles  of  the  same  person ;  neither  of  these  names 
occur  in  our  list,  but  there  seems  reason  to  suppose  that  Rdjendra  was  a 
title  of  the  first  prince  in  our  list,  called  Vijaya  Rdya  Aditya  Varma. 

With  respect  to  Rajendra,  we  learn  from  Mr.  Ellis  that  in  the  year 
A.D.  886,  the  poet  Camban  presented  to  a  king  of  Chola  of  that  name, 
his  Tamil  translation  of  the  Rimfyana';  the  date  886,  it  will  be 
observed,  is  only  eight  years  anterior  to  the  last  date  given  by  our 
MSS.  in  its  annals  of  the  Chera  sovereigns;  and  we  have  the  evidence 
of  a  grant  to  show  that  Rdjendra  ruled  thirty  years*  at  least.  A  frag- 
ment of  an  inscription  preserved  by  Mr.  Ellis,  represents  a  feudatory 
chieftain  of  Rdjendra  ascending  the  throne  of  Tondamandalam,  in  the 
ninth  year  of  Rdjendra's  reign,  after  "having  terrified  Mallen  and  taken 
his  elephant  and  horse ;"  this  "  Mallen,"  Mr.  Ellis  considers  to  have 
been  one  of  the  Curumba  princes,  but  adds,  that  if  so,  the  event  must 
have  taken  place  long  before  the  grant  was  written^;  it  may  therefore 
be  asked  whether  the  "  Mallen"  referred  to  was  not  "  Malla  deva,"  the 

»  Wilaon's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol.  i.,  Int.  Lxxxviii.,  and  p.  182;  Journal  of 
Soyal  Aaiatic  Society,  vol.  iv.,  p.  3. 

*  See  No.  16,  17,  21,  26  and  30.  »  Appendix,  p.  135. 

*  All  the  lists  that  have  been  obtained  are  given  in  an  Appendix. 

*  ElliB*8  MiraBi  Right,  p.  xltI. 

*  Taylor's  Analysis  of  the  M'Kenzie  Collection,  p.  73. 
7  Ellis's  Minsi  Right,  p.  xlv. 

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20  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

last  of  our  Cliera  kings;  the  locality  of  this  chieftain  as  a  feudatoiy 
prince  need  not  invalidate  this  supposition,  for  he  may,  before  his 
elevation  to  the  government  of  Tondamandalam,  have  acted  as  general 
of  the  Chola  forces,  in  the  conquest  of  Chera,  in  the  same  manner  as  our 
MSS.  represents  Amra  Bhojdngan,  the  P&ndjra  general,  to  have  done 
in  the  reign  of  An  Vari  deva.  Camban*s  date  does  not  enable  us  to 
fix  that  of  R4i^^<^'^  accession  to  the  Chola  throne,  but  there  are 
reasons  for  believing  it  to  have  been  but  a  short  time  previous  to  Cam- 
ban's  presentation  of  his  poem  in  886,  for  Mr.  Ellis  says  he  finished 
his  translation  in  the  reign  of  Rajendra,  while  a  legendary  history  of 
the  translation^,  represents  the  author  as  patronized  by  Kerikala  Chola. 
It  cannot  be  now  shown  that  Kerikala  was  Rijendra's  immediate  pre- 
decessor; one  list,  indeed,  places  Bhima  Chola*  between  them;  if 
Camban,  however,  presented  his  poem  soon  after  Rajendra*s  accession, 
the  date  supplied  by  that  author,  the  date  of  our  MSS.,  and  the  victory 
over  "Mallen"  recorded  in  the  above-mentioned  inscription,  will  per- 
fectly coincide. 

A  list  of  Chola  kings,  given  in  a  series  of  chronolo^cal  tables  in 
one  of  the  M'Kenzie  papers",  gives  the  following  in  succession. 

Reigned 

No. 


years. 

A.  Sft]. 

A.D. 

18. 

Vikrama  Chola 

80 

749     . 

827 

19. 

Kulottunga  Chola 

40 

789     . 

867 

20. 

Rdjendra  Chola 

60 

849     . 

927 

21. 

Vira  Chola 

50 

899     . 

977 

22 

Vishnu  Varma,  or 

Vishnu  Bellak 

41 

940     . 

1018 

23. 

Deva  Bellah^  or 

Deva  Pullan 

40 

980     . 

1058 

24. 

Hrudia?  Pullan 

40 

1020     . 

1098 

In  speaking  of  R&jendia,  this  MSS.  refers  to  Camban's  presentation 
of  his  poem  in  a.d.  886,  thus  ofiering  corroborative  proof  of  the  time 
of  Rdjendra's  reign.  We  find  also  three  of  the  above  names  in  the 
same  order,  in  ''  a  poetical  account  of  the  actions  of  Vikrama,  Kulot- 
tunga and  Rajendra  Chola  %"  which  shows  that  so  far  this  succession 
was  received  by  other  Hindu  authors. 

But  whatever  weight  may  be  attached  to  the  foregoing  obser. 
vations,  there  are  other  reasons  for  believing  that  Rdjendra  was  the 

>  WOflon^  H^Kenziedatelogue,  vol.  L^  p.  163.  >  Appendix,  No.  5. 

•  *<  Vamla^  Ac.,**  in  Wilson^s  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol  u,  cLvi,  No.24.  See 
Appendix,  Na  iii 

*  WU8on*8  M'Kenzie  CaUlogue,  voL  L»  ^  19& 


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OF   ANCIENT    INDIA.  21 

conqaeror  of  Chera,  and  alfio  for  upholding  fus  correct  the  era  assigned 
to  him.  Professor  Wilson  says,  ''Rdjendra  Chola  appears  to  have  been 
a  yery  distinguished  member  of  the  dynasty,  and  his  inscriptions 
describe  him  as  victor  over  the  Pdndyan  and  Chera  princes  and  those 
of  Utkalaand  Virdt.  He  is  said  even  to  have  undertaken  maritime 
aggressions,  and  embarking  on  board  ship  to  have  subdued  Yelanki,  or 
Ceylon,  Kalinga,  or  the  northern  part  of  the  Coromandel  coast,  Gaur 
and  Bengal.  These  are  no  doubt  exaggerations,  but  they  leave  it 
likely  that  Rdjendra  was  a  prince  of  more  power  than  any  Chola 
monarch  could  have  enjoyed  after  the  Yddava  and  Bellala  Rajas  had 
the  ascendancy,  and  this  consideration  confirms  his  living  in  the  ninth 
century*.*'  The  short  notice  of  Vijaya  Rdya  Aditya  in  our  MSS., 
might  appear  inconsistent  with  the  chaj*acter  of  a  great  conqueror  exhi- 
bited in  the  foregoing  quotation,  but  allowing  for  possible  exaggeration 
in  the  latter,  the  differences  will  be  found  to  consist  rather  in  omis- 
dons  than  in  contradictions,  for  notwithstanding  the  meagreness  of  the 
information  supplied  by  our  MSS.  with  respect  to  the  Chola  conqueror 
of  Chera,  it  is  clear  that  he  must  have  been  a  very  powerful  prince, 
though  all  that  the  compiler  seems  to  have  deemed  worthy  of  mention, 
is  the  conquest  of  Chera  and  Karn&ta,  and  the  charitable  grants  made 
there,  holding  all  other  conquests  of  this  prince  unworthy  of  notice  in 
an  account  of  Chera.  At  any  rate  the  omission  cannot  be  deemed  to 
contradict  the  inscriptions,  nor  to  disprove  the  identity  of  Mjendra  and 
Vijaya  R4ya  Aditya,  whose  date,  and  consequently  that  of  the  subju- 
gation of  Chera  by  the  Chola  monarchs,  may  therefore  be  readily 
admitted  to  have  been  the  end  of  the  ninth  century. 

Of  Vira  Chola  or  Vira  Chola  N&rdyana  (No.  30  in  our  MSS.),  we 
have  a  grant  dated  in  the  ninth  year  of  his  reign,  in  which  he  is  styled 
Vira  Chola  Vira  N^iyana,  thus  confirming  the  statement  of  our  MSS. 
with  respect  to  his  title,  "  that,  being  a  zealous  follower  of  Vishnu,  he 
was  called  Ndr&yana.'*  Of  the  two  following  kings,  namely,  Ddso- 
ditya  and  Parandaka,  no  traces  can  be  elsewhere  discovered;  we  have 
a  grant  dated  in  the  twentieth  year  of  "  Deva  R&ja  Chola,"  which  name 
is  no  doubt  identical  with  the  Divya  Raya  of  our  MSS.  (No.  32). ' 

Mr.  Ellis  presents  us  with  a  grant  of  "Tribh6vana  Vira  Deva 
Chola,"  whom  he  states, "  following  a  tolerably  correct  list  of  the  Chol^ 
kings,"  to  have  been  the  thirty-eighth  prince  of  the  line,  and  fifth  in^ 
succession  fromRdjendra;  of  this  Tribh6vana  Vira  Deva  Chola  there 
are  many  other  grants  extant  in  the  M'Kenzie  Collection  of  inscrip- 
tions.    This  grant  has  been  assigned  to  "  Vhra  Chola" "  (No.  30),  but 

)  Wi!son*8  M^Kenzie  Catalbguie,  p.  Lxxxviii. 
*  MSS.  at  East  India  House.  ^  lb.,  voL  l,  p    181. 


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22  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 

there  seems  to  be  good  reason  for  giving  it  to  Ari  Vari  deva  (No.  34). 
It  must  be  observed^  that  the  thirtieth  king  is  called  in  oar  list  Vfra 
Chola  and  Vira  Chola  N^b^yana,  and  as  before-mentioned  we  have 
notice  of  a  grant  in  which  he  is  known  by  the  latter  title;  the  word 
<Meva"  nowhere  occurs  in  connection  with  his  name;  but  in  Ari  Vari 
deva  we  have  it  distinctly,  the  name  Ari  Vari  being  possibly  a  different 
appellation,  or  a  wrong  rendering  of  "Hari  Vira."     This  grant  of 
Tribh(ivana  Vira-deva  Chola  informs  us,  that  he  "  triumphed  over  the 
crowned  head  of  P^ndya,"  this  could  hardly  apply  to  the  Vira  Chola 
(No.  30)  of  our  list,  for  it  may  be  inferred  from  the  remark  of  our 
MSS.,  which  says,  "  he  and  the  Pandya  Rija  both  conquered  many 
desas,"  that  Vira  Chola  was  in  alliance  with  the  Pdndya  king;  the 
statement,  however,  is  perfectly  applicable  to  Ari  Vari  deva.     The 
Vira  deva  of  the  grant,  was  according  to  Mr.  Ellis,  fifth  in  succession 
from  Rdjendra,  and  Ari  Vari  deva  is  in  our  MSS.  fifth  in  succession 
from  Vijajra  Rdya  Aditya,  whom  we  have  endeavoured  to  identify 
with  Rdjendra.     If  the  list  upon  which  Mr.  Ellis  stated  that  Vira  deva 
was  the  fifth  prince  after  Rdjendra  be  correct,  the  date  of  the  grant 
will  also  agree  with  the  era  of  Ari  Vari  deva;  it  is  dated  in  the  thirty- 
seventh  year  of  the  reign,  and   Mr.  EUis,  reckoning  at  the  rate  of 
eighteen  years  for  each  of  the  four  kings  intervening  between  Rijendra 
and  Vira  deva,  and  adding  the  total  to  a.d.  886,  the  date  of  R^jendra 
as  given  by  Camban,  places  Vira  deva's  accession  in  a.d.  958 ;  adding 
to  that  thirty-seven  years  for  the  grant,  we  arrive  at  a.d.  995.     In  this 
calculation,  Mr.  Ellis  has  allowed  no  time  to  Rdjendra  after  Camban^s 
presentation  of  his  poem  in  886,  but  as  we  have  evidence  from  a  grant 
that  R^jendra  reigned  thirty  years,  and  as  Camban  appears,  as  before 
observed,  to  have  presented  his  poem  shortly  after  Rdjendra's  accession 
to  the  Chola  throne,  it  will  not  be  unreasonable  that,  placing  the  time 
which  Rdjendra  may  be  supposed  to  have  reigned  after  the  grant, 
dated  in  the  thirtieth  year  of  his  reign,  against  that  which  had  elapsed 
before  the  date  given  by  Camban,  we  should  add  the  whole  thirty- 
years  of  Rdjendra's  grant  to  this  calculation,  which  will  bring  us  down 
to  1025;  and  Ari  Vari  Deva,  as  will  be  presently  shown,  died  in  1058. 
Two  important  inscriptions  of  the  Chalukya  dynasty,  procured  by 
Mr.  Walter  Elliot,  and  described  in  the  Society's  Journal  \  throw  some 
light  upon  the  portion  of  our  MSS.  which  relates  to  Ari  Vari  deva. 
These  inscriptions  are  dated  Sal.  981  and  993  (a.d.  1059  and  1071); 
the  first  is  a  grant  by  the  Chalukya  sovereign,  Someswara  L,  who  is 
styled  "the  Narendra  of  the  Chola  race,"  of  some  lands  at  Savanur  to 
his  general  upon  the  latter's  returning  from  a  successful  attack  upon 

»  Vol.  iv.,  p.  13. 

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OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  23 

the  Chola  kingdom;  the  general  is  styled  the  humbler,  among  other 
persons  and  places,  of  Bhujinga.  The  second  inscription,  which  ex- 
plains the  reason  of  the  attack  upon  the  Chola  dominions,  mentioned 
in  the  first  inscription,  is  a  grant  to  a  new  temple  at  Pulikara  nagara, 
now  Lakmeswara;  the  former  temple  is  said  to  have  been  destroyed 
along  with  many  other  Jaina  temples,  by  "  the  outcast  Pandi  Choi, 
who  had  forsaken  his  usual  course,  and  left  off  practising  the  virtue  of 
his  race,"  in  an  invasion  which  he  made  upon  the  Belavel  desa,  or  level 
lands  of  Kamdta,  belonging  to  the  Chalukya  monarch ;  it  also  informs  us, 
that  he  was  afterwards  defeated  and  killed  by  the  Chalukya  forces.  This 
attack  upon  the  Chalukya  dominions,  is  evidently  part  of  the  expe- 
dition which  our  MSS.  attributes  to  Ari  Vari  deva,  and  the  Bhujdnga, 
who  was  conquered,  is  clearly  the  Amra  Bhojdnga  of  our  MSS.  general 
of  the  Chola  forces,  who  is  stated  to  have  come  over  to  that  king  from 
the  Pdndya  ruler;  this  circumstance,  and  the  amity  which  existed  in 
the  latter  part  of  Ari  Vari's  reign  betweeb  the  Pdndya  and  Chola 
kings,  may  have  led  to  the  latter  being  called  in  the  above  cited 
inscription  '^ Pandi  Choi."  The  Chola  monarch  who  was  killed,  appears 
from  the  inscriptions  to  have  been  he  who  made  the  attack,  and  ajs  the 
inscription  which  first  records  the  victory  is  dated  1059,  we  must  place 
the  death  of  Ari  Vari  deva  in  a.d.  1058.  Our  MSS.  assigns  no  reason 
for  not  continuing  the  history  of  the  Chola  kings  after  Ari  Vari  deva, 
but  commences  immediately  upon  the  Belldla  dynasty;  the  loss  of  the 
Chera  and  Kamata  desas,  was  undoubtedly  the  cause  of  this  cessation 
in  its  notice  of  the  Chola  Rijas,  and  these  inscriptions  satisfactorily 
account  for  the  loss. 

Our  MSS.  mentions  a  grant  by  Ari  Vari  deva  in  a.d.  1 004,  which  would 
show  him  to  have  reigned  fifty-four  years,  if  we  are  right  in  placing 
his  death  in  1058;  his  reign,  as  shown  by  the  grant  of  "  Vira  deva,"  and 
the  magnitude  of  his  expeditions,  must  certainly  have  been  a  long  one. 

Considering  then  the  year  a.d.  1058,  as  conclusively  determined  to 
be  that  of  Ari  Vari*s  death,  we  may  endeavour  to  measure  the  others 
by  it,  with  the  view  to  ascertain  the  time  of  the  conquest  of  Chera  by 
the  Chola  kings;  reckoning  backwards  from  a.d.  1058,  and  allowing 

Yean. 
To  Vira  deva  (Ari  Vari  deva)  according  to  his  grant  37 

To  Divya  Rdya  from  his  grant 20 

To  Rdjendra  according  to  his  grant  thirty  years  after  Cam- 
ban's  date  886,  leaving  for  his  reign  after  a.d.  900  16 
And  eighteen  years  to  each  of  the  other  three  kings                    54 

Total     127 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


24  ON   THB    CHERA    KINGDOM 

This  total  being  deducted  from  1058^  leaves  a.d.  931  as  the  date  of 
the  conquest.  But  when  we  consider  that  in  the  above  calculation  we 
have -allowed  to  two  of  the  kings  (viz.,  Ari  Vari  deva  and  Divya 
Raya),  no  time  after  the  dates  of  their  grants,  though  the  former  is 
supposed  to  have  reigned  fifty-four  years;  and  further,  when  the 
adjustment  of  points  so  corroborated,  rests  on  average  calculation,  and 
we  refer  to  the  length  of  reign  assigned  by  the  chronological  list, 
quoted  from  the  M'Kenzie  MSS.  to  three  of  the  above  kings  (viz., 
Rdjendra,  V ira  Chola^  and  Divya  Raya) ;  we  may  without  much  risk 
allow  the  thirty-one  years  to  be  distributed  among  the  six  kings,  and 
thus  place  the  conquest  in  a.d.  900.  Such  an  addition,  although  it 
would  make  the  average  duration  of  their  reigns  above  that  which  is 
usual,  will,  nevertheless,  not  render  it  extravagant  nor  unparalleled. 
The  reigns  of  the  BeUila  kings  give,  upon  the  whole,  an  average  of 
nearly  thirty  years  to  a  reign. 

Our  MSS.  informs  us,  that  Vira  Chola  (No.  30),  conquered  the 
Rajah  of  Ceylon;  and  Mr.  Ellis's  grant  says,  that  Vira  deva  Chola 
(or,  as  we  suppose,  Ari  Vari  deva  No.  34),  triumphed  over  "  Madura, 
Izham,  Caruvtir  and  the  crowned  head  of  Pindyan :"  Izham  being  a 
Tamil  name  of  Ceylon.  Various  attacks  upon  Ceylon  are  recorded  in 
the  Bauddha  annals  of  the  island,  as  given  to  us  by  the  Hon.  G.  Tur- 
nour,  in  his  "  Epitome  of  the  History  of  Ceylon ;"  in  this  work,  one 
invasion  by  the  Chola  forces  is  placed  about  a.d.  990,  and  another  in 
A.D.  1059;  but  the  veiy  scanty  notice  which  our  MSS.  supplies  upon 
this  point,  does  not  enable  us  to  decide  satisfactorily  when,  and  by 
whom,  these  invasions  were  made;  we  may  however  readily  admit 
that  expeditions  against  Ceylon  were  undertaken  by  one  or  more  of 
the  Chola  monarchs  recorded  in  our  MSS. 

From  the  preceding  notices  we  learn  with  tolerable  certainty,  that 
a  rB4ie  of  kings  ruled  the  country  of  Chera  from  a  very  early  age,  and 
during  several  centuries;  that  though  the  earliest  date  to  which  we  can 
consistently  trace  the  recorded  dynasty  be  the  fourth  or  fifth  century,  we 
learn  from  Ptolemy  that  the  kingdom  had  existence  in  the  first;  and 
the  appellation  of  Vedar  Rajas,  or  huntsmen,  given  in  our  MSS.  to 
the  line  whose  last  monarch  was  vanquished  by  the  Chola  king,  Vijaya 
R&ya  Aditya  Varma^  would  suggest  that  although  the  royal  annals  do 
not  go  so  far  back,  the  dynasty  who  were  extinguished  by  the  Chola 
monarchs  in  the  tenth  century,  were  a  race  of  aboriginal  princes  who 
ruled  the  country  before  the  invasions  from  the  north.  That  at  no 
very  advanced  period  they  added  a  considerable  portion  of  ancient 
Kam&ta  to   their  dominions,  and  resided  at  T&lak&d  in   that  desa* 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF    ANCIENT    INDIA.  25 

Tbat  about  the  year  a.d.  900,  or  a  little  later,  their  possessions  were 
conquered  and  annexed  to  the  Chola  dominions,  under  which  dynasty 
they  continued  for  upwards  of  a  century  until  a.d.  1058.  That  the 
Chola  princes  must,  during  the  subjugation  of  these  countries  to  their 
rule,  have  been  rery  powerful;  their  neighbour,  the  P4ndya  king, 
appears  to  have  held  his  throne  towards  the  end  of  the  period,  most 
probably  as  a  tributary  prince.  That  they  undertook  maritime  aggres- 
sions upon  the  island  of  Ceylon,  and  that  they  carried  their  arms  a 
considerable  distance  to  the  northward  of  Chola,  is  clear  from  the 
Chalukya  inscriptions,  which  represent  them  as  destroying  the  Jaina 
temples  at  Lakmeswar*.  Their  attack  upon  the  dominions  of  the  Cha- 
lukya princes  professing  the  Jaina  faith,  and  the  destruction  of  the 
Jaina  temples,  appears  to  have  aroused  both  political  and  religious 
feelings  against  them,  and  to  have  led  to  an  attack  upon  them  by  the 
Chalukya  dynasty,  which  ended  in  the  death  of  the  Chola  king,  and 
the  loss  of  those  districts  which  form  the  subject  of  the  present  paper. 
The  cessation  of  any  notice  in  our  MSS.  of  the  Chola  monarchs  after 
Ari  Vari  deva  is  sufficient  to  satisfy  us  that  he  was  the  last  Chola 
king  who  governed  the  Chera  and  Kamata  desas ;  and  the  Chalukya 
inscriptions  clearly  point  out  the  reason  for  the  loss  of  those  countries, 
which  our  MSS.  had  left;  unexplained. 

The  confusion  which  must  necessarily  have  followed  such  a  signal 
victory  as  the  Chalukya  inscriptions  commemorate,  led  to  a  total  dis- 
regard of  any  superior  power  by  the  chieftains  of  the  Chera  and  Kaiv 
uAta  desas;  for  the  continuation  of  our  MSS.  informs  us,  that  those 
provinces  were  in  the  "  possession  of  Poligars,  who  lately  were  paying 
tribute  to  the  Chola  Rajas :"  such  a  state  of  things  was  not  likely  nor 
destined  to  last  long,  for  a  dynasty  arose  from  the  anarchy,  which 
ruled  the  centre  of  the  peninsula  for  two  centuries  and  upwards ;  this 
was  the  Bell41a  or  Hoyisala  dynasty,  the  founder  of  which  appears  to 
have  established  himself  at  T&lakad,  and  although  considerable  oppo- 
sition would  seem  to  have  been  given  to  him,  his  power  became  pretty 
firmly  established  in  a  few  years,  for  we  have  a  grant  of  this  dynasty 
dated  a.d.  1069*.  Kamdta  and  part  of  the  Chera  desa  were  the  chief 
possessions  of  this  line  of  princes. 

1  Lakmeswar  is  a  little  to  the  south-west  of  Dharwar,  in  the  southern  Mahratta 
country. 

*  WiJ8on*8  M^enaue  Catalogue,  vol.  L,  Int.  p.  cix. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


26 


ON    THS    CHERA    KINGDOM 


APPENDIX. 


Note. — In  the  following  lists  the  original  orthography  has  been  retained. 

1.  List  of  Chera  Kings  from  "The  Vamsavali,  op  Grenealogical 
Account  of  the  Dynajsties  of  the  Chola^  the  Chera,  and  the  Pandja 
Kings."     Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue^  voL  ii.,  p.  cxxviii.,  No.  1. 

It  gives  first  a  list  of  thirty  rajas  who  lived  in  the  first  ages  of  the 
world,  and  then  the  following  list  of  those  who  reigned  in  the  Kali  age. 


1. 

Austaya  Pauttora  Cheran. 

10. 

Teerka  Yauttaura. 

2. 

Yanauthe  Pauttora  Cheran. 

11. 

Teerta  Chatta  Cheran. 

3. 

Yamsa  Paripaulaka  Pauttora 

12. 

Auchoota  Pratapa. 

Cheran. 

13. 

Aucondita  Creety  Pratapa. 

4. 

Mungalakauma        Pauttora 

14. 

Yira  Rajendra. 

Cheran. 

15. 

Bhimeswara. 

5. 

Seevadurma  Mottark. 

16. 

6. 

17. 

Punjaustara. 

7. 

Seevapava. 

18. 

Jeeva  Pautaka. 

8. 

Sindoo  Lauraneya. 

19. 

Tiroomunja. 

9. 

Yalavajana  Snmnustaka. 

20. 

Kylasatta  Audunga. 

2.  List  of  Chola  Kings  from  the  same  paper;  forty-eight  ruled 
hefore  the  Kali  age,  and  the  following  eighteen  after. 


1.  Poonderick  Cholan. 

2.  Neelama  Chamala  vuma. 

3.  Daunavaraury. 

4.  Bhoopaurum  Titta. 

5.  Poovel  Vunda. 

6.  Punna  Sabiya  Cara. 

7.  Pauracoorumma. 

8.  Manoomeely  Yetta. 

9.  Chuntra  Cooladhi. 


10.  Sansara  Soodamany  Cholan. 

11.  Nauga  logam  Conda. 

12.  Audakeswara. 

13.  Cuncaupautarumen. 

14.  Cuncoodaumany. 

15.  Woottoorocau. 

16.  Sattooroo  Staya. 

17.  Creemeecutta. 

18.  Caunpraya. 


3.  List  of  Chola  Kings  from  a  "  Varalar,  or  Chronological  Account 
of  the  Kings  of  the  Kali  Yug.'*  Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol.  ii., 
p.  CLvi.,  No.  24. 


Reign. 

Sal. 

Beign.    Sal. 

1. 

Kerikala 

5.  Siddi  Bhoopala  . 

21         77 

2. 

Mandurantaka 

6.  Toyabeema 

30       107 

3. 

Poowa  Chola 

7.  Tommasiddoo    . 

112 

4. 

Pedda  Chola 

7 

56 

to  178 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


OF    ANCIENT   INDIA. 


27 


Reign. 

8aL 

Reign 

.     Sal. 

8.  Teranda  Cholan        20 

198 

19. 

Cniottanga 

40 

789 

9.  Keleganda                 21 

219 

20. 

Rajendra     (son-in- 

10.  Chinna  Pellan   .       40 

259 

law) 

60 

849 

IL  Matwa  Maha  Raja  40 

299 

21. 

Vira  Chola      . 

50 

899 

12.  Deva  Chola        .       60 

359 

22. 

Vishnu   Varma, 

or 

13.  Mnmedyganda  Cho- 

Vishnu BeUala 

41 

940 

la^   alias     Trigasj 

23. 

Deva     BeUala, 

or 

Raja                         50 

409 

PuDan     . 

40 

980 

14.  Raja  Caseree      .       70 

479 

24. 

Hrudia  PuUan 

40 

1020 

15.  Cheren  Chola     .       80 

559 

25. 

Jayasinha 

51 

1071 

16.  Pudma  Caseree         50 

609 

26. 

Chundrasinha  . 

38 

1109 

17.  Rajadi  Raja              60 

669 

27. 

Neelakunta 

40 

1109 

18.  Vikrama                  80 

749 

tt 

Then  commenced  the  Ra 

yars." 

4.  List  of  Chola  Rajas  procured  from  a  village  Accountant,  by 
Mr.  Buchanan.  Buchanan's  Journey^  vol.  iii.^  p.  472.  Prinsep^s 
Tables,  No.  xl.,  p.  119. 


1.  Utinga  Sholun. 

2.  Culatunga  Sholun. 

3.  Rajendra  Sholun. 

4.  Tiramudi  Cauda  Sholun. 

5.  Carical  Sholun. 

6.  Arundavan  Sholun. 

7.  Womyuru  Sholun. 

8.  Shajngun  Sholun. 

9.  Mnnalinda  Sholun. 

10.  MaTanedi  Cauda  Sholun. 

11.  Vacula  Sholun. 

12.  Alaperinda  Sholun. 

13.  Tiraveratu  Sholun. 

14.  Arleunu   Cadama    Canday 


15.  Jeyum  Cauda  Sholun. 

16.  Kirimi  Cauda  Sholun. 

17.  Toudaman  Sholun. 

18.  Buddum  Cuttum  Sholun. 

19.  Shomuman  Sholun. 

20.  Ghingui  Conda  Sholun. 

21.  Sundra  Pandia  Sholun. 

22.  Pottapu  Sholun. 

23.  Shingu  WuUanda  Sholun. 

24.  Deva  Sholun. 

25.  Shaynahutti  Sholun. 

26.  Vira  Sholun. 

27.  Shayngaru  Sholun. 


Sholun. 
"Total  of  the  Sholun  Rajas  27,  who  reigned  534  years." 

5.  From  the  Chola  Mahatmya.     Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Collection, 
vol.  i.,  p.  181.     Prinsep's  Tables,  xLiii.,  p.  121 K 

Reigned.  Reigned. 

1.  Kulotunga  .         .     90  3.  Sasisekhara  70 

2.  Deva  Chola         .         .     60  4.  Siva  linga  .     87 

*  The  years  of  their  reigns  are  added  from  a  H8S.  translation  of  the  original 
doeoment.    Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol.  ii.,  p.  cxxviiL  No.  14. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


28  ON    THE    CHERA    KINGDOM 


5.  Vira 

6.  Kerikila    . 

7.  Bhima 

8.  Rdjardjendra 

9.  Yiramdrtanda 
10.  Kfrttivarddhana 


Reigned.  Reigned. 

.87  11.  Vijaya  ...     60 

.90  12.  Kanaka  ...     70 

.70  13.  Sundara  .         •         .60 

.     78  14.  Kalakala  ...     70 

.     66  15.  Kaljdna  .         .         .54 

.     77  16.  Bhadra  ...    70 


6.  The  "  Chola  desa  Parvika  Cheritra,"  Wilson's  Catalogue,  vol.  i., 
p.  187,  says  there  were  forty-four  princes,  but  does  not  give  them. 
It  makes  Kulottunga  the  last  of  the  forty-four,  and  a  contemporary 
of  Kamban.  The  list  of  sixteen  is  noticed,  and  a  Pattira  Chola  is 
given  as  the  last  prince  of  that  line. 

7.  Chola  Kings  mentioned  in  the  "  Supplementary  MSS."  Tay W» 
Historical  MSS.,  vol.  i.,  p.  197. 

Parakirama  Soren,  reigned  thirty  years. 
Kulottungst,  his  son,  forty  years. 
Panjala,  his  son,  thirty-five  years. 
Loga  retshaga,  his  son,  thirty  years. 

The  first  obtained  Chola  by  conquest  from  Pandya,  the  last  lost  it 
again. 

8.  Princes  mentioned  in  the  "  Madura  Sthala  puranam.'*  Taylor's 
Historical  MSS.,  vol.  i.,  p.  73,  80,  96 ;  ii.  p.  69. 

Kerikala,  contemporary  with  Rajasekhara  Pdndyan. 
Kadu   Vettiya^   contemporaiy  with   Kulopushana    and   Rajendra 
Pdndyan. 

Vikrama,  contemporary  with  Vamsa  Sekhara  Pdndyan. 

9.  Taylor's  Analysis  of  the  M'Kenzie  Collection,  p.  130.  From 
''  An  Account  of  the  Chola  Rajas." 

Vayal  Varzi  Aditta  Cholan.  Kribala  Cholan. 

Suba  Cholan.  Vithi  Vidangam,  entitled  Bhd- 

Varaguna  Cholan.  pdla  Cholan,  or  Cari  Cauda 

Pugerh  Cholan.  Cholan. 

10.  From  the  "Appendix  to  Taylor's  Analysis,"  p.  135. 
Uttunga  Cholan.  Ala  peranta  Cholan. 
Kulottunga  Cholan.  Vararguna  Cliolan. 
Tirumudi  Cholan.  Ala  peranta  Cholan. 
Aruntapa  Cholan.  Ariloru  kadamai  kondai  Cholan. 
Rajendra  Cholan.  Anantana  Cholan. 
Manunithi  Cholan.  Cadu-vetti  Cholan. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF   ANCIENT    INDIA. 


29 


11.  Another  list  of  twenty-thiee  kings  is  mentioned  in  Taylor's 
Analysis,  p.  135,  bnt  not  given;  the  last  of  the  race  is  said  to  have 
been  Cari  Gala  Cholan. 


12.  List  of  Chola  Rajas,  from  " 
Wilson's  M'Kenzie  Catalogue,  vol.  ii., 


1.  Bajendra 

2.  Madaya  Miduna 

3.  PandavaChol 

4.  ViraChol    . 

5.  Deya  Chola 

6.  Chenneea     . 

7.  Voow  Pandia 

8.  Culottnnga 

9.  Tondaman  Chakravarti      60 


Bdgned. 

.  71 

.  31 

.  60 

.  51 

.  29 

.  40 

.  30 

.  41 


The  Rajas  of  the  Four 
p.  cxxix..  No.  28. 

10.  Swama  Chola 

11.  Vootoonga 

12.  Teeranoota 

13.  Tarenda 

14.  Teeroomaragunda 

15.  Marconda  . 

16.  Vorayoor  . 

17.  Caricall      . 

18.  Raja  Cholan 


Reigned. 

.  20 

.  21 

.  21 

,  41 

,  19 

.  45 

.  20 

.  41 

.  53 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


30 


Art.  IL — On  the  Rock-Cut  Temples  of  Indiay  hy  Jambs 
Febgdsson,  Esq. 

Ready  December  5,  1843. 

There  are  few  objects  of  antiquarian  research  that  have  attracted 
more  attention  from  the  learned  in  Europe^  than  the  history  and  pur- 
poses of  the  Cave  Temples  of  India,  but  if  we  except  the  still  unex- 
plained antiquities  of  Mexico,  I  know  none  regarding  which  so  little 
that  is  satisfactory  has  been  elicited,  or  about  which  so  many,  and 
such  discordant  opinions  exist :  and  while  the  age  of  every  building  of 
Greece  and  Rome  is  known  with  the  utmost  precision,  and  the  dates 
of  even  the  Egyptian  monuments  ascertained  with  almost  as  much  cer- 
tainty as  those  of  medioBval  cathedrals,  still  all  in  India  is  darkness 
and  uncertainty^  and  there  is  scarcely  a  work  on  architecture  pub- 
lished, or  lecture  read,  which  does  not  commence  by  a  comparison 
between  the  styles  of  India  and  Egypt,  and  after  pointing  out  a  simi- 
larity which  seems  to  be  an  established  point  of  faith  in  Europe, 
though  in  reality  no  two  styles  are  more  discordant,  the  author 
generally  proceeds  to  doubt  which  is  the  more  ancient  of  the  two,  and 
in  most  cases  ascribes  the  palm  of  antiquity  to  the  Indian  as  the  proto- 
type. Yet,  in  truth,  Egypt  had  ceased  to  be  a  Nation  before  the 
earliest  of  the  cave  temples  was  excavated,  and  if  we  except  the  copies 
of  earlier  structures  erected  by  the  Ptolemies  and  Caesars,  there  is 
nothing  on  the  banks  of  the  Nile  which  does  not  belong  to  a  different 
and  far  more  ancient  epoch  than  anything  in  India. 

Had  Mr.  James  Prinsep  lived  to  continue  for  a  few  years  longer 
the  researches  which  he  commenced,  and  continued  with  such  success, 
he  probably  would  have  succeeded  in  raising  the  veil  which  still 
shrouds  in  obscurity  the  antiquities  of  India;  and  though  he  has  done 
much,  and  perhaps  more  than  any  one  who  preceded  him,  he  was 
called  away  before  his  work  was  complete,  and  no  one  in  India  has 
since  attempted  to  follow  up  the  task  he  had  proposed  to  himself. 
The  spirit  and  enthusiajsm  he  infused  into  all  around  him  has  died  with 
him,  and  the  subject  of  Indian  antiquities  relapsed  into  the  former 
state  of  hopeless  neglect. 

The  only  attempt  I  am  aware  of  to  do  any  thing  to  follow  up 
Mr.  Prinsep's  discoveries  is  that  of  Dr.  Bird,  of  Bombay,  who,  while 
the  spirit  was  strong  in  India,  commenced  the  task  of  copying  all  the 
inscriptions  in  the  cave  temples  on  his  side  of  India^  and  getting  draw- 


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THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES    OF    INDIA.  31 

iBgs  made  hj  eome  Portugaese  assistants  he  had,  of  their  architecture. 
When  I  was  in  Bombay  in  1839,  his  work  was  in  the  press,  and 
believing  that  it  would  soon  be  published,  and  that  his  testimony  on 
the  subject  would  be  more  yaluable  than  mine,  and  probably  sufficient 
to  sati^  curiosity,  I  abandoned  the  idea  of  publishing  my  views  on  the 
sabjeet ;  but  when  I  revisited  Bombay  in  the  spring  of  the  present  year 
I  found  the  work  still  in  the  press,  and  with  apparently  about  the 
same  chance  of  its  being  published  now,  as  there  was  four  years  ago. 
I  have  been  therefore  induced  to  put  the  following  remarks  on  paper, 
believing  the  subject  to  be  one  that  could  scarcely  fail  to  be  of  interest 
to  the  Society.  And  I  do  this  not  with  any  idea  of  anticipating  or 
forestalling  Dr.  Bird's  work  to  which  I  would  willingly  give  prece- 
dence if  I  saw  any  chance  of  its  being  published;  but,  because,  as  I 
believe  our  modes  of  research  to  have  been  totally  different,  the  one 
may  throw  light  on  the  other,  and  if  I  am  not  mistaken  in  what  he 
told  me  of  his  work,  they  cannot  interfere.  His  conclusions  are  drawn 
principally  from  the  inscriptions  and  written  authorities,  while  mine 
have  been  arrived  at  almost  entirely  from  a  critical  survey  of  the 
whole  series,  and  a  careful  comparison  of  one  cave  with  another,  and 
with  the  different  structural  buildings  in  their  neighbourhood,  the  dates 
of  which  are,  at  least  approximatively  known.  A  combination  of  both 
these  methods  of  research  is  necessary  to  settle  any  point  definitely; 
but  the  inscriptions  will  not  certainly  by  themselves  answer  that  pur- 
pose, for  in  many  instances  they  were  cut  long  subsequent  to  the  ascer- 
tained date  of  the  cave,  as  in  the  Ganesa  Gumpha'^,  at  Cuttack;  and  I 
have  also  reason  to  suspect,  that,  in  some  instances  at  least,  the  Bud- 
dhists affected  an  older  character  as  more  sacred,  as  we  sometimes  use 
old  English  letters  n  modem  inscriptions.  Unless,  therefore,  they 
contain  names  that  can  be  identified  in  some  of  the  lists  we  possess,  or 
datesy  the  inferences  they  lead  to,  cannot  in  all  cases  be  relied  upon ; 
and  except  the  Behar  caves  I  am  not  aware  of  any,  where  the  names 
have  been  at  all  satisfactorily  identified;  and  I  do  not  know  of  any 
single  cave  inscription  bearing  a  date  from  an  ascertained  era.  Still 
the  inscriptions  form  a  most  essential  part  of  the  inquiry,  but  one 
that  I  had  neither  leisure  nor  learning  sufficient  to  devote  myself  to ; 
and  though  I  must  consequently  admit  the  imperfection  of  my  labours 
from  this  cause,  I  had  other  advantages  for  prosecuting  the  inquiry  that 
have  fallen  to  the  lot  of  few ;  for  in  the  various  journeys  I  undertook  I 
was  end[>led  to  visit  almost  all  the  rock-cut  Temples  of  India,  from 

1  Ollmp]u^  is  the  local  designation  for  a  cave  at  Cuttack;  gurbha  or  garbha, 
would  I  betiere  be  more  correct 


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32  THE    ROCK-CUT  TEMPLES 

those  of  Cuttack  and  Mahavellipore  *  on  the  east  coast,  to  those  of  EUoia 
and  Salsette  on  the  western  side ;  and  there  are  few  buildings  or  cities 
of  importance  in  India  which  I  have  not  at  one  time  or  other  been  able 
to  visit  and  examine.  I  had  besides  the  advantage,  that  as  all  my 
jonmies  were  undertaken  for  the  sole  purpose  of  antiquarian  research, 
I  wafi  enabled  to  devote  my  whole  and  undivided  attention  to  the  sub- 
ject, and  all  mj  notes  and  sketches  were  made  with  only  one  object 
in  view,  that  of  ascertaining  the  age  and  object  of  these  hitherto  mys- 
terious structures.  Whereas,  most  of  those  who  have  hitherto  written 
on  the  subject,  though  drawing  and  writing  better  than  I  can  pretend 
to  do,  have  only  visited  the  caves  and  temples  incidentally  while 
travelling  on  other  avocations;  and  none  that  I  know  of,  have  been 
able  to  embrace  so  extensive  a  field  of  research  as  I  have. 

I  hope,  therefore,  it  will  be  understood,  that  the  following  remarks 
are  not  offered  as  the  result  of  much  learning  or  deep  research,  but 
simply  as  the  practical  experience  of  an  architect  in  a  favorite  branch 
of  his  study. 

In  a  short  paper  as  the  present  is  intended  to  be,  it  will  be  impos- 
sible to  enter  into  all  the  arguments  that  may  be  urged  for  and  against 
the  various  disputed  points  of  Indian  and  Buddhist  chronology;  and 
though  I  am  aware  that  I  may  often  appear  dogmatical  in  stating  my 
conclusions,  without  adducing  the  reasoning  from  which  they  have  been 
arrived  at,  I  do  not  think  I  can  be  too  concise,  at  least,  in  the  first 
instance,  and  if  any  point  appears  to  be  of  sufficient  interest  to  the 
Society,  I  can  afterwards  add  more  detail  than  my  limits  at  present 
admit  of.  I  shall  at  the  same  time  try  to  avoid,  as  much  as  possible, 
all  hypothetical  matter,  and  state  merely  what  bears  directly  on  the 
subject  under  consideration,  and  that  as  succinctly  as  possible ;  and  I 
shall  be  less  tempted  to  digress,  as  I  have  for  some  time  past  intended 
publishing  a  series  of  views,  illustrative  of  this  subject,  accompanied 
by  a  volume  of  letter-press,  in  which  I  shall  have  abundant  opportu- 
nity of  stating  all  these  views  at  length.  That  I  may,  however,  be 
understood  in  the  following  remarks,  I  will  state  here  the  principal 

*  There  are  ▼arious  ways  of  spelling  and  pronouncing  the  name  of  this  place. 
The  most  popular,  and  the  one  by  which  it  is  generaUy  Imown  in  Europe,  is  Maha- 
balipooram,  "  The  city  of  the  great  Bali ;"  but  which  is  now  generally  allowed  to 
be  incorrect,  though  adopted  with  a  slight  variation  of  spelling  by  Messrs.  Cham- 
ber and  Goldingham*  Mr.  Babington  calls  it  Mahamalaipur, ''  The  city  of  the 
great  mountain,"  having  found  it  so  called  in  a  Tamul  inscription  there. 

Locally,  it  is  called  Mafaayellipore,  Mayeliyeram,  Mulurum,  &e.  I  have 
throughout  this  paper  adopted  the  first,  as  most  resembling  its  popuhtf  name, 
without  pretending  to  any  etymological  oorreetnefls,  or  to  any  hypothesis  regarding 
its  origin  or  history. 


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OF    INDIA.  33 

condasions  I  have  arrived  at  regarding  the  religion  of  India,  without 
entering  on  the  grounds  on  which  they  were  formed,  or  the  reasoning 
bj  which  thej  are  supported. 

The  first  is,  That  prior  to  the  advent  of  the  present  Buddha,  a  Brah- 
manical  religion  existed  in  the  country,  a  deistical  fire-worship,  very 
unlike  the  present  religion  bearing  that  name.  That  contemporary 
with  this  a  Buddhistical  religion  also  existed,  differing  but  little  from 
the  other,  probably  two  forms  of  the  same  religion.  The  former  has 
entirely  perished,  and  Buddhism,  as  we  now  know  it,  owes  its  origin  to 
Gotama  Buddha,  the  son  of  Suddodana;  and  was  either  an  entirely 
new  form  given  to  the  pre-existing  religions,  or  what  is  more  probable,  a 
reform  of  both,  meant  probably  to  amalgamate  the  two.  It  could  not 
however  have  differed  much  from  the  Brahmanism  of  those  days,  as 
we  find  the  kings  and  people  changing  backwards  and  forwards,  from 
one  to  the  other,  without  difficulty  or  excitement;  and  in  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  Greeks  and  in  native  records,  we  often  find  it  difficult  to 
distinguish  between  the  one  and  the  other. 

2nd.  It  appears  also  certain  that  the  correct  date  for  Sakya  Buddha 
obtaining  Nirvana  was  543  b.c.  The  principal  authority  opposed  to 
this  date  are  the  trans-Himalayan  chronologies,  which  generally  concur 
in  placing  him  about  five  hundred  years  earlier.  They,  however,  contain 
their  own  refutation,  (though  I  have  never  observed  it  pointed  out,)  inas- 
much as  they  all  place  the  event  in  the  reign  of  Ajatasatta,  and  place 
Asoka  little  more  than  one  hundred  years  after.  Whereas,  the  date  of 
the  latter  is  perfectly  ascertained  to  be  about  250  b.c.  ;  and  of  the 
fonner^  not  many  years  from  when  the  Geylonese  authorities  place  it. 

drd.  That  from  the  time  of  Asoka  till  the  destruction  of  the 
Andhra  dynasty  of  Magadha  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century. 
Buddhism  was  the  principal  religion  in  the  north  of  India,  though  in 
the  south  it  never  seems  to  have  obtained  a  permanent  footing,  where 
the  Brahmanical  religion  still  prevailed,  and  during  the  time  of  Buddhist 
supremacy  in  the  north,  that  form  of  it  was  elaborated  which  flowing 
back  on  the  parent  country  exists  in  the  form  we  now  find  it. 

Witb  regard  to  the  antiquity  of  the  monuments,  all  that  is  here 
necessary  to  state  is,  that  the  oldest  relics  of  whose  existence  I  am 
aware  are  the  Laths,  bearing  the  inscriptions  of  A8ok%  dating  from 
the  middle  of  the  third  century  b.c.  I  am  not  aware  of  the  existence 
of  any  cave  anterior  to,  or  even  coeval  with  these,  nor  of  any  struc- 
tural building  whose  date  can  reach  so  high  as  the  first  centuries 
of  oar  era. 

I  may  also  state  that  it  appears  quite  evident  that  the  Buddhists 
VOL.  VIII.  ^    r^  T 

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34  THB    ROCK-CUT  TEMPLBS 

were  the  earliest  cave  diggers^  and  that  it  is  not  difficult  to  trace  the 
connection  of  the  whole  series  from  "the  earliest  abode  of  Bauddha 
ascetics"  at  Nagarjuni,  to  the  Kylaa  at  EUora;  but  as  the  principal 
object  of  the  present  paper  is  to  point  out  this  connection^  I  will  not 
enlarge  upon  it  more  in  this  place;  but  in  order  to  be  understood,  I 
musty  before  proceeding  to  describe  particular  oaves,  saj  a  few  words 
on  the  subject  generally,  to  point  out  the  different  classes  into  which 
they  are  divided,  and  consequently,  explain  the  names  I  shall  apply  to 
them  throughout. 

As  far  as  my  knowledge  of  the  cave  temples  of  India  extends,  the 
whole  may  be  classified  under  the  following  heads. 

First,  Vihara,  or  Monastery  Caves. 

1st,  The  first  subdivision  of  this  class  consists  of  natural  caverns  or 
caves  slightly  improved  by  art ;  they  are  as  might  be  assumed  the  most 
ancient,  and  are  only  found  appropriated  to  religious  purposes  in  the 
older  series  of  Behar  and  Guttack;  and  though  some  are  found 
among  the  western  caves,  their  existence  there  appears  to  be  quite 
accidental. 

The  second  subdivision  consists  of  a  verandah,  opening  behind  into 
cells  for  the  abode  of  the  priests,  but  without  sanctuaries  or  images  of 
any  sort.  The  simplest  form  of  this  class  consists  of  merely  one 
square  cell  with  a  porch,  several  instances  of  which  occur  in  the  Cut- 
tack  series;  sometimes  the  cell  is  nearly  thirty  feet  long,  as  in  the 
Cranesa  Gumpha^  of  which  a  plan  is  herewith  * ;  and  at  Ajunta  in  the 
oldest  Vihara  there,  the  arrangement  is  further  extended  by  the  veran- 
dah opening  into  a  square  hall,  on  three  sides  of  which  the  cells  are 
situated. 

In  the  third  subdivision  of  the  Vihara  caves,  the  last  arrangement 
is  further  extended  by  the  enlargement  of  the  hall,  and  the  consequent 
necessity  of  its  centre  being  supported  by  pillars ;  and  in  this  division 
besides  the  cells  that  surround  the  hall,  there  is  always  a  deep  recess 
facing  the  entrance,  in  which  is  generally  placed  a  statue  of  Buddha 
with  his  usual  attendants,  thus  fitting  the  cave  to  become  not  only  an 
abode  for  the  priests,  but  also  a  place  of  worship*.  At  Bang,  the  statue 
of  Buddha  is  replaced  by  the  Daghopa';  but  this  is  I  believe  a  solitary 
instance  of  its  existence  in  a  Vihara  cave. 

To  this  division  belongs  by  far  the  greatest  number  of  Buddhist 
excavations.  The  most  splendid  of  them  are  those  at  Ajunta;  though 
the  Dherwarra,  at  EUora,  is  also  fine ;  and  there  are  also  some  good 
specimeAfi  at  Salsette,  and  I  believe  Junir. 

'  Plate  Na  1.  «  Plate  No.  2. 


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OF    INDIA.  35 

The  Second  class  consists  of  Bnddhist  Chaitya  Caves  K 
These  are  the  temples,  or  if  I  may  use  the  expr^sion,  the  chnrohes 
of  the  series,  and  one  or  more  of  them  is  attached  to  every  set  of  caves 
in  the  west  of  India^  thongh  none  exist  in  the  eastern  side. 

Unlike  the  Viharas,  the  plan  and  arrangement  of  all  these  caves  is 
exactly  the  same;  and  though  the  details  and  sculpture  vary  with  the 
age  in  which  they  were  executed,  some  strong  religious  feeling  seems 
to  have  attached  the  Buddhists  to  one  particular  form  for  their  places 
of  worship. 

In  the  Yiharas,  we  can  trace  the  progress  from  the  simple  cavern 
to  the  perfect  monastery,  but  these  seem  at  once  to  have  sprung  to 
perfection,  and  the  Karli  cave,  which  is  the  most  perfect,  is,  I  believe, 
also  the  oldest  in  India.  Had  the  style  been  gradually  elaborated  in 
the  rook,  from  the  imperishable  nature  of  such  monuments  we  could 
not  fail  to  have  discovered  the  earlier  attempts;  but  besides  this,  there 
aie  many  reasons  that  I  shall  notice  in  the  proper  place,  which  lead  me 
to  suppose  that  they  are  copies  of  the  interior  of  structural  buildings ; 
and  it  IS  not  one  of  the  least  singular  circumstances  attached  to  their 
histoiy,  that  no  trace  of  such  buildings  exists  in  India,  nor,  I  believe, 
in  Ceylon,  nor  in  the  Buddhist  countries  beyond  the  Gbnges. 

All  these  caves  consist  of  an  external  poroh,  or  music  galleiy,  an 
internal  galleiy  over  the  entrance,  a  centre  idsle  which  I  will  call  the 
nave,  (from  its  resemblance  to  what  bears  that  name  in  our  churohes,) 
which  is  always  at  least  twice  the  length  of  its  breadth,  and  is  roofed 
by  a  plain  waggon  vault;  to  this  is  added,  a  semi-dome  terminating 
the  nave,  under  the  centre  of  which  always  stands  a  Daghopa  or 
Chaitya. 

A  narrow  aisle  always  surrounds  the  whole  interior,  separated  from 
the  nave  by  a  range  of  massive  columns.  The  aisle  is  generally  flat- 
hoofed,  though  sometimes  in  the  earlier  examples  it  is  covered  by  a 
semi-vault. 

In  the  oldest  temples  the  Daghopa  consists  of  a  plain  ciroular 
dram,  surmounted  by  a  hemispherical  dome  crowned  by  a  Tee,  which 
supported  the  umbrella  of  state.  In  the  earlier  examples  this  was  in 
wood,  and  as  a  general  rule  it  may  be  asserted,  that  in  these  all  the 
parts  that  would  be  constructed  in  wood  in  a  structural  building,  are 
m  wood  in  the  caves ;  but  in  the  more  modem  caves  all  those  parts, 
such  as  the  music  gallery  ontside,  the  ribs  of  the  roof,  the  ornaments 
of  the  Daghopa,  the  umbrella  of  state,  &c.,  are  repeated  in  the  rock, 
thongh  the  same  forms  are  preserved.     In  front  of  the  more  modem 

'  Plato  No.  3. 

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36  THE    ROCK-CUT    TEMPLES 

Daghopas  there  is  always  a  sculptural  niche  containing  a  figure  of 
Buddha  with  his  attendants;  this  may  have  existed  in  wood  in  the 
more  ancient,  and  consequently  have  disappeared,  but  I  am  rather 
inclined  to  think  it  is  a  modem  innovation. 

These  two  classes  comprehend  all  the  Buddhist  caves  in  India. 

The  Third  class  consists  of  Brahmanical  caves,  properly  so  called'. 

In  form  many  of  them  are  copies  of,  and  all  a  good  deal  resemble 
the  Buddhist  Vihara,  so  much  so  hjs  at  first  sight  to  lead  to  the  sup- 
position that  they  are  appropriations  of  Buddhist  caves  to  Brahmanical 
purposes.  On  a  more  intimate  acquaintance  however  with  them,  many 
points  of  distinction  are  observed.  The  arrangement  of  the  pillars,  and 
the  position  of  the  sanctuary,  is  in  no  instance  the  same  as  in  a 
Vihara;  they  are  never  surrounded  by  cells,  as  all  Viharas  are,  and 
their  walls  are  invariably  covered,  or  meant  to  be,  with  sculpture; 
while  the  Viharas  are  almost  as  invariably  decorated  by  painting, 
except  the  sanctuary.  The  subjects  of  the  sculpture  of  course  always 
set  the  question  at  rest. 

The  finest  specimens  of  this  class  are  at  Ellora  and  Elephanta, 
though  some  good  ones  exist  also  on  the  Island  of  SaJsette,  and  at 
Mahavellipore. 

The  Fourth  class  consists  of  rock-cut  Models  of  structural  Brah- 
manical temples,  or,  as  I  wiU  call  them,  *' Pseudo-structural  temples." 
To  this  class  belong  the  far-famed  Kylas  at  EUora,  the  Sivite  temple 
at  Doomnar,  and  the  Ruths  at  Mahavellipore.  Except  the  last, 
which  are  cut  out  of  isolated  blocks  of  granite,  these  temples  possess 
the  irremediable  defects  of  standing  in  pits,  which  prevents  them  being 
prc^rly  seen,  and  the  side  of  which  being  of  course  higher  than  the 
temples,  crushes  them  and  gives  them  an  insignificant  appearance;  and 
though  they  are  not  the  least  interesting,  they  are  in  worse  taste  and 
worse  grammar  than  any  of  the  preceding  ones. 

The  Indra  Subha  group  at  Ellora  should  perhaps  form  a  Fifth 
class,  as  it  cannot  in  strictness  be  brought  under  any  of  the  above 
heads;  but  it  is  difficult  to  decide  whether  they  are  Brahmanical  or 
Jaina;  if  the  former,  they  belong  to  the  third  class,  if  the  latter,  they 
must  be  classed  with  what  in  reality  form  the 

Fifth  class,  or  true  Jaina  caves,  which,  without  this  splendid  auxi- 
liary are  few  and  insignificant,  though  there  are  some  tolerable  ones  at 
Khandagiri  in  Guttack,  and  in  the  southern  parts  of  India;  and  in  the 


'  Plate  No.  4. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF    INDIA.  37 

rock  of  the  fort  at  Gualior,  there  are  a  namber  of  colossal  figures  of 
one  or  the  other  of  the  Thirthankars  out  m  the  rock,  with  sometimes, 
though  not  always,  a  small  screen  left  before  them,  which  thus  forms  a 
small  chamber.  Some  of  them  are  sitting,  some  standing,  and  many 
of  colossal  dimensions,  from  thirty  to  forty  feet  high ;  the  whole  how- 
ever is  of  rude  bad  sculpture,  and  the  date  about,  or  rather  subsequent 
to  the  eleventh  or  twelfth  century  of  the  Christian  era. 

Before  proceeding  to  describe  particular  caves,  I  may  also  mention 
liere,  that  in  speaking  of  Buddhist  Chaitya  caves,  I  have  used  terms 
borrowed  from  the  names  given  by  antiquarians  to  the  different  parts 
of  Christian  churches,  because  in  form  and  arrangement  they  so  exactly 
resemble  the  choirs,  more  particularly  of  the  Norman  churches  of  the 
eleventh  and  twelfUi  centuries,  that  no  confusion  can  arise  from  my 
doing  so,  and  I  know  not  where  to  look  for  other  terms,  that  would 
apply  to  them,  and  be  intelligible. 

In  speaking  of  Hindu  temples,  as  Ram  Raz^  is  the  only  person 
who  has  attempted  to  describe  and  define  the  different  parts  of  Hindu 
uchitectore,  I  have  used  his  name,  Vimana,  to  describe  the  principal 
tower,  or  pyramid,  or  spire,  that  surmounts  the  GkLrbhagriha,  or  sanc- 
tuary, in  which  the  idol  or  object  of  worship  is  placed.  In  Hindustan, 
it  is  usually  called  Dewal,  or  Bara,  or  Bura  Dewal,  to  distinguish  it 
from  the  former,  which  is  commonly  applied  to  the  whole  temple. 
The  pyramidal  part  is  called  Sikra  or  Surra,  more  commonly  the  former. 

The  porch  which  always  stands  in  front  of  the  Vimana,  I  have  also 
foUowed  Ram  Raz  in  calling  Mantapa,  though  locally  it  is  called 
Bog^  Mandap,  Munduf,  Muntapnm,  &c. 

Other  names  of  less  frequent  occurrence  will  be  explained,  if  neces- 
Nuy,  as  they  occur. 

The  first  series  of  caves  I  will  mention  are  those  in  Behar,  which 
I  have  not  myself  seen,  as  from  the  descriptions  I  had  read  of  them  I 
knew  that  they  possessed  no  great  architectural  magnificence,  and  I 
was  not  aware,  till  too  late,  that  these  were  perhaps  some  of  the  oldest 
eaves  in  India;  and  their  locality,  too,  in  the  very  birth-place  of  Bud- 
dhism, gives  them  an  interest  which  no  other  series  possesses,  and  which 
certainly  would  have  led  me  to  visit  them,  had  I  been  fus  fully  aware 
of  it  then,  as  I  have  since  become ;  for  situated  in  the  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood of  Rajagriha,  the  capital  of  India  at  the  time  of  Buddha's 
death,  and  where  the  first  convocation  was  held,  and  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  capital  of  Asoka",  they  occupy  the  locality  from  which 

^  Eaiiay  on  the  Architecture  of  the  Hindiis,  4to.     London,  1834. 

■  Mahawanso,  pp.  22  and  23.  ^  ,  _  .  ^/GoOqIc 


38  THE    ROCK-CUT   TBMPLB8 

we  might  expect  more  of  interest  than  from  any  eeries  in  India.  To 
the  artist^  however^  they  are  the  leust  bo  of  any^  and  were  it  not  for 
the  inscriptions  on  the  Milkmaid's  and  other  caves  would  be  almost 
equally  uninteresting  to  the  antiquary.  The  cause  of  this  I  believe 
exists^  to  a  certain  extent^  in  the  unfavourable  nature  of  the  rock  in 
which  ihey  are  cut;  being  a  long  low  hill^  consisting  of  large  blocks  of 
granite  without  any  continuous  rock.  But  more  is,  I  am  inclined  to 
think,  owing  to  these  being  the  first  attempts  at  cave  architecture,  and 
to  the  simplicity  which  is  a  distinguishing  characteristic  of  all  the 
earlier  caves.  It  is  in  the  northern  arm  of  this  hill  that  are  situated 
two  small  vaulted  caves,  the  first  ten  feet  wide  by  fifteen  long,  and 
nine  feet  high,  and  the  other  about  the  same  dimensions.  In  the 
inside  they  are  partially  polished,  but  without  any  architectural 
mouldings  on  them.  It  is  on  these  caves  that  were  found  the  two 
inscriptions  in  the  Lath  diaracter,  deciphered  by  Mr.  Prinsep,  in 
the  sixth  volume  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  as 
follows : — 

''The  Brahman  girl's  cave  (and  the  Milkmaid  cave  respectively), 
excavated  by  the  hands  of  the  most  devoted  sect  of  Bauddha  ascetics 
for  the  purpose  of  a  secluded  residence,  was  appointed  their  habitation 
in  perpetuity  by  Dasaratha,  the  beloved  of  the  gods,  immediately  on 
his  ascending  the  throne." 

The  character  in  which  these  inscriptions  axe  written,  evidently 
points  to  an  era  not  distant  from  Asoka^  and  if  the  prince  there  men- 
tioned is  the  Dajsaratha^  the  grandson  of  that  king,  which  I  see  no 
reason  to  doubt  his  being,  we  have  at  least  two  caves  with  an  aacer- 
tained  date,  viz.,  about  200  b.c.,  and  with  the  purpose  for  which  they 
excavated  explained. 

As  far  as  our  researches  have  yet  gone  these  are  the  most  ancient 
caves  in  India;  and  I  know  of  no  other  caves  which  from  their  locality, 
their  form,  or  their  inscriptions,  can  compete  with  them  in  this  respect. 
The  other  caves  of  this  series  are  situated  at  some  little  distance 
from  the  above  in  the  southern  arm  of  the  same  hill,  and  though  of 
greater  extent,  are  generally  as  devoid  of  architectural  ornament  as 
those  above  described.  It  is  therefore  only  to  their  inscriptions  that 
we  can  look  for  materials  to  ascertain  their  dates  or  uses. 

They  conmst  of  the  Nagarjuni  and  Heft  Kaneh,  or  Satghnr  group. 
They  have  been  described,  first  by  Harington,  in  the  first  volume 
of  the  Asiatic  Researches,  and  by  Hamilton,  in  his  Statistics  of  Behar. 
The  first  containa  the  inscription  first  deciphered  by  Mr.  Wilkins, 
and  published  with  Mr.  Harington's  description,  and  which  was  revised 
by  Mr.  Prinsep  in  August,  1837. 


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OF    INDIA.  39 

After  an  inTocation  to  Devi^  it  contains  an  inflated  ^Msconnt  of  the 
Tutofis  and  great  qualities  of  the  king  Yajna  Verm%  his  son  Sardula 
Verma,  and  his  grandson  Ananta  V^ma,  who  consecrated  to  this 
goddess  (Deri)  the  beantifdl  village  of  Davidi,  and  it  appears  to  have 
been  to  record  this  gift  that  the  inscription  was  engraved. 

The  inscription  on  the  Heft  Kaneh  is  in  the  same  character,  and 
refers  to  the  same  parties. 

The  alphabet  in  which  these  inscriptions  are  written  is  very  similar 
to  that  of  the  Gnpta  inscriptions,  on  the  Allahabad  Lath ;  if  anything, 
more  resembling  the  ancient  Lath  character;  we  could  not  therefore* 
have  much  difficulty  in  fixing  ua  their  approximating  date,  the  fifth 
eentnry  after  Christ,  and  I  do  not  think  there  can  be  much  difficulty  in 
identifying  the  Yajna  Verma  of  the  inscription,  with  the  Yajna  Sri  of 
the  Andhra  dynasty  of  the  Puranas,  and  who  it  is  now  generally 
allowed  ascended  the  throne  of  Magadha,  about  the  year  408  of  our 
era. 

The  invocation  to  Devi  and  the  language  of  the  inscriptions  is 
decidedly  much  more  Brahmanical  than  Buddhist,  and  as  they  do  not 
refer  to  the  caves^  we  are  left  in  uncertainty  as  to  whether  the  Vermas 
really  excavated  them,  and  to  what  reli^on  they  were  dedicated.  It 
is  difficult,  however,  to  believe  that  any  work  of  the  Brahmans  could 
be  left  without  any  indication  of  their  polytheism,  and  the  simplicity 
of  the  caves  is  a  strong  evidence  in  favour  of  their  Buddhistical  ori^n ; 
and  as  there  appears  nothing  to  make  us  believe  that  the  inscription  is 
necessarily  integral,  but  may  have  been  added  afterwards,  it  afibrds, 
I  fear,  no  sufficient  data  for  coming  to  any  satisfactory  conclusion 
regarding  the  monument  in  question. 

A  little  further  on  is  another  group,  the  Kama  Chapura^  and  the 
Lomas  rishi  caves.  They  appear  to  be  adorned  with  some  rude  sculp- 
tore  of  a  Brahmanical  tendency.  But  none  of  the  inscriptions  on  them 
that  have  been  deciphered  throw  any  light  on  their  date,  further  than 
that  they  appear  to  be  more  modem  than  the  two  last  referred  to. 
Bat  the  drawings  I  have  seen  of  their  sculpture  are  much  too  imper- 
fect and  rade,  to  enable  me  to  judge  of  their  age  by  comparing  them 
with  the  temples  I  have  visited. 

The  next  series  in  antiquity,  and  one  of  the  most  interesting  in 
India^  though  one  of  the  least  known,  are  the  caves  of  Khandagiri, 
atnated  about  twenty  miles  from  Cuttack,  and  five  from  Bobaneswar. 
There  are  here  two  small  but  picturesque  and  well-wooded  hills  of  a 
coarse-grained  sandstone,  very  rare  in  that  neighbourhood,  which  seem 
from  a  very  early  period  to  have  been  a  spot  held  particularly  sacred 


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40  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

by  the  Baddhiets ;  and  though  no  oaves  exiat  here  that  can  vie  in  slse 
or  magnificence  with  those  of  Western  India^  there  are  a  greater 
number  of  authentically  ancient  caves  here,  than  in  any  other  series, 
and  the  details  of  their  architecture  are  of  a  higher  class  than  any 
other  I  am  acquainted  with. 

These  oaves  were  first  described  by  Stirling,  in  his  valuable  Me- 
moir on  Cuttack,  in  the  sixteenth  volume  of  the  Asiatic  Researches, 
and  drawings  of  some  of  them  were  published  by  Lieut.  Kittoe,  .in  the 
sixth  and  seventh  volumes  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society;  they 
still  however  require  and  deserve  a  much  more  careful  examination 
than  either  of  those  gentlemen  have  been  able  to  bestow  on  them, 
though  the  task  is  by  no  means  an  easy  one,  for  they  are  still  inha- 
bited by  Fakeers  and  Byragis  of  various  classes,  who,  to  increase  their 
accommodation,  have  built  up  mud  walls  between  the  pillars  of  the 
verandahs,  rendering  the  interior  extremely  dark,  while  the  accn- 
mulated  smoke  of  a  thousand  years'  cooking  has  blackened  the  whole 
so  afi  to  increase  the  gloom,  and  has  also  encrusted  over  the  sculpture 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  render  its  details  almost  invisible. 

There  is  also  considerable  difficulty  in  gaining  admission  to  the 
inhabited  caves,  and  I  found  it  impossible  to  effect  an  entrance  into  the 
finest  of  the  whole  series,  which  by  the  way  does  not  seem  to  have 
been  discovered  by  either  of  the  gentlemen  above-mentioned,  and 
which  I  stumbled  on  by  chance  while  wandering  about  without  any 
guide.  It  is  now  inhabited  by  the  chief  of  the  Fakeers,  whom  I  saw 
preparing  to  cook  his  dinner,  and  who  was  extremely  insolent  when  I 
attempted  to  parley  with  him  on  the  subject,  so  that  I  was  obliged  to 
content  myself  with  an  imperfect  survey  from  above. 

The  caves  on  the  Udyagiri  (hill  of  the  rising  sun)  are  entirely 
Buddhist,  and  of  a  very  early  and  pure  type;  those  on  the  other  hill, 
the  Khandagiri,  are  much  later,  and  principally  Jaina. 

The  earliest  of  the  whole  series  is  the  so-called  Hathi  Gumpha,  or 
elephant  cave.  It  is  a  large  natural  cavern,  the  only  one  in  those 
hills,  aaid  very  slightly,  if  at  all  improved  by  art,  and  consequently  was 
probably  the  earliest  chosen  as  a  residence  by  some  Bauddha  ascetic; 
and  it  is  not  improbable  that  it  is  to  the  sanctity  acquired  by  some 
early  saint,  who  took  up  his  abode  in  it,  that  we  owe  the  subsequent 
excavations  in  the  hill.  It  is  on  the  fayoe  of  the  rock  above  this  cave 
that  there  exists  the  long  inscription  in  the  Lath  character,  which  first 
attracted  the  attention  of  Mr.  Stirling  and  his  enthusiastic  companion 
Major  Mackenzie,  and  which  Mr.  Prinsep  subsequently  deciphered, 
(as  ^  as  its  imperfect  state  would  allow,)  and  published  in  the  sixth 
volume   of  his  Journal.     Unfortunately,  the  inscription  contains  no 

DJgitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF    INDIA.  41 

>  that  has  been  identified  in  any  of  the  lists,  and  aa  there  is  no 
date,  we  are  left  entirely  to  the  character  of  the  letters,  and  its  internal 
eyidence,  for  an  approximative  era  in  which  it  could  have  been  written. 

There  does  not  appear  much  reason  to  doubt  the  correctness  of  the 
etymological  grounds  on  which  Mr.  Prinsep  assumed  the  date  to  be 
somewhat  subsequent  to  the  Asoka  inscriptions  in  the  same  neighbour- 
hood. At  least,  I  do  not  know  of  one  reason  that  can  be  urged  for 
assigning  it  a  higher  antiquity.  But  as  it  would  take  up  too  much 
space  here  to  enter  into  all  the  arguments  that  might  be  urged  on  this 
head,  I  shall  content  myself  with  stating,  that  I  think  the  balance  o 
evidence  inclines  to  a  date  about  two  hundred  years  before  Christ,  and 
that  cannot  be  veiy  far  from  the  truth. 

The  other  caves  on  this  hill  have  all  inscriptions  in  the  Lath  cha- 
racter, and  therefore  may  all  be  safely  assigned  to  a  date  anterior  to 
the  Christian  era,  and  probably  between  that  and  the  date  above 
given.  The  only  apparent  exception  is  that  on  the  Ckmes  Gumpha, 
which  is  in  the  Kutila  character  of  the  tenth  century  of  our  era;  but 
the  cave  in  which  it  is  engraved  is  so  entirely  of  the  same  character  as 
the  rest,  both  in  architecture  and  sculpture,  that  it  cannot  be  assigned 
to  a  different  era^  and  the  inscription  must  be  considered  as  marking  its 
conversion  to  the  Brahmanical  faith.  All  the  larger  ones  consist  of  a 
pillared  verandah,  of  from  six  to  ten  feet  in  width,  the  length  varying 
with  the  number  of  cells  which  open  into  it  from  behind,  these  being 
generally  about  six  feet  wide.  In  the  Thakoor  cave,  (the  large  one 
above  idluded  to,  to  which  I  could  not  obtain  admittance,)  the  colon- 
nade is  the  longest  here,  being  fifty-five  feet  in  length,  with  wings 
extending  at  right  angles  to  it  in  front. 

In  the  Ganes  Gumpha,  which  is  perhaps  the  most  beautiful  of  the 
series,  the  verandah  is  thirty  feet  long  by  six  feet  wide,  and  seven  in 
height;  there  are  four  doors  which  open  from  it  into  the  inner  exca- 
vation, which  is  seven  feet  six  inches  deep,  and  of  the  same  length  as 
the  verandah.     In  this  instance  it  is  not  divided  into  separate  cells*. 

The  sculpture  on  this  cave  is  superior  to  anything  I  have  seen  in 
India,  and  I  wish  much  it  could  be  cleaned  and  casts  taken  of  it.  It 
consists  of  a  frieze  at  the  back  of  the  verandah,  broken  into  two  com- 
partments by  the  heads  of  the  doors.  A  representation  of  it  is  pub- 
lished in  the  seventh  volume  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society, 
p.  683,  but  Mr.  Kittoe's  sketch  was  a  very  hurried  one,  and  the  litho- 
graf^y  is  not  the. most  perfect,  so  that  it  does  not  do  the  subject 
justice. 

The  only  sculpture  I  am  aware  of  that  resembles  it  in  India,  is  that 


Plate  No.  I. 


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42  THB    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

of  the  Sanohi  Tope,  near  Bhilsa,  and  it  reaembles  European  art  more 
than  any  other.  There  are  no  gods,  no  figures  of  different  sixes,  nor 
any  extravagaaoe;  eyeiything  is  in  keeping  and  in  good  taste. 

Some  hare  only  two  interoolumniations  in  front,  and  by  hr  the 
greater  number  only  one,  or  to  speak  more  correctly,  consist  of  an 
outer  care  communicating  with  the  inner  by  a  small  door,  and  in  one 
instance,  the  rock  containing  a  small  cave  has  been  sculptured  into  the 
fonn  of  a  tiger's  head,  whose  gaping  mouth  forms  the  yestibule  to  the 
cell;  I  do  not  know  of  any  other  instance  of  a  similar  vagary. 

On  the  Khandagiri  the  caves  are  much  lees  interesting,  being  all  of 
an  evidently  kter  date.  One  called  Lelat  Indra  Kesari  ka  Noor,  pro- 
bably was  excavated  by  that  prince,  and  its  date  therefore  will  be  the 
beginning  of  the  seventh  century;  it  is  an  excavation  of  no  great 
extent,  and  it  is  not  easy  to  make  out  from  the  very  unfinished  state 
in  which  it  has  been  left,  for  what  purpose  it  was  designed,  being 
extremely  unlike  all  the  others  of  the  series. 

As  Lekt  Indra>  however,  was  a  devout  worshipper  of  Siva„  and 
built,  or  at  least  finished  the  great  temple  at  Bobaneswar,  it  was  pro- 
bably intended  to  be  a  Brahmanical  cave,  like  those  at  Ellora  or  Ele- 
phanta;  his  Rani,  however,  was  a  follower  of  Buddha,  and  this  may 
have  been  her  work. 

Close  to  it  is  the  largest  cave  on  this  hill;  like  most  others,  it  con- 
sists of  a  verandah  with  pillars  and  a  long  apartment  parallel  to  it,  to 
which  has  recently  been  added  an  outer  verandah  of  masonry  plastered 
and  painted.  In  this  cave  are  sculptured  the  images  of  the  twenty- 
four  Thirthankars,  and  their  female  energies,  which  are  probably  coeval 
with  its  excavation,  and  at  one  end  an  image  of  the  monkey-god 
Hanuman,  though  he  probably  is  of  a  later  date ;  he  was  however  too 
well  covered  with  red  paint  for  me  to  make  out  from  the  style  of 
sculpture  to  what  age  he  belonged. 

None  of  the  other  caves  on  this  hill  are  particularly  deserving  of 
notice.  On  the  top  of  it  stands  a  small  Jain  temple  erected  during  the 
the  supremacy  of  the  Maharatta;  a  neat  building,  but,  as  might  be 
expected  from  the  character  of  its  founders,  of  no  great  pretensions. 

One  of  the  most  singular  features  in  all  the  Buddhbt  caves  here, 
is  the  total  absence  of  all  images  of  Buddha,  and  indeed  of  any  appar- 
rent  object  of  worship;  a  circumstance  which  alone  would,  I  conceive, 
be  sufficient  to  place  ihem  in  a  higher  antiquity  than  any  series  in 
Western  India;  for  it  is  tolerably  certain  that  the  adoration  of  images, 
and  particularly  of  that  of  the  founder  of  the  reli^on,  was  the  intro- 
duction of  a  later  and  more  corrupt  era,  and  unknown  to  the  immediate 
followers  of  the  deified. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


OF    INDIA.  43 

Whaleyer  aealptaie  is  ueed  in  these  cares,  and  Aey  eontain  some 
of  a  rery  high  olass^  is  purely  ornamental,  and  has  no  reference  either 
to  the  worship  of  Buddha^  or  to  the  purposes  for  which  these  oaves 
were  exoayated '. 

Another  fflngalarity  is  the  absence  of  a  Chaitya  cave,  though  it  is 
mentioned  in  the  inscription  on  the  Hathi  Gnmpha^  'Hhe  King  Aira  (1) 
eaosed  to  be  constmcted  subterranean  chambers,  caves  containing  a 
Chaitya  temple  and  pillars.''  In  this  instance,  however,  the  cave, 
if  one  ever  existed,  may  have  been  destroyed  by  those  who  have 
quarried  stone  here  for  the  building  of  the  Bobaneswar  and  other 
temples  in  the  neighbourhood.  But  I  am  more  inclined  to  think  that 
the  Chaitya  here  was  a  structural  building,  probably  standing  on  the 
summit  of  Khandagiri  hill,  and  that  it  has  consequently  been  destroyed, 
like  most  of  its  congeners  in  India,  in  the  struggles  between  the 
Buddhists  and  Brahmans,  its  materials  removed,  and  probably  a 
portion  of  them  employed  in  constructing  the  present  fane. 

It  is  more  than  probable  that  it  was  in  the  Daghopa  attached  to 
these  oaves,  that  the  famous  tooth  relic  was  preserved;  which,  during 
the  troubles  consequent  on  the  invasion  of  the  Yavanas,  was  removed 
for  safety  to  Ceylon  in  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century,  where  it, 
or  its  representative,  still  exists. 

I  may  also  remark,  that  though  all  the  roofs  of  the  caves  are  flat, 
uid  flat  architraves  run  in  every  instance  from  one  pillar  to  another 
in  the  verandahs,  still  the  early  Buddhists  could  not  get  over  their 
singulaf  predilection  for  the  arch,  and  have  employed  it  as  an  ornament 
whenever  it  could  be  introduced;  and  thus,  though  all  the  doors  are 
square-headed,  scarcely  any  exist  that  have  not  a  semicircular  or  rather 
horseshoe  ornament  above,  placed  in  the  manner  of  a  discharging  arch 
in  common  masonry.  I  call  this  singular,  for  though  the  form  of  the 
arch  is  almost  universal  in  all  Buddhist  caves,  it  does  not,  that  I  am 
aware  of,  exist  in  any  Brahmanical  one,  nor  in  any  structural  building 
in  Hindustan  prior  to  the  Mahomedan  invasion,  nor  then  in  almost 
any  Hindu  building  down  to  the  present  time,  with  the  exception  of 
some  temples  built  during  the  reign  of  Akbar  the  Great. 

There  are  not,  as  far  as  I  am  aware  of,  any  other  caves  on  the 
eastern  side  of  India^  certainly  none  of  any  importance,  except  those 
at  Mahavellipore,  which  being  the  most  modem  in  India,  I  will 
describe  last,  having  previously  made  the  circuit  of  the  peninsula;  and 
we  must  therefore  step  at  once  to  the  western  side,  where  they  exist  of 
a  sixe  and  magnifioence  totally  unknown  on  the  eastern  side.     I  have 

>  In  one  cave,  the  Jodey  Gumpha,  some  figures  seem  to  be  worshipping  the  Bo 
Tree;  see  Klttoe's  pUte  above  referred  to. 


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44  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

not  been  able  to  visit  all  the  oayes. myself^  but  I  have  examined  those 
of  Ajanta,  Karli,  SaLsette^  Doomnar,  Ellora^  Elephanta,  and  Maha- 
vellipore.  The  oaves  of  Nasik,  Jnnir,  and  Baug>  I  have  not  been 
able  to  visit,  but  from  all  I  could  leam  on  the  spot,  the  two  first  men- 
tioned series  contain  no  type  not  seen  at  Karli,  Ellora,  or  Salsette ; 
while  the  latter  are  so  similar  to  those  at  Ajunta,  that  though  ex- 
tremely numerous,  and  no  doubt  interesting,  I  am  not  aware  of  their 
offering  any  thing  of  a  new  or  distinctive  character. 

In  attempting  to  describe  so  many  caves,  it  would  be  desirable,  if 
possible,  to  adopt  some  mode  of  classification  by  which  to  connect  so 
many  dissimilar  objects.  The  most  desirable  would  certainly  be  a 
chronological  one,  describing  each  cave  according  to  its  date;  but  their 
ages  are  so  imperfectly  ascertained,  that  this  would  at  present,  I  fear, 
only  lead  to  confusion;  and  as  each  series  extends  through  several 
hundred  years,  some  nearly  a  thousand,  and  consequently,  they  were 
contemporary  one  with  another,  no  succession  can  be  made  out  between 
the  different  series.  I  shall  therefore  describe  those  I  have  visited  in 
the  order  in  which  I  have  named  them  above,  placing  Ajunta  firsts 
because  it  is  the  most  perfect  and  complete  series  of  Buddhist  caves  in 
Indla^  without  any  admixture  of  Brahmanism,  and  contains  types  of 
all  the  rest;  next  Karli,  which,  though  by  no  means  so  extensive  as 
the  first,  is  still  purely  Buddhistical,  and  contains  the  finest  Ghaitya 
cave  in  India.  The  Salsette  or  Kannari  caves  are  also  purely  Bauddha^ 
but  very  inferior  in  every  respect  to  the  two  former.  Those  of  Doom- 
nar  and  EUora  contain  a  strong  admixture  of  Brahmanism,  and  those 
of  Elephanta  are  entirely  Brahmanical,  though  perhaps  not  later  than 
some  of  those  at  Ellora. 

And  lastly,  I  will  revert  to  those  at  Mahavellipore,  which  are 
entirely  Brahmanical,  and  excavated  after  all  the  other  series  were 
finished. 

After  crossing  the  valley  of  the  Taptee  from  the  north,  you  approach 
a  ghdt  of  some  five  or  six  hundred  feet  in  height,  supporting  the  table- 
land of  the  Dekkan.  The  upper  line  of  the  ghdt  is  flat  and  regular 
and  the  wall,  if  I  may  use  the  expression,  tolerably  even  except  in  some 
places  where  it  is  broken  by  ravines,  which  extend  for  a  considerable 
way  into  the  table-land  above.  It  is  in  one  of  these  ravines  that  the 
caves  of  Ajunta  are  situated.  The  entrance  to  the  ravine  is  nearly 
half  a  mile  in  width,  but  is  gradually  narrower  as  you  wind  up  it, 
till  it  terminates  in  a  cascade  of  seven  falls,  called  the  sat  koond;  the 

'  See  TranbactiouB  of  Bombay  Literar}'  Society,  vol.  ii.,  p.  194. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


OF    INDIA.  45 

lowest  fall  may  be  one  hundred  feet  high^  the  others  together  ene 
hundred  more. 

Immediately  below  the  fall  the  ravine  makes  a  sudden  turn  to  the 
right,  and  it  is  in  the  perpendicular  cliff  forming  the  outer  side  of  the 
bend,  and  facing  the  koond,  that  the  caves  are  situated;  the  whole 
series  extending^  as  nearly  aa  I  can  guess,  about  five  hundred  yards 
from  north  to  south-east 

The  most  ancient  are  situated  about  one-third  of  this  distance,  or 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  yards  from  the  most  northern  end,  and  are 
the  lowest  down  in  the  rock,  not  being  above  thirty  or  forty  feet  above 
the  bed  of  the  torrent,  while  to  the  north  they  rise  to  about  eighty 
feet,  and  at  the  southern  extremity  they  rise  to  about  one  hundred  or 
one  hundred  and  fifty  feet;  the  extreme  excavations  however  are  at  this 
end  unapproachable,  in  consequence  of  the  ledge  of  the  stratum,  which 
formed  the  terrace  of  communication  along  the  whole  series,  having 
fifcUen  away,  and  left  the  face  of  the  cliff  perpendicular  for  its  whole 
height,  which  is  as  nearly  as  I  could  estimate  about  three  hundred  feet. 

Names  have  been  given  to  some  of  the  caves,  but  these  are 
neither  very  appropriate  nor  well  understood,  and  as  the  local  cicerone 
who  accompanied  me  the  first  day  gave  the  same  name  to  different 
caves  at  different  times,  and,  I  believe,  invented  others  when  his 
memory  failed  him,  I  adopted  the  surer  plan  of  using  numbers ;  and, 
beginning  at  the  northern  end,  or  that  lowest  down  the  stream,  called 
the  first  cave  number  one,  and  so  on  to  twenty-seven,  which  is  the 
het  accessible  cave  at  the  south-eastern  extremity ;  and  as  this  plan 
can  lead  to  no  confusion,  I  shall  now  follow  it. 

According  to  this  arrangement,  the  ninth,  tenth,  nineteenth,  and 
twenty-sixth,  from  the  north  end,  are  Chaitya  or  Daghopa  vaulted 
cares,  without  cells;  the  rest  are  all  Viharas,  or  Monasteries,  with 
cells  and  flat  roofs. 

The  lowest  down  and  the  most  ancient,  are  the  twelfth  and 
eleventh;  the  first-named  is  the  plainest  cave  of  the  series,  being 
entirely  without  pillars,  and  there  is  no  sanctuary  or  image,  nor,  ap- 
parently, any  visible  object  of  worship;  indeed,  its  only  ornament 
consists  of  seven  horseshoe  canopies  on  each  side,  four  of  which  are 
over  the  doors  of  the  cells,  the  other  three  merely  ornamental;  they 
are  very  similar  to  those  at  Cnttack,  and  under  them  is  a  reeded  string 
oonise,  similar  to  that  used  in  those  caves,  and  which  I  have  not 
observed  any  where  else  except  there  and  at  the  great  Karli  cave; 
indeed,  it  resembles  the  caves  in  the  Udyagiri  in  almost  every  respect, 
except  it  being  square,  thirty-six  feet  seven  inches  each  way,  while 
those  at  Cnttack  are  all  longer  than  their  depth.     The  front  would 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


46  THE    ROCK-CUT  TEMPLES 

hare  aiForded  the  best  means  of  identification,  bnt  nnfortnnately  it  is 
entirely  removed  by  the  rock  above  giving  way;  I  searched  earnestly 
for  inscriptions,  but  could  only  find  one  on  the  inner  wall,  in  a 
character  slightly  modified  from  that  on  the  laths,  and,  therefore, 
probably  written  early  in  the  Christian  era ;  but  it  does  not,  from  its 
position,  seem  to  be  at  all  integral,  or  to  form  a  part  of  the  original 
design,  and  therefore  would  not  fix  the  date  even  if  deciphered. 

The  next  cave  to  the  north,  number  eleven,  is  not  quite  so  large, 
being  only  thirtynseven  feet  ten  inches,  by  twenty-eight  feet  six 
inches ;  it  is  very  similar  in  some  respects  to  the  last,  but  has  four 
pillars  in  the  centre  supporting  the  roof  ^ 

This  is,  probably,  one  of  the  earliest  instances  of  the  introduction  of 
pillars  for  such  a  purpose,  and  though  they  are  clumsily  used  here,  the 
example  is  interesting,  aa  it  was  to  the  extended  use  of  them,  that  we 
oy^e  all  the  magnificence  of  the  modem  Vihara;  the  window  on  each 
side  of  the  door  is  divided  into  three  lights,  by  two  pillars  standing 
on  each  cill*.  The  sanctuary  is  not  finished,  and,  indeed,  seems  to 
have  been  an  afterthought;  but  there  are  antelopes,  lions,  and  a  boy 
in  an  attitude  of  prayer,  sculptured  on  the  wall  in  the  very  best  style 
of  art,  and  evidently  coevid  with  those  of  the  Ganesa  Gumpha  at 
Cuttack;  the  walls  have  been  stuccoed  and  painted,  but  the  paintings 
are  so  much  destroyed  as  to  be  scarcely  distinguishable;  I  could  dis- 
cover no  inscription  on  any  part  of  it. 

The  next  two  caves  to  these  on  the  north  side,  numbers  ten  and 
nine,  are  two  Daghopa  caves,  almost  counterparts  of  one  another^ 
except  that  the  first  is  very  much  the  largest,  being  ninety-four  feet 
six  inches  in  depth,  and  forty-one  feet  three  inches  wide,  while  the 
other  measures  only  forty-five  feet  by  twenty-three  feet. 

The  largest  one  ha«,  or  rather  had,  twenty-nine  pillars  surrounding 
the  nave ;  they  are  plain  octagons,  without  capital  or  base,  and  have 
been  covered  with  stucco  and  painted;  thirteen  of  them  are  fedlen, 
leaving  large  gaps  in  some  places,  and  the  outer  screen  is  entirely 
gone.  Like  all  Daghopa  caves,  it  has  a  ribbed  roof.  In  some  caves, 
the  ribbing  is  in  stone,  in  others,  as  at  Karli,  it  is  in  wood.  This 
cave  combines  both  methods,  the  aisles  being  of  stone,  while  the  nave 
has  been  ornamented  with  wood,  which  has  entirely  disappeared, 
except  some  of  the  battens  and  pins  that  fastened  it  to  the  rock,  and 
the  footings  for  the  ribs,  which  are  sunk  to  some  depth  in  the  rock. 

The  Daghopa  is  plain  and  solid,  without  any  ornament,  except  the 
square  capital  or  tee  on  the  top,  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  was 

^  Plate  No.  6,  fig.  1.  «  Fig.  2. 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


OF    INDIA.  47 

once  richlj  omamenied,  probably  in  wood,  for  which  some  mortioes 
remain ;  and  that  it  waj9  crowned,  as  at  Karli,  by  three  umbrellas. 

The  whole  of  this  cave  has  been  covered  with  stucco  and  painted, 
and  many  of  the  smaller  paintings  on  the  pOlars,  and  in  the  panels 
of  the  roof  of  the  aisles,  remain,  consisting  of  figures  of  Buddha  and 
his  disciples  in  various  attitudes,  rosettes  and  other  ornaments;  but 
owing  to  the  ruined  state  of  the  front,  the  rain  apparently  has  beat  in, 
and  destroyed  the  larger  subjects.  There  are  several  inscriptions 
painted  on  the  plaster,  and  though  none  remain  sufficiently  entire  to 
be  transcribed,  yet  sufficient  remains  to  show,  that  the  characters  are 
those  that  were  used  subsequent  to  the  Christian  era. 

On  the  exterior  face,  however,  of  the  cave,  but  veiy'.high  up,  is  an 
inseription  of  some  length  in  the  pure  Lath  character,  which  would  at 
onee  give  an  antiquity  to  the  excavation  of  about  100  or  200  b.  c,  as 
far  as  such  evidence  can  be  relied  on. 

The  smaller  cave  had  only  twenty  pillars  surrounding  the  nave, 
nmilar  to  those  in  the  other;  eight  of  them  are  broken,  but  at  the 
entrance  there  are  four  pillars  of  a  different  form  and  richer  detail. 
Of  its  paintings  but  little  remains,  except  in  the  inner  wall,  where  they 
are  still  tolerably  entire.  In  this  circle  I  found  two  inscriptions 
painted  on  the  stucco  on  the  walls;  the  first  under  a  ^gaie  seated  on 
a  ehiur,  with  the  fore  finger  of  the  left  hand  touching  that  of  his  right, 
the  second  under  a  Daghopa,  painted  also  on  the  wall.  And  on  the 
floath  side  of  the  cave,  opposite  the  first,  there  was  a  third  inscribed  in 
a  panel  under  another  figure,  seated  in  a  chair,  but  so  defaced,  that  I 
ooold  only  see  that  it  was  in  the  same  character  as  the  other  two;  its 
existence,  however,  appeared  to  me  very  valuable,  from  its  position  as 
an  integral  portion  of  the  design  which  -it  forms  a  part  of,  and  if  its 
age  can  be  determined,  it  will  show  the  period  at  which  the  paintings 
were  executed.  I  have  not  myself  much  difficulty  in  assigning  it,  on 
the  faith  of  Mr.  Prinsep's  alphabets,  to  the  second  or  third  century  of 
our  era. 

The  eighth  cave  from  the  end  is  merely  a  natural  cavern,  without 
any  inscription  or  object  of  interest ;  and  the  seven  that  precede  it, 
are  so  modem,  that  I  would  prefer  going  back  to  number  thirteen,  and 
continue  to  describe  them  as  they  occur  from  this  point  towards  the 
southern  extremity,  as  I  shall  thus  preserve  something  like  the  succes- 
sion of  dates  in  which  they  were  excavated,  without  the  confusion  that 
would  arise  firom  selecting  here  and  there. 

Thirteen  is  only  a  small  cave  with  two  cells,  and  has  nothing 
remarkable  aJboat  it. 

Fourteen  is  a  large  unfinished  cave  under  thirteen,  and  apparently 

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48  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

meant  as  an  under  story  to  it ;  only  the  first  line  of  the  pillars  in  the 
interior  is  hewn  out,  and  left  in  a  rough  state.  The  verandah  pillars, 
however,  are  finished,  and  are  of  an  unusual  form,  from  being  merely 
square  piers  with  plain  bands. 

Fifteen  is  a  plain  square  cave,  but  filled  up  with  mud  and  debris 
nearly  to  the  roof,  so  that  there  is  considerable  difficulty  in  effecting 
an  entrance,  and  only  its  general  plan  can  be  made  out. 

Numbers  sixteen  and  seventeen  are  the  two  finest  Viharas  of  the 
series,  and  apparently  belong  to,  and  were  excavated  at  the  same  time, 
with  nineteen,  which  is  the  best  finished  Chaitya  cave  of  the  series;  to 
these  may  be  added  the  one  beyond  number  twenty,  bb  they  all  seem  of 
the  same  age,  and  the  four  together  form  the  most  interesting  group  of 
the  Ajunta  caves.  There  are  two  long  inscriptions  on  the  external  faces 
of  sixteen  and  seventeen,  which  probably  contain  something  of  their 
dates  and  history^;  I  did  not,  however,  attempt  to  copy  either,  and  my 
opinion  of  their  age,  therefore,  rests  entirely  on  their  architectural 
details  and  their  position  in  the  series ;  I  believe  them  to  have  been 
excavated  between  the  fourth  and  sixth  century  after  Christ,  but  more 
probably  about  the  latter  date. 

Sixteen  is  a  square  cave,  sixty-seven  feet  six  inches  wide,  and 
sixty-five  feet  two  inches  deep,  exclusive  of  the  sanctuary;  the  centre 
hall  is  surrounded  by  twenty  pillars,  generally  of  an  octagon  form,  the 
sides  of  which  are  adorned  in  painting  with  something  like  a  Roman 
scroll,  alternating  with  wreaths  of  fiowers". 

All  the  details  of  its  architecture  are  particularly  good  and  elegant, 
more  so  than  any  other  cave  in  this  series ;  there  are  no  side  chapels, 
but  eighteen  cells  surrounding  the  great  hall.  The  figure  in  the 
sanctuary  is  seated  with  his  feet  down ;  some  of  the  paintings  are 
tolerably  entire  and  extremely  interesting,  though  not  so  much  so 
as  those  in  the  next  cave;  the  swords  in  the  soldiers'  hands  are  shaped 
something  like  the  Nepalese  Kookry,  and  the  shields  are  of  an  oblong 
form. 

Seventeen,  generally  called  the  Zodiac  cave,  very  much  resembles 
the  last  described  in  almost  every  respect.  Its  dimensions  are  sixty- 
four  feet  by  sixty-three  feet,  and  it  has  twenty  pillars  disposed  as  in 
the  other;  it  is  not,  however,  so  lofty,  and  the  details  of  the  pillars  are 
by  no  means  so  graceful  or  elegant  as  in  number  sixteen.  The  paint- 
ings, however,  are  much  more  entire,  and  though  the  colours  in  some 
places  are  a  good  deal  faded,  the  subjects  can  generally  be  made  out 

On  the  right  hand  wall,  as  you  enter,  a  procession  is  painted. 

*  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  Vol  v.  Plate  29. 
"  Plate  No.  6. 


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OF    INDIA.  49 

Three  elephants  issuing  from  a  portal,  one  blaok,  one  red  or  rather 
brown,  and  the  third  a  white  one,  which  seems  the  principal  one  of 
the  group ;  showing  how  early  arose  the  predilection  for  these  animals, 
which  still  exists  among  the  Burmese  and  Siamese  of  the  present  day, 
Chattahs  and  flags  are  borne  before  them,  and  men  with  spears, 
swords,  and  shields  make  up  their  retinue. 

On  the  back  wall  is  a  hunting  scene,  in  which  a  maned  lion,  power- 
fully and  well-drawn,  forms  the  principal  object  of  attraction ;  there  are 
also  deer  and  dogs,  and  men  on  horseback  and  on  foot  without  number. 

In  the  verandah  to  this  cave  are  some  singularly  interesting 
paintings ;  at  one  end  a  circular  one,  which  I  at  first  took  for  a  zodiac, 
though,  on  further  examination,  I  gave  up  the  idea ;  its  centre  is 
divided  in  eight  compartments,  and  the  outer  circle  into  sixteen  or 
seventeen.  Each  of  these  compartments  are  crowded  with  small 
figures,  but  what  the  subject  is  I  could  not  make  out. 

Over  the  door  are  eight  figures  sitting  cross-legged  ;  the  first  four 
are  black,  the  fifth  fairer,  the  next  still  more  so,  the  last  fair  and 
wearing  a  crown.  It  may  be  remarked,  that  there  are  more  black 
people  painted  in  this  cave  than  in  any  of  the  others  :  the  women, 
however,  are  generally  fair,  and  the  men  all  shades,  from  black  to  a 
European  complexion.  The  roof  is  painted  in  various  patterns,  not  at 
all  unlike  those  still  existing  in  the  baths  of  Titus,  though  in  an  infe- 
rior style  of  art.  I  had  not  time,  even  if  I  had  had  the  ability,  to 
copy  these  interesting  paintings,  and  I  fear  any  one  who  now  visits 
them  will  find  that  much  that  I  saw  has  since  disappeared. 

The  style  of  these  paintings  cannot  of  course  bear  comparison  with 
European  painting  of  the  present  day ;  but  they  are  certainly  superior 
to  the  style  of  Europe  during  the  age  in  which  they  were  executed : 
the  perspective,  grouping,  and  details  are  better,  and  the  story  better 
told  than  in  any  paintings  I  know  of,  anterior  to  Orgagna  and  Fiesole. 
The  style,  however,  is  not  European,  but  more  resembles  Chinese  art, 
particularly  in  the  flatness  and  want  of  shadow ;  I  never,  however^ 
even  in  China,  saw  anything  approaching  its  perfection. 

I  looked  very  attentively  at  these  paintings,  to  try  and  discover  if 
they  were  fresco  paintings,  or  merely  water  colours  laid  on  a  dry  sur- 
face ;  but  was  unable  to  decide  the  point :  the  colour  certainly  is  in 
some  cases  absorbed  into  the  plaster,  and  I  am  inclined  to  think  they 
may  have  been  painted  when  it  was  first  laid  on,  and  consequently 
moist;  but  I  do  not  think  it  could  have  been  done  on  the  modem 
plan  of  painting  each  day  all  the  plaster  laid  on  that  day. 

Eighteenth.  Merely  a  porch  of  two  pillars,  apparently  the  com- 
inencement  of  an  excavation,  or  of  a  passage  or  entrance  to 

VOL.  vin.  E  C^r^r\n]o 

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50  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

The  Chaitja  cave,  nnmber  nineteen  *,  which  is  more  remarkable  for 
the  beauty  and  completeness  of  its  details  than  for  its  size,  being  only 
forty-six  feet  four  inches,  by  twenty-three  feet  seren  mches  in  width. 
Seventeen  pillars  surround  the  nave,  all  of  which  are  very  richly  orna- 
mented, and  above  them  is  a  band  occupying  exactly  the  same  position 
as  a  triforium  would  in  a  Christian  church,  and  occupied  here  with 
niches  containing  alternately  figures  of  Buddha  sitting  cross-legged, 
and  standing.  The  roof  is  ribbed  in  stone,  but  the  most  interesting 
feature  is  the  Daghopa,  which  has  hwe  the  three  umbrellas  in  stone 
rising  till  they  touch  the  roof;  in  front  of  the  Daghopa  is  a  figure  of 
Buddha,  standing.  The  exterior  of  this  cave  is  as  rich  as  the  interior, 
and  though  damaged  in  some  parts,  by  the  rocks  falling  from  above, 
the  injury  is  less  than  in  most  others,  and  very  little  labour  would  free 
the  lower  part  from  the  accumulated  materials,  and  display  entire  one 
of  the  most  perfect  specimens  of  Buddhist  art  in  India;  but  one  that  I 
must  not  dwell  on  longer,  as  I  feel  that,  without  drawings,  I  should  be 
unable  to  convey  to  others  any  correct  impression  of  its  beauties  or 
details.  • 

Twenty.  The  last  of  this  group  is  a  small  Vihara  of  singular  plan, 
twenty-eight  feet  two  inches  wide,  by  twenty-five  feet  six  mches  deep, 
with  two  cells  on  each  side.  There  is  no  internal  colonnade,  but  the 
roof  is  supported  by  advancing  the  sanctuary  about  seven  feet  into  the 
hall,  and  making  its  front  consist  of  two  columns  in  antis.  There  is 
also  a  verandah  in  front,  with  an  apartment  at  each  end.  Its  paintings 
are  almost  entirely  obliterated,  except  those  on  the  roof,  and  these 
consist  of  frets  and  flowers,  not  otherwise  interesting  than  merely  as 
showing  its  connexion  with  the  Yiharas  sixteen  and  seventeen.  There 
is  an  inscription  on  one  of  the  pillars  of  the  verandah,  but  vexy  much 
obliterated,  and  apparently  not  integral. 

Before  proceeding  further  in  this  direction  we  must  return  back  to 
the  seventh  and  sixth  from  the  north,  and  which,  though  scarcely 
coeval  with  the  last  group  described,  are  certainly  later  than  those 
first  mentioned,  and  as  certainly  earlier  than  the  group  which  succeeds, 
and  which  closes  our  list ;  but  whether  they  are  antecedent  to  numbers 
sixteen  and  twenty,  or  slightly  posterior  to  them,  I  am  unable  to 
decide. 

Number  seven  is  merely  a  large  verandah,  sixty-three  feet  four 
inches  in  length,  by  thirteen  feet  seven  inches  in  breadth,  with  the 
cells  opening  at  the  back  of  it,  something  in  the  manner  of  the  Cut- 
tack  caves ;  the  front  line  of  the  verandah  is  broken  by  the  projection 
of  two  porches  of  two  pillars  each,  which  are  here  particularly  inte- 

»  Plate  No.  3. 

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OF    INDIA.  51 

resting,  as  they  are  extremely  similar  to  the  pillars  at  Elephanta,  and 
those  in  the  Doomar  Lena  at  EUora,  and  therefore  probably  not  far 
distant  in  date.     There  is  also  a  chapel  with  two  pillars  at  each  end. 

To  the  left  of  the  sanctuary  are  five  orosslegged  figures,  each 
seated  on  a  lotus,  and  a  lotus  between  each ;  on  the  right,  two  cross^ 
legged  and  seven  standing  figures,  the  centre  lotus  of  each  series  sup- 
ported by  figures  with  snake  canopies.  Within  the  sanctuary,  on  each 
side,  are  two  large  and  one  smaller  figures,  and  two  men  sitting  cross^ 
legged,  and  having  chowries  in  their  hands.  On  the  step  are  sixteen 
figures  of  disciples  seated  cross-legged. 

Number  six  is  the  only  two-storied  cave  at  A  junta.  The  upper 
story  has  twelve  pillars,  octagons  changing  into  plain  squares  at 
top  and  bottom,  and  with  bold  bracket  capitals,  not  painted  but 
sculptured  with  figures  of  Buddha.  At  first  I  thought  this  a  Jaina 
cave,  and  tried  to  find  the  twenty-four  thirthankars  in  some  place,  but 
was  unsuccessful ;  the  series  consist  of  sixteen,  eight,  four,  and  are 
apparently  of  disciples,  as  none  had  the  emblems  by  which  the 
thirthankars  are  usually  recognised. 

The  cave  is  fifty-three  feet  square,  the  aisles  nine  feet  wide.  The 
lower  story  is  of  the  same  dimensions  as  the  upper,  and  of  the  same 
plan,  except  that  four  additional  pillars  have  been  introduced  in  the 
centre ;  they  are  all  plain  octagons,  changing  to  sixteen  sides,  with 
pilasters  to  each  row.  Seven  of  these  only  are  standing,  nine  having 
&Uen  down,  owing  to  the  inferiority  of  the  rock  in  which  they  are  cut, 
and  also  to  water  entering  from  above,  and  rotting  the  stone;  the 
whole  cave  has  a  dismal  and  ruinous  look  not  common  here ;  and  it  is 
also  without  sculpture,  having  apparently  depended  entirely  on  painting 
for  its  decoration.  The  pillars  in  front  of  the  sanctuary  are  of  the 
same  Elephanta  character  as  those  of  the  lafit-mentioned  cave. 

There  now  only  remains  to  be  described  the  last  group  of  these 
caves,  consisting  of  the  first  five  from  the  north,  and  the  last  seven  at 
the  other  extremity;  they  are  all  so  nearly  of  the  same  age,  that  I  am 
quite  unable  to  discriminate  between  them,  and  all  evidently  the  last 
excavated  here.  They  are  singularly  unlike  any  other  caves  or  struc- 
tural buildings  I  am  acquainted  with^  and  I  had  consequently  less 
means  here  than  with  the  others  of  coming  to  a  satisfactory  conclusion 
regarding  their  dates ;  if,  however,  we  assume  the  last  group  to  have 
extended  to  the  sixth  or  seventh  century  of  our  era,  these  must  range 
between  that  period  and  the  tenth,  after  which  time  I  conceive  no 
Buddhist  caves  were  excavated  in  India,  and  we  cannot  therefore  be 
fiir  wrong  in  placing  them  in  the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries. 

As  I  cannot  fix  their  succession,  I  may  as  well  begin  with  number 

.,? J. /Google 


52  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

one,  and  passing  over  those  already  described,  proceed  to  twenty-seven, 
the  last  visited. 

The  first  that  commences,  or  rather  ends,  the  series  on  the  north,  is 
a  very  handsome  vihara  cave,  with  a  fine  verandah  ninety-eight  feet 
in  length,  and  a  chapel  at  each  end,  the  hall  is  sixty-four  feet  square, 
adorned  with  twenty  pillars  three  feet  in  diameter,  richly  carved,  and 
with  bracket  capitals.  The  cave  is  a  good  deal  filled  up  with  mud, 
but,  notwithstanding,  the  paintings  are  tolerably  entire,  and  some  of 
them  very  interesting;  though  both  they  and  the  details  of  the  archi- 
tecture are  small  and  frittered  away,  when  compared  with  the  two  first- 
described  groups. 

The  second  is  a  twelve-pillared  cave  of  which  I  have  given  a 
plan^;  it  is  in  very  good  preservation,  and  the  paintings,  particularly 
on  the  pillars,  are  tolerably  perfect.  In  the  sanctuary  there  is  a 
statue,  of  course  of  Buddha,  and  a  chapel  on  each  side  of  it,  at  the  end 
of  the  aisles.  In  the  one  on  the  north  are  two  most  portly,  fat  figures, 
a  male  and  female :  in  the  south  one,  two  male  figures,  occupying  a 
like  position.  Who  they  were  meant  to  represent  I  could  not  make 
out,  for  they  were  quite  strangers  to  me. 

The  third  is  a  very  fine  bold  cave,  and  one  of  the  largest  viharas 
of  the  series,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  been  quite  finished ;  the 
colonnade  in  the  centre  consists  of  twenty-eight  pillars,  (the  only 
instance  I  know  of  such  magnificence,)  disposed  in  four  ranges  of 
eight  pillars  each,  counting  the  angular  ones  in  each  line  ;  the  pillars, 
generally  bold  octagons  eleven  feet  in  circumference  ;  the  whole  hall 
is  ninety-one  feet  square;  the  aisles  twelve  feet  two  inches  wide, 
which  is  also  the  width  of  the  verandah.  This  cave  never  having 
been  finished  does  not  appear  ever  to  have  been  painted.  It  is  now  so 
dreadfully  infested  with  bats  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  stay  in  it 
any  length  of  time,  and  I  had  not  the  courage  to  explore  its  cells; 
&s,  however,  I  found  nothing  of  interest  in  any  of  the  others,  I  do  not 
suppose  there  was  much  to  regret  here. 

The  fourth  cave  is  situated  higher  up  in  the  face  of  the  rock,  and 
as  there  is  no  path  to  it,  I  did  not  discover  its  existence  till  the  day  I 
was  leaving  the  place,  when  I  saw  it  from  the  opposite  side  of  the 
ravine  which  I  had  scrambled  up  to  in  a  wild-goose  chase,  to  look 
for  the  city  of  Lenapore,  having  been  delighted  with  its  name, 
and  convinced,  in  spite  of  the  assurance  of  my  guides,  that  it  must 
contain  something  of  interest ;  it  was,  however,  "  vox  et  prasterea 
nihil.*' 

The  fifth  was  so  choked  up  with  mud,  that  it  was  almost  impossible 

1  Plates  No.  2  and  7. 

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OF    INDIA.  53 

to  see  what  it  wsus,  further  than  that  it  had  been  a  square  cave  of  no 
great  dimensions. 

We  must  now  return  to  cave  number  twenty,  the  last  described 
towards  the  south. 

Leaving  it  you  proceed  for  some  distance  along  the  ledge,  which, 
owing  to  a  torrent  coming  oyer  here  during  the  rains,  is  more  than 
usually  ruined,  and  the  path  in  some  places  very  narrow  and  dangerous  ; 
and  ftB  I  had  to  traverse  this  several  times  in  the  middle  of  the  day  at 
the  end  of  March.  I  suffered  extremely,  not  only  from  the  heat  of  the 
sun,  but  from  the  reflection  from  the  rocks,  which  were  heated  like  an 
oven. 

Having  passed  this,  however,  you  arrive  at  the  twenty-first  cave 
from  the  north  end,  a  large  vihara,  fiffcy-two  feet  six  inches  deep,  by 
fifty-one  feet  six  inches  in  width.  It  is  similar  in  almost  every  respect 
of  plan,  style,  and  execution,  to  the  cave  above  described  as  number 
two.  It  is,  not,  however,  quite  finished,  as  the  pillars  of  the  sanctuary 
are  only  hewn  rough  out  of  the  rock,  and  many  of  the  details  are  left 
incomplete.  Its  paintings  are  now  nearly  obliterated,  except  on  the 
wall  on  your  left  hand  as  you  enter,  where  there  still  exists  a  large 
figure  of  Buddha,  of  a  black  complexion,  or  at  least  very  dark,  and 
with  red  hair,  and  attended  by  black  slaves.  There  are  several  ladies 
introduced  into  the  composition,  but  notwithstanding  the  blackness  of 
their  companions,  they  are  here,  as  in  most  other  caves,  represented 
with  complexions  almost  as  fair  as  Europeans.  There  is  a  small 
chapel  with  two  pillars  in  antis,  on  each  side,  as  well  as  at  each  end 
of  the  lateral  aisles.  The  verandah  has  fallen  down,  but  the  chapels 
at  each  end  remain,  with  the  pilaster  which  terminated  the  colonnade 
at  each  end,  showing  its  dimensions  and  depth. 

As  I  before  remarked,  the  execution  of  this  cave,  as  well  as  of  number 
two,  is  decidedly  inferior  to  that  of  the  intermediate  ones ;  not  indeed 
in  richness  and  quantity  of  ornament,  but  in  style.  There  is  a  weak- 
ness in  the  drawing  of  the  details,  and  the  ornaments  are  crowded  and 
cut  up  in  a  manner  that  gives  a  tawdry  and  unsatisfactory  appearance 
to  the  whole ;  very  unlike  the  bold  magnificence  of  those  of  an  earlier 
age.  To  use  a  comparison  drawn  from  the  architecture  of  our  own 
country,  they  bear  the  same  relation  to  numbers  sixteen,  seventeen,  and 
twenty,  as  the  Tudor  architecture  does  to  the  pure  Gothic  of  the  Third 
Edward.' 

The  twenty-second  is  a  small  cave  only  seventeen  feet  square, 
without  pillars,  excepting  two  rough-hewn  ones  in  front  of  the  sanctu- 
ary, in  which  is  a  figure  of  Buddha  seated,  with  his  legs  down. 

'  Compare  Plates  No.  6  and  7. 


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54  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

The  twenty-third  is  another  vihara  of  twelve  pillars,  very  similar 
in  all  respects  to  numbers  two  and  twenty-one  ;  it  has,  however,  been 
left  in  a  very  unfinished  state,  without  even  an  image  in  the  sanctuary, 
or  indeed  anywhere  else,  and  there  exists  no  trace  of  painting  that  I 
could  detect  in  any  part.  Its  dimensions  are  fifty-one  feet  by  fifty-one 
feet  eight  inches. 

Number  twenty-four  is  the  pendant  in  the  series  to  number  three, 
and  would  have  been  one  of  the  finest  had  it  been  finished ;  but  merely 
its  general  form  and  dimensions  have  been  made  out.  Only  one  pillar 
has  been  completely  sculptured,  and  one  side  of  the  colonnade  exists  as 
a  wall  with  slits  in  it.  It  was  intended  to  have  been  a  twenty-pillar 
cave ;  the  centre  hall  would  have  been  about  forty-three  feet  square, 
and  the  whole  about  seventy-four  feet  each  way.  The  details  of  sculp- 
ture and  style  are  of  the  same  class  as  two,  three,  and  twenty-one,  but 
much  more  pains  appears  to  have  been  taken  with  their  execution,  and 
on  the  whole  they  are  richer  than  those  above  alluded  to,  if  it  is  fietir  to 
judge  by  what  is  visible  ;  for  besides  that  so  little  has  been  executed, 
the  cave  is  now  half  filled  with  mud.  The  verandah  has  been  com- 
pleted, but  three  out  of  its  six  columns  are  broken,  and  the  others 
much  injured. 

This  cave  is  particularly  interesting  as  showing  the  whole  process 
of  excavation,  from  its  commencement  to  the  finishing  of  the  details, 
some  parts  having  been  left  in  every  stage  of  advancement.  The  rock 
(amygdaloidal  trap)  in  which  they  are  cut  is  of  a  soft,  coarse  texture, 
so  that  the  labour  of  excavation  could  not  have  been  so  great  as  is 
generally  supposed ;  indeed,  1  am  very  much  inclined  to  believe  that 
this  mode  of  excavating  was  the  cheapest  and  least  laborious  by  which 
buildings  of  this  class  could  be  erected.  If  the  stones  were  quarried  so 
a^  to  be  of  use  for  building  purposes  at  the  same  time,  it  certainly 
would  be  so ;  but  that  does  not  seem  to  have  been  the  ca^se  here,  as  ail 
the  rough  work  appears  to  have  been  done  with  the  pick-axe. 

Twenty-five.  A  small  rude  vihara  cave,  with  a  verandah  of  ten 
pillars. 

Twenty-six  is  the  fourth  vaulted  or  chaitya  cave  of  this  series,  and 
decidedly  the  most  modem.  In  general  plan  it  is  very  similar  to  num- 
ber nineteen,  but  its  dimensions  exceed  the  former  very  considerably, 
the  whole  width  being  thirty-six  feet  three  inches^  that  of  the  nave 
seventeen  feet  seven  inches,  and  the  total  length  sixty-six  feet  one 
inch.  Its  sculptures,  too,  are  far  more  numerous  and  more  elaborate, 
indeed,  more  so  than  in  any  other  cave  of  the  series ;  but  they  are  very 
inferior  both  in  design  and  in  execution,  so  much  so  that  if  other  proof 
were  wanting  this  alone  would  be  sufficient  to  stamp  this  at  once  na 
one  of  the  latest,  if  not  the  last  executed  cave  of  Ajunt&r  i 

.....y  Google 


OF    INDIA.  55 

The  Buddha  on  the  front  of  the  Daghopa  is  seated  with  his  feet 
down. 

The  walls  of  the  aisles  are  entirely  covered  with  sculpture,  princi- 
pally figures  of  Bnddhas  or  disciples,  of  all  sizes,  and  in  every  Buddhist 
position.  Among  others  in  the  south  aisle  is  one  twenty-three  feet 
long,  reclining  at  all  his  length,  being  the  attitude  in  which  they  pre- 
pare to  receive  nirvana  (beatitude) ;  above  him  are  an  immense  host  of 
angels,  awaiting  apparently  his  arrival  in  heaven,  and  one  beating 
mofit  vigorously  a  big  drum. 

The  fat  figures  with  judges^  wigs^  who  do  duty  as  brackets,  have 
here  four  arms,  which  is  the  only  instance  I  am  aware  of  in  these  or 
any  other  Buddhist  caves,  of  such  a  piece  of  Hinduism. 

The  details  of  the  pillars,  particularly  those  of  the  verandahs,  are 
of  precisely  the  same  character  as  all  those  of  this  group,  but  their 
details  are  worse  executed  here,  than  in  any  of  the  others. 

There  are  two  inscriptions  on  the  outside  of  the  cave  apparently 
integral,  one  under  a  figure  of  Buddha  on  your  left  as  you  enter,  the 
other  is  much  broken  but  more  distinct,  upon  your  right.  The  charac- 
ter used  in  them  belongs  to  the  ninth  or  tenth  century  of  the  Christian 
era. 

The  twenty-seventh  cave  is  a  small  square  vihara  without  pillars, 
and  the  sanctnaiy  only  commenced,  and  the  whole  left  in  a  very  unfi- 
niahed  state ;  the  front  has  entirely  crumbled  away,  so  that  its  dimen- 
sions can  scarcely  be  ascertained ;  it  was,  however,  about  forty  feet  in 
width. 

There  are  one  or  two  caves  beyond  this,  but  the  ledge  having  fallen 
away,  they  are  quite  inaccessible.  From  the  ruined  state  of  their 
fronts,  and  the  debris  that  has  accumulated  before  them,  I  was  unable 
to  guess  either  at  their  size  or  state  of  progress ;  judging,  however, 
€rom  the  last  caves  visited,  there  cannot  be  much  worth  seeing  in  them, 
and  indeed,  I  am  not  quite  sure  that  what  I  took  for  caves  were  not 
holes,  or  shadows  thrown  by  masses  of  rock. 

I  have  been  more  particular  in  describing  this  series  than  any  other, 
partly  because  I  am  not  aware  that  any  detailed  account  of  them  has 
been  given  to  the  public  to  which  I  could  refer,  and  partly  because 
they  are  in  some  respects  the  most  interesting  series  of  Buddhist  caves 
in  India.  They  cannot,  indeed,  boast  of  a  chaitya  cave  like  Karli,  but 
the  viharas  here  are  more  splendid  than  anywhere  else ;  they  are  more 
entire,  and  are  the  only  caves  that  retain  much  of  their  original  paint- 
ing and  decoration.  They  also  are  purely  a  Buddhist  series,  and  almost 
every  change  in  cave  architecture  can  be  traced  in  them  during  a 
period  of  about  one  thousand  or  twelve  hundred  years,  which  is  nearly 


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56  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

the  term  during  which  that  religion  flourished  in  its  native  land;  and 
they  thus  form  a  sort  of  chronometric  scale,  which  I  found  extremely 
useful  in  my  attempts  to  ascertain  the  ages  and  <iates  of  caves  in  other 
series,  none  of  which  are  so  complete  as  this  one. 

The  others  having  all  been  described  before,  I  shall  merely  notice 
such  peculiarities  as  bear  specially  upon  my  subject,  and  refer  to 
printed  descriptions  for  details. 

BAUG. 

In  a  small  valley  or  ravine  penetrating,  like  that  at  Ajunta,  into  a 
table-land  resting  on  the  ghat  on  the  north  side  of  the  valley  of  the 
Taptee,  and  about  three  miles  from  the  small  town  of  Bang,  are  situated 
four  caves,  which  have  been  described  by  Lieutenant  Dangerfield  in 
the  second  volume  of  the  Transactions  of  the  Literary  Society  of 
Bombay.  His  description  is  remarkably  clear,  and  with  the  drawings 
that  accompany  it,  enable  one  to  determine  at  once  what  they  are,  and 
almost  the  age  at  which  they  were  excavated. 

The  largest  vihara  would  at  Ajunta  be  a  "  twenty-pillar"  cave,  but 
owing  to  the  badness  of  the  rock  in  which  it  is  excavated,  the  architect 
left  four  additional  columns  in  the  centre  of  the  hall.  In  the  sanctuary 
there  is  a  daghopa,  an  arrangement  I  do  not  know  of  elsewhere,  and  can 
only  account  for  here,  by  supposing  that  this  symbol  was  necessary  for 
Buddhist  worship,  and  there  being  no  chaitya  cave  in  the  series  it  was 
necessary  to  introduce  it  here ;  in  that  case,  however,  it  is  strange  that 
they  omitted  the  figure  of  Buddha  in  front,  which  seems  to  hav^  be^n 
the  case. 

The  second  cave  is  an  unfinished  one,  but  the  third,  at  some  distance 
from  the  two  first,  is  a  vihara  eighty  feet  by  sixty,  and  though  much 
ruined  retains  a  good  deal  of  its  original  paintings;  judging  from  them, 
the  duly  detail  given,  they  appear  to  be  of  about  the  same  age  as  the 
second  group  at  Ajunta,  whilst  the  large  cave  belongs  to  the  last  of 
that  series,  or  may  be  intermediate  between  the  two. 

There  are  two  other  caves  at  Baug,  but  one  entirely  ruined,  the 
other  only  commenced. 

KARLI. 

About  half  way  between  Poona  and  Bombay  on  the  right  hand, 
side  of  the  valley  as  you  proceed  towards  the  sea,  is  situated  the  great 
cave  of  Karli,  without  exception  the  largest  and  finest  Chaitya  cave 
in  India,  and  fortunately  also  the  best  preserved. 

Its  interior  dimensions  are  one  hundred  and  two  feet  three  inches 
for  total  length,  eighty-one  feet  three  inches  for  length  of  nave.     Its 


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OF    INDIA.  57 

breadth  from  wall  to  wall  is  forty-five  feet  seven  inches,  while  the 
width  of  the  nave  is  twenty-five  feet  seven  inches'.  The  nave  is  sepa- 
rated from  the  side  aisles  by  fifteen  columns  on  each  side^  of  good 
design  and  workmanship;  on  the  abacas  which  crowns  the  capital  of 
each  of  these  are  two  kneeling  elephants,  and  on  each  elephant  are 
two  seated  figures,  generally  a  male  and  female,  with  their  arms  over 
each  other^s  shoulders ;  but  sometimes  two  female  figures  in  the  same 
attitude.  The  sctdpture  of  these  is  very  good,  and  the  effect  parti- 
cularly rich  and  pleasing.  Behind  the  Chaitya  are  seven  plain  octa- 
gonal piers  without  sculpture,  making  thus  thirty-seven  pillars  alto- 
gether ;  the  Chaitya  is  plain,  and  very  similar  to  that  in  the  large 
cave  at  Ajunta,  but  here,  fortunately,  a  part  of  the  wooden  umbrella 
which  surmounted  it  remains.  The  wooden  ribs  of  the  roof,  too, 
remain  nearly  entire;  and  the  framed  screen,  filling  up  a  portion  of  the 
great  arch  in  front,  like  the  centering  of  the  arch  of  a  bridge,  (which 

1  In  tlie  Atlas  to  Lord  Valentia*8  TravelB,  a  detailed  plan  of  this  cave  is 
given,  on  which  the  dimensions  taken  by  the  actXe  are  forty-six  feet  wide  by  one 
hundred  and  twenty-six  feet  long;  and  as  the  plan  appears  to  have  been  drawn 
with  considerable  care,  (by  Mr.  Salt,  I  believe,)  and  these  figures  are  repeated  in 
the  text,  I  was  a  good  deal  staggered  by  finding  so  great  a  discrepancy,  and 
inclined  at  first  to  give  up  my  own  as  incorrect  I  have  however  retamed  them,  not 
only  because  they  were  taken  with  care,  and  I  cannot  see  how  bo  great  an  error 
eould  have  crept  into  them;  but  also,  because  Lord  Valentia^s  dimensions  are 
quite  at  variance  with  those  of  all  the  Chaitya  caves  I  am  acquainted  with,  as  the. 
following  table  will  show. 


Lenirth. 

Width. 

No.  10,  at  Ajunta,  is  94'6 

41-3 

eras 

1  to  2-285 

102-3 

46-7 

« 

1  „  2-243 

Kannari,  is 

88-6 

3910 

99 

1  „  2-222 

No.  19,  Ajunta,  is 

46-4 

23-7 

99 

1  „   1  961 

No.  9,  Ajunta,  is 

45- 

23' 

» 

1  „   1-966 

Viswakanna,  is 

83-1 

43- 

n 

1  „   1-939 

No.  26,  Ajunta,  is 

66-1 

36*3 

M 

1  „    1-826 

While  Lord  Valentia's  dimensions  for  the  Karli  cave  would  be  as  1  to  2*739. 

It  is  not  however  only  to  confirm  my  own  measurements  that  I  have  quoted 
this  table,  but  to  show  on  how  regular  a  system  these  caves  were  excavated,  and 
also  as  confirming  their  relative  ages,  as  arrived  at  in  the  text  from  other  grounds; 
for  it  will  be  observed,  that  the  oldest  caves  are  longest  in  proportion  to  their 
breadth ;  and  that  the  ratio  diminishes  as  we  descend  in  the  series  in  an  almost 
perlect  progression,  the  only  apparent  exception  being  the  Kannari  cave;  but  if 
that  is  a  copy  of  the  Karli  one,  as  I  have  stated  in  the  text,  this  is  accounted  for. 
If  I  am  mistaken  in  placing  it  as  a  copy  in  the  ninth  century,  it  must  on  many 
grounds  take  its  place  as  it  stands  in  this  table. 

Another  apparent  exception  is  the  small  cave,  Na  9,  Ajunta,  which  in  the 
text  I  placed  in  the  name  age  as  the  one  next  it,  and  I  conress  I  am  at  present 
onable  to  offer  any  suggestion  to  account  for  the  discrepancy. 


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58  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

by  the  way  it  much  resembles,)  still  retains  the  place  in  which  it  was 
originally  placed. 

At  some  distance  in  advance  of  the  arched  front  of  this  cave  is 
placed  a  second  screen,  which  exists  only  here  and  at  the  great  cave 
at  Salsette ;  thoagh  it  might  have  existed,  and  I  am  inclined  to  believe 
did,  in  front  of  the  oldest  Chaitya  caves,  Nos.  9  and  10,  at  Ajunta;  it 
consists  of  two  plain  octagonal  columns,  with  pilasters ;  over  these  is  a 
deep  plain  mass  of  wall,  occupying  the  place  of  an  entablature,  and 
over  this  again  an  attic,  if  I  may  use  the  term,  of  four  dwarf  pillars ; 
except  the  lower  piers,  the  whole  of  this  has  been  covered  with  wooden 
ornaments,  and  by  a  careful  examination,  and  measurement  of  the 
various  mortices  and  footings,  it  might  still  be  possible  to  make  out 
the  greater  part  of  the  design ;  it  appears,  however,  as  far  as  I  could 
discover,  to  have  consisted  of  a  broad  balcony  in  front  of  the  plain 
wall,  supported  by  bold  wooden  brackets  from  the  two  piers,  and 
either  roofed,  or  having  a  second  balcony  above  it;  no  part  of  the 
wood  however  exists  now,  either  here,  or  at  Salsette. 

It  is  more  than  probable,  however,  that  this  was  the  music  gallery, 
or  Nagara  khana,  which  we  still  find  existing  in  front  of  almost  all 
Jaina  temples,  down  even  to  the  present  day;  whether  the  space 
between  this  outer  and  the  inner  screen  was  roofed  over  or  not,  is 
extremely  difficult  to  decide;  from  the  mortices  at  Salsette,  I  should 
certainly  say  it  was  so;  but  here  the  evidence  is  by  no  means 
so  distinct,  though  there  is  certainly  nothing  to  contradict  the  sup- 
position. 

I  could  find  no  traces  of  painting  in  this  cave,  though  the  inner 
wall  has  been  plastered  and  may  have  been  painted ;  but  the  cave  is 
inhabited,  and  the  continued  smoke  of  cooking  fires  have  so  blackened 
its  walls,  that  it  is  impossible  to  decide  the  question  now;  strangely 
enough  its  inhabitants  are  now  Sivites,  and  the  cave  is  considered  a 
temple  dedicated  to  Siva,  the  Daghopa  performing  the  part  of  a  gigantic 
Lingam,  which  it  must  be  confessed  it  resembles  a  good  deal.  While 
I  was  there,  there  was  a  fair  going  on,  and  a  festival  in  honour  of  his 
Hindu  godship.  All  the  flat  spots  of  the  rock  were  occupied  by 
tents,  and  the  dokaaus  of  the  various  dealers  in  sweetmeats  and 
trinkets  who  frequent  these  places;  and  every  comer  was  occupied 
by  pilgrims  or  devotees  of  some  sort  or  other,  who,  though  they 
did  not  actually  prevent  my  entering  or  sketching,  were  extremely 
clamorous  for  alms,  and  annoyed  me  a  good  deal  by  their  curiosity  and 
impertinence. 

It  would  be  of  great  importance  if  the  age  of  this  cave  could  be 
positively  fixed ;  but  though  that  cannot  quite  be  done,  I  think  it  pro- 


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OF    INDIA.  59 

bable  that  its  age  is  antecedent  to  the  GhristiaiD  era;  and  at  the  same 
time,  it  cannot  poeaibly  faaye  been  excavated  more  than  two  hundred 
yean  before  that  era. 

On  the  Sihuthamba  (pillar)  on  the  left  of  the  entrance,  Colonel 
Sykes  copied  an  inscription,  which  Mr.  Prinsep  deciphered  in  the  sixth 
▼olume  of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society ;  it  merely  says, ''  This 
lion  pillar  is  the  gift  of  Ajimitra  Ukas,  the  son  of  Saha  Ravisabhoti  ;** 
the  character,  Prinsep  thinks,  that  of  the  first  or  second  century  b.g. 
From  its  position  and  import,  the  inscription  appears  to  be  integral, 
and  the  column  is  certainly  a  part  of  the  original  design.  For  myself, 
I  confess,  that  if  the  Lath  character  was  ever  in  use  on  this  side 
of  India,  I  do  not  think  it  could  have  undergone  so  great  a  change  as 
these  characters  show  in  so  short  a  time,  and  that  we  must  come  down, 
at  least,  to  the  Christian  era  for  this  inscription. 

In  a  letter  lately  received  from  Dr,  Bird,  of  Bombay,  he  says,  "  I 
may  mention  that  the  one  at  Carlee  presents  an  inscription  of  the 
twentieth  year  of  Dutthama  Hara.,  otherwise  called  Duttagamini, 
king  of  Ceylon,  b.c.  163."  I  did  not  see  this  inscription;  I  do  not 
know,  therefore,  whether  it  is  integral  or  not,  nor  in  what  character  it 
is  written,  which  is  of  importance;  for  unless  other  circumstances 
confirm  the  identity,  I  should  be  afraid  of  being  deceived  by  the 
nominal  similarity  of  a  king  at  so  great  a  distance.  If,  however,  the 
inscription,  which  Dr.  B.  will  no  doubt  publish,  should  confirm  this,  it 
will  be  one  of  the  most  interesting  dates  that  these  inscriptions  have 
yet  disclosed  to  us. 

In  disposition  and  size,  and  also  in  detail,  as  far  as  similarity  can 
be  traced  between  a  cave  entirely  covered  with  stucco  and  painted, 
and  one  which  either  never  had,  or  has  lost  both  these  ornaments, 
this  cave  is  so  similar  to  the  two  at  Ajunta  which  I  had  before 
placed  about  this  age,  and  on  the  front  of  it  there  is  also  the  reeded 
ornament  which  is  so  common  at  Khandagiri,  and  only  exists  there 
and  in  the  oldest  caves  at  Ajunta,  that  from  all  these  circumstances 
I  am  inclined  to  think  the  above  date  163  B.C.,  as  at  least  extremely 
probable,  though  by  no  means  as  a  date  to  be  implicitly  relied  upon. 

It  is  to  this  cave,  more  especially,  that  the  remark  applies  that  I 
made,  p.  85,  that  the  Chaitya  caves  seem  at  once  to  have  sprung  to 
perfection ;  for  whether  we  adopt  the  Mahawanso  for  our  guide,  or 
Asoka  8  inscriptions,  it  is  evident,  that  this  country,  under  the  name 
of  Maharatthan  in  the  former,  and  Pitenika  in  the  other,  is  one  of  the 
unconverted  countries  to  which  missionaries  were  sent  in  the  tenth 
year  of  Asoka^s  reign ;  and  if,  therefore,  we  assume  the  above  date  to 
be  at  all  near  the  truth,  a  century  had  scarcely  elapsed  between  the 


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60  THE    ROCK-CUT    TEMPLES 

conversion  of  the  country  and  the  execution  of  this  splendid  monu- 
ment. There  is  nothing  in  the  Viharas  here  or  elsewhere  which  I 
have  placed  about  the  same  date,  that  might  not  have  been  elaborated 
from  a  natural  cavern  in  that  period,  but  there  is  a  complication 
of  design  in  this  that  quite  forbids  the  supposition ;  and  it  must  either 
be  brought  down  to  a  much  more  modem  epoch,  or  it  must  be  ad- 
mitted to  be  a  copy  of  a  structural  building;  and  even  then  but  half 
the  difficulty  is  got  over.  Was  that  structural  building  a  temple  of 
the  Brahmans  or  Buddhists?  was  it  designed  or  invented  since  the 
death  of  Sakjra  Sinha?  or  did  it  belong  to  a  former  religion?  and 
lastly,  if  we  are  correct  in  supposing  cave  digging  to  have  commenced 
only  subsequent  to  Asoka^s  reign,  why,  while  the  Vihanus  were  still 
so  small,  and  so  insignificant,  was  so  great  a  work  undertaken  in  the 
rock'? 

It  would  be  a  subject  of  curious  inquiry  to  know  whether  the 
wood-work  now  existing  in  this  cave  is  that  originally  put  up  or  not. 
Accustomed  as  I  had  long  been  to  the  rapid  destruction  of  every  thing 
wooden  in  that  country,  I  was  half  inclined  to  be  angiy  when  the 
idea  first  suggested  itself  to  me,  but  a  calmer  survey  of  the  matter  has 
convinced  me  that  it  is ;  certain  it  is,  that  it  is  the  original  design,  for 
we  find  it  repeated  in  stone  in  all  the  niches  of  the  front,  and  there  is 
no  appearance  of  change  or  alteration  in  any  part  of  the  roof;  eveiy 
part  of  it  is  the  same  as  Is  seen  so  often  repeated  in  stone  in  other 
and  more  modem  caves,  and  it  must  therefore  have  been  put  up  by 
the  Buddhists  before  they  were  expelled ;  and  if  we  allow  that  it  ha^ 
existed  eight  hundred  or  one  thousand  years,  which  it  certainly  has, 
there  is  not  much  greater  improbability  in  its  having  existed  near 
two  thousand  years,  as  I  believe  to  be  the  case.     As  far  as  I  could 

1  In  the  Mahawanso,  (page  12,)  it  is  said  that  the  first  convocation  was  held 
*'  in  a  splendid  hall  built  at  the  entrance  o^  the  Sattapani  cave,**  which  would 
seem  to  prove  that  the  cave  then  existed.  The  Mahawanso,  however,  was  com- 
piled one  thousand  years  after  that  event,  and  the  cave  which  may  have  been  a 
subsequent  excavation  designed  to  mark  the  place  where  the  meeting  was  held ;  or 
at  best,  it  is  but  a  tradition  that  such  was  the  cose. 

In  like  manner  it  is  mentioned  in  the  Chinese  work  quoted  by  Colonel  Sykes, 
in  his  notes  on  the  political  state  of  ancient  India,  (vol.  vi.,  p.  203,  Journal 
R.A.S.,)  that  Ananda,  ''after  the  death  of  Buddha,  collected  five  hundred  pious 
men  in  the  cavern  of  Pi  pho  lo,  and,  jointly  with  them,  collected  the  vinayaa.** 
This  is  evidently  the  same  tradition  still  further  improved  upon,  and  coming  from 
an  authority  so  distant  in  date  and  locality,  is  not  entitled  to  much  respect,  uuiess 
indeed  some  cave  could  be  discovered  of  that  date ;  or  some  circumstantial  evi-> 
dence  be  adduced  to  corroborate  a  tradition  which  may  easily  have  sprung  up 
from  the  importance  which  caves  had  assumed,  as  a  form  of  Buddhist  architecture, 
at  the  time  tliese  works  were  written. 


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OF    INDIA.  01 

ajseertain,  the  wood  is  teak.  It  must  be  recolleted^  that  though  exposed 
to  the  atmosphere^  it  is  protected  from  being  wetted  by  the  rain,  it 
hs8  no  stress  or  strain  upon  it  but  from  its  own  weight,  as  it  does  not 
eapport  the  roof,  though  it  appears  to  do  so ;  and  the  rock  seems  to 
have  defied  the  industry  of  the  white  ants. 

As  this  is  decidedly  the  finest  Chaitya  cave  in  India,  a  few  remarks 
on  the  architectural  ordinance  of  these  caves  may  not  be  misplaced. 

However  much  they  vary  in  size  or  in  detail,  their  general  ar- 
rangements, us  I  mentioned  before,  are  the  same  in  every  part  of  India, 
and  the  mode  of  admitting  light,  which  is  always  so  important  a  piece 
of  architectural  effect,  is  in  all  precisely  identical. 

Bearing  in  mind  that  the  disposition  of  parts  is  exactly  the  same 
as  those  of  the  choir  of  a  Gothic  round,  or  polygonal  apse  cathedral, 
the  following  description  will  be  easily  understood '.  Across  the  front 
there  is  always  a  screen  with  a  gallery  over  it,  occupying  the  place  of 
the  rood-loft,  on  which  we  now  place  our  organs :  in  this  there  are  three 
doors;  one,  the  largest,  opening  to  the  nave,  and  one  to  each  of  the 
side  aisles ;  over  this  screen  the  whole  front  of  the  cave  is  open  to  the 
ak",  one  vast  window  the  whole  breadth  of  the  same  section,  stilted  so 
as  to  be  more  than  a  semicircle  in  height,  or  generally  of  a  horse-shoe 
form. 

The  whole  light,  therefore,  fell  on  the  Daghopa,  which  is  placed 
exactly  opposite  in  the  place  of  the  altar,  while  the  colonnade  around 
uid  behind,  is  thus  less  perfectly  lit,  the  pillars  there  being  always 
placed  very  closely  together,  the  light  was  never  admitted  in  sufficient 
quantities  to  illuminate  the  wall  behind,  so  that  to  a  person  standing 
near  the  door  in  this  direction,  there  appeared  nothing  but  'illimitable 
gloom." 

I  do  not  conceive  that  a  votary  was  ever  admitted  beyond  the 
colonnade  under  the  front,  the  rest  being  devoted  to  the  priests  and 
the  ceremonies,  as  is  now  the  case  in  China,  and  in  Catholic  churches, 
and  he  therefore  never  could  see  whence  the  light  came,  and  stood  in 
comparative  shade  himself,  so  as  to  heighten  its  effect  considerably. 
Still  further  to  increase  this  scenic  effect,  the  architects  of  these  temples 
have  placed  the  screens  and  music  galleries  in  front,  in  such  a  manner, 
as  to  hide  the  great  window  from  any  person  approaching  the  temple ; 
though  these  appear  to  have  been  omitted  in  later  examples,  as  in  the 
Viswakarma  of  Ellora,  and  the  two  later  Chait3ra  caves  at  Ajunta,  and 
only  a  porch  added  to  the  inner  screen,  the  top  of  which  served  as  the 
music  gallery ;  but  the  great  window  is  then  exposed  to  view,  which 
I  cannot  help  thinking  is  a  great  defect.     To  a  votary  once  having 

^  Plates  No.  3  and  No.  8. 


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62  THE    ROCK-COT   TEMPLES 

entered  the  porch,  the  effect  is  the  same,  and  if  the  space  between  the 
inner  and  enter  screen  was  roofed,  which  I  suppose  it  to  have  been,  no 
one  not  previously  acquainted  with  the  design,  could  perceive  how  the 
light  was  admitted ;  supposing  a  votary  to  have  been  admitted  by  the 
centre  door,  and  to  have  passed  under  the  screen  to  the  right  or  left, 
the  whole  arrangements  were  such,  that  an  architectural  effect  was 
produced  certainly  superior  to  any  thing  I  am  acquainted  with  in 
ancient  or  modem  temples. 

Something  of  the  same  sort  is  attempted  in  the  clajssic  and  modem 
Hindu  temples,  where  the  only  light  is  admitted  by  the  door  directly 
facing  the  image,  which  is  thus  lit  up  with  considerable  splendour,  and 
the  rest  of  the  temple  is  left  in  a  rather  subdued  light,  so  as  to  give  it 
considerable  relief.  The  door,  however,  makes  but  a  clumsy  window 
compared  with  that  of  the  Buddhist  cave,  for  the  light  is  too  low,  the 
spectator  himself  impedes  a  portion  of  it,  and  standing  in  the  glare  of 
day,  unless  he  uses  his  hands  to  shade  his  eyes,  he  can  scarcely  see 
what  is  within.  In  the  H3rp(Bthral  temples,  this  was  probably  better 
managed,  and  the  light  introduced  more  in  the  Buddhist  manner;  but 
we  know  so  little  of  their  arrangements,  that  it  is  difficult  to  give  an 
opinion  on  a  subject  so  little  understood. 

Almost  all  writers  agree,  that  the  Pantheon  at  Rome  is  the  best 
lit  temple  that  antiquity  has  left  us ;  in  one  respect  it  equals  our  caves, 
that  it  has  but  one  window,  and  that  placed  high  up ;  but  it  is  inferior, 
inasmuch  as  it  is  seen  to  every  one  in  the  temple,  and  that  the  light  is 
not  concentrated  on  any  one  object,  but  wanders  with  the  sun  all 
round  the  building. 

I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  earlier  Christian  architects  would 
have  reinvented  this  plan  of  lighting,  had  they  been  able  to  glaze  so 
large  a  space;  but  their  inability  to  do  this  forced  them  to  use  smaller 
windows,  and  to  disperse  them  all  over  the  building,  so  as  to  gain  a 
sufficiency  of  light  for  their  purposes ;  and  a  plan  having  once  become 
sacred,  it  never  was  departed  from  in  all  the  changes  of  style  and 
detail  which  afterwards  took  place. 

Besides  the  great  cave,  there  are,  of  course,  a  number  of  viharas 
attached  to  it;  they  are,  however,  all  of  them,  small,  and  appear  very 
insignificant  compared  with  its  splendour.  This  may  perhaps  be,  and 
I  am  inclined  to  think  is,  an  evidence  of  their  antiquity;  for  the 
Viharas  seem  at  first  to  have  been  mere  cells,  ''where  the  Arhans 
sat  to  meditate,"  as  Fa-hian  expresses  it,  but  to  have  become  magni^ 
ficent  halls  and  temples  as  we  find  them  at  Ajunta,  as  the  religion 
became  more  corrapt. 

The  principal  vihara  here   is   three   tiers   in  height,    (they  can 


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OF    INDIA.  63 

scarcely  be  called  stories;)  they  are  plain  halls  with  cells,  but  without 
any  internal  colonnades,  only  the  upper  one  possesses  a  verandah ; 
the  lower  ones  may,  indeed,  have  been  constructed  with  this  usual 
appendage,  but  great  masses  of  the  rock  above  have  given  way,  and 
&lling  down,  have  carried  with  them  the  whole  of  the  fronts.  There 
are  no  sanctuaries,  and  though  there  are  one  or  two  relievos  of 
Buddha  sitting  in  the  lotus,  and  with  his  legs  down,  they  do  not 
appear  to  be  integral  or  original  parts  of  the  design. 

Still  further  are  numerous  similar  excavations,  and  some  fine 
cisterns  filled  with  clear  spring  water ;  near  one  of  these  is  a  small 
daghopa  much  ruined. 

There  is  a  small  vihara  on  the  south  side  of  the  great  cave,  of  the 
same  character  as  those  on  the  north,  but  owing  to  the  fair  and  crowd, 
my  examination  of  these  caves  was  much  more  imperfect  than  I  could 
have  wished.  There  may  be  some  that  I  did  not  enter,  and  peculi- 
arities that  I  did  not  observe  in  those  I  did.  From  all  I  saw,  how- 
ever, I  am  inclined  to  rank  them  with  the  earlier  caves  at  Ajunta, 
and  though  not  perhaps  quite  so  ancient  as  the  Udyagiri  series,  they 
cannot  be  much  more  modem ;  which  goes  far  to  confirm  the  date  I 
have  above  given  to  the  great  cave. 

KANNARI. 

These  caves  being  well  known,  having  been  often  described  before, 
it  will  not  be  necessary  to  be  so  detailed  in  my  description  of  them,  as 
of  the  Ajunta  series;  though  they  are  more  numerous,  amounting  I 
should  think  to  nearly  a  hundred  in  number,  they  are,  on  the  whole, 
much  less  interesting  than  either  Ajunta,  Ellora,  or  Karli ;  the  great 
chaitya  cave  being  very  similar,  though  very  inferior  to  that  of  the 
last-named  series,  and  presenting  no  peculiarity  not  seen  in  the  other, 
while  none  of  the  viharas  can  compare  with  those  of  the  first  two, 
either  in  size  or  design,  the  greater  part  of  them  consisting  merely  of  a 
small  square  cell,  with  a  small  verandah  of  two  columns  in  front. 

The  whole  of  these  caves  are  excavated  in  one  large  bubble  of  a 
hill,  situated  in  the  midst  of  an  immense  tract  of  forest  country.  Most 
of  the  hills  in  the  neighbourhood  are  covered  with  the  jungle,  but  this 
one  is  nearly  bare,  its  summit  being  formed  by  one  large  rounded 
mass  of  compact  rock,  under  which  a  softer  stratum  has,  in  many 
places,  been  washed  out  by  the  rains,  forming  natural  caves,  which, 
slightly  improved  by  art,  have  been  appropriated  as  cells,  some  pro- 
bably the  first  so  used  on  the  hill ;  it  is  in  the  stratum  again  below 
this,  that  most  of  the  excavations  are  situated. 


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64  THK    ROCK-CUT    TEMPLES 

Approaching  the  caves  by  the  usaal  route,  the  first  yoa  come  to  is 
the  unfinished  excavation  figured  and  described  by  Salt,  p.  47,  Vol.  I., 
Transactions  of  Literary  Society  of  Bombay.  It  was  intended,  appa- 
rently, to  have  been  a  chaitya  cave,  though  it  has  been  left  so  incom- 
plete that  it  is  difficult  to  make  out  the  plan;  the  outer  porch,  however, 
is  nearly  completed,  and  it  is  evident  that  it  was  not  intended  to  have 
an  outer  music-gallery  screen,  like  that  which  adorns  its  more  ancient 
neighbour ;  and  it  presents  but  little  of  interest  in  its  details,  except, 
perhaps,  that  its  external  pillars  are  of  the  same  order  as  those  at 
Elephanta,  and  therefore  probably  mark  it  as  a  cotemporaiy  example. 
On  the  whole  it  puts  me  much  in  mind  of  Lelat  Indra  Kesar  ka  noor 
more  than  any  other  cave  I  have  seen,  but  they  are  both  so  unfinished 
that  it  is  difficult  to  institute  a  comparison  between  them.  It  is, 
probably,  the  latest  excavation  of  any  importance  attempted  in  the 
hill,  and  may  date  about  the  ninth  or  tenth  century  of  Christ,  probably 
even  more  modern  than  that. 

Immediately  beyond  this  is  a  group  of  caves,  (containing  among 
them  the  great  chaitya  cave  of  this  series,)  which  I  would  willingly 
omit  describing  in  detail,  as  that  has  been  so  well  done  by  Mr.  Salt, 
in  the  paper  above  referred  to,  but  they  contain  so  much  that  is 
interesting,  and  I  may  add,  puzzling  in  their  chronology,  that  I  cannot 
pass  them  over ;  and  to  ensure  greater  exactitude,  I  shall  try  to  com- 
bine his  description  with  my  own  notes. 

The  first  is  a  vihara  consisting  of  a  long  irregular  verandah  of 
inferior  workmanship,  with  cells  opening  at  the  back  of  it ;  but  the 
point  of  greatest  interest  is,  that  it  also  contains  two  recesses  or 
sanctuaries,  in  which  stand  daghopas.  The  three  sides  of  the  recess  in 
which  the  most  southern  stands,  are  divided  into  panels,  in  which  are 
carved  one,  two,  or  more  figures  of  Buddha  and  of  Bodhisatwas,  in 
various  attitudes. 

Behind  the  northern  daghopa,  is  a  figure  of  Buddha  seated  on  a 
Sinhasana  or  lion-throne  placed  on  a  lotus,  the  stalk  of  which  is 
supported  by  two  boys  with  hoods  of  cobra  de  capellos ;  from  the  stem 
of  the  lotus,  two  others  spring,  on  which  stand  two  youthful  figures 
with  chowries,  and  one  with  a  lotus-bud  in  his  hand;  two  flying 
figures  above,  and  two  priestly  ones  below,  complete  the  tableau, 
which  is  found  both  at  Karli  and  Ajunta,  besides  being  frequently 
repeated  here ;  but  in  no  cave  in  any  of  these  series,  that  could  date 
before  the  third  or  fourth  century  of  our  era,  unless,  indeed,  it  is  in 
such  a  position  that  it  could  have  been  added  at  any  time.  The 
verandah  extends  so  closely  up  to  the  large  cave,  that  only  a  partition 
of  a  few  inches  thick  has  been  left  between  them,  and  which  subse- 


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OF    INDIA.  65 

qaently  has  been  broken  through,  thas  leaving  an  irregular  hole  by 
which  yon  may  pass  from  the  one  to  the  other. 

The  great  cave'  in  almost  every  respect,  resembles  the  great  cave 
at  Karli;  it  possesses  the  music-gallery  screen  in  the  same  position 
and  of  the  same  form ;  and  here  it  is  stiU  more  evident,  that  the  centre 
at  least  must  have  been  roofed,  but  the  roof  could  not  have  continued 
to  the  end,  or  it  would  have  cut  across  the  great  figures  of  Buddha, 
twenty-three  feet  high,  which  occupy  both  ends:  below  where  this 
roof  would  come,  the  waU  is  covered  with  sculpture,  but  in  a  very 
cmde  style  of  Buddhist  art;  indeed  I  do  not  know  of  a  cave  with 
anything  so  wretched. 

The  front  of  the  cave  above  this  roof  is  here  quite  plain  and  evi- 
dently not  meant  to  have  been  seen ;  at  Karli,  though  it  must  also 
have  been  neariy  concealed,  it  is  still  ornamented  with  a  series  of 
niches ;  indeed,  no  part  of  that  cave,  seen  or  unseen,  is  slurred  over  as 
every  thing  is  here;  there  is  no  trace  of  the  wood-work  which  should 
have  filled  the  great  window,  but  over  the  top  of  the  arch  is  a  num- 
ber of  pins  remaining;  they  seem,  however,  better  fitted  to  hang 
curtains  to,  than  to  support  wood-work,  and  I  think  must  have  been 
applied  to  the  former  purpose ;  but  whether  by  the  original  diggers  or 
not,  it  would  not  be  easy  to  decide. 

The  dimensions  of  the  interior  are  somewhat  less  than  those  of 
Karli,  the  total  length  being  eighty-eight  feet  six  inches,  total  breadth 
thirty-nine  feet  ten  inches,  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  nave  being 
seventy-four  feet  two  .inches  and  thirty-nine  feet  ten  inches  respectively. 
The  daghopa,  forty-nine  feet  in  circumference. 

^  Very  little  of  its  wood-work  remains,  none  on  the  daghopa,  and  on 
the  roof  only  the  tenons  and  battens  to  which  the  rafters  were  attached, 
and  there  are  no  remains  of  a  screen  in  the  great  window. 

The  pillars  that  surround  the  nave  are  of  the  same  order  as  those 
at  Karli,  but  .executed  in  the  most  slovenly  manner, — the  elegance  of 
proportion  is  entirely  lost.  The  figures  on  the  capitab  are  much  worse 
executed ;  the  elephants  here  are  in  some  instances  employed  in  pour- 
ing water  from  jars  they  hold  in  their  trunks,  on  daghopajs,  or  on  the 
bogaha,  or  sacred  bo  tree  ;  and  the  boys  wi^  the  snake  hoods  are  also 
introduced.  Only  six  of  the  columns,  however,  on  one  side,  and  eleven 
on  the  other,  are  so  ornamented,  and  the  rest  were  never  intended  to 
be  so,  as  they  are  finished  as  plain  octagons ;  which  is  another  instance 
of  the  carelessness  exhibited  in  this  cave. 

In  front  of  the  cave  there  is  a  court-yard  of  irregular  form,  (see 


>  Plate  No.  8. 
VOL.  VIII. 


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66  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

accompanying  plan^)  the  front  being  only  tiiirty  feet  wide,  and  not 
parallel  to  the  front  of  the  cave,  while  immediately  beyond  the  Silas- 
thambas  it  is  thirty-six  feet,  and  at  the  vestibule  of  the  cave  itself  is 
forty-six  feet  including  the  niches. 

It  is  extremely  difficult  to  account  for  this  irregularity,  and  the 
smallness  of  the  court,  which  is  quite  inexcusable  on  any  architec- 
tural grounds,  and  gives  a  poor  appearance  to  the  whole  front.  It  could 
not  have  been  caused  by  the  form  of  the  hill,  as  Mr.  Salt  supposes, 
and  it  was  not  till  after  long  thought  on  the  subject  that  what  now 
appears  *to  me  to  be  the  true  solution  of  the  problem  occurred  to  me, 
namely,  in  the  prior  existence  of  the  long  vihara  to  the  south,  and 
of  the  little  daghopa  on  its  circular  cave,  marked  £.  in  the  plan,  the 
whole  interior  surface  of  which  is  divided  into  panels  filled  with 
figures  of  the  Buddha,  similar  to  those  described  in  the  vihara  on  the 
other  side  of  the  great  cave. 

In  describing  the  caves  at  Bang  I  mentioned  the  daghopas  exist- 
ing in  the  sanctuaries,  apparently  because  there  existed  no  chait3ra 
have  in  the  series;  and  believing  this  explanation  to  be  the  correct 
one,  I  was  not  a  little  surprised  to  find  three  daghopas  existing  here 
at  the  very  threshold  of  the  great  Chaitya  cave ;  and  it  was  not  till 
it  occurred  to  me  that  they  must  have  existed  there  before  the  great 
cave  was  begun,  that  I  could  account  for  the  circumstance;  the  form 
of  the  court  soon  convinced  me  (after  the  idea  was  started),  that  this 
was  the  true  solution  :  they  are  more  ancient ;  and  the  spot  having 
probably  become  particularly  sacred,  some  devotee  resolved  on  exca- 
vating a  great  temple  between  them ;  here,  however,  arose  the  diffi- 
culty. North  and  south,  or  at  right  angles  to  the  axis  of  the  hilL 
these  caves  are  only  thirty  feet  apart,  and  it  was  necessary  to  intro- 
duce a  cave  forty  feet  wide  between  them ;  this  could  only  be  done 
by  commencing  on  the  lesser  dimension,  and  working  back  till  he  got 
behind  them,  where  the  cave  was  extended  to  the  required  width.  It 
is  quite  evident  that  the  long  verandah  of  the  southern  cave  never 
could  have  been  allowed,  had  it  been  subsequently  excavated,  to  ap- 
proach so  near  the  great  cave  as  to  endanger  the  wall  breaking  between 
them ;  for  there  is  nothing  to  govern  its  length ;  it  could  have  been 
as  easily  extended  in  one  direction  as  the  other ;  but  the  width  of  a 
chaitya  cave  governs  all  the  other  dimensions,  and  if  the  cave  was  to 
be  of  a  certain  class,  it  was  necessary  in  the  first  place  that  it  should 
have  a  certain  width ;  and  it  was  to  obtain  this  it  has  encroached  so 
nearly  on  its  northern  and  southern  neighbours.  This  will  be  more 
easily  understood  by  referring  to  the  accompanying  plan. 

Assuming  this  to  be  correct,  we  are  at  once  met  by  a  still  greater 

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OF    INDIA.  67 

diffieultj  than  the  one  got  over.  When  I  first  entered  this  cave^  seeing 
its  similarity  in  design  and  detail  to  the  one  at  Karli,  I  at  once  con- 
cluded they  were  of  the  same  age^  and  that  the  difference  in  execution 
was  to  be  accounted  for  from  the  greater  coarseness  of  the  rook,  and 
that  it  must  hare  been  designed  by  some  provincial  or  inferior  artist ; 
and  in  every  other  case  I  know,  this  reasoning  would  have  held  good, 
for  I  know  no  instance  in  which  an  architect,  Buddhist,  Brahmanical, 
or  Mahometan,  ha^  copied  a  building  of  a  former  age.  Yet  this  cave 
seems  to  be  the  exception,  and  if  I  am  not  very  much  mistaken,  it 
must  be  brought  down  to  the  ninth  or  tenth  century  of  Christ. 

It  is  also  not  a  little  singular  that  the  execution  of  every  detail 
should  be  so  clumsy  and  bad ;  for  though  we  find  in  the  descending 
series  of  Buddhist  structures  a  tendency  to  polytheism,  and  the  fripperi- 
nees  of  ornament,  I  do  not  know  any  instance  in  which  the  figures  and 
details  are  so  bad  as  here,  and  this,  too,  at  a  time  when  Hindu  art  had 
scarcely  passed  its  culminating  point  of  perfection. 

After  proceeding  some  little  distance  to  the  northward  from  this 
group,  and  then  turning  to  your  right  hand,  you  enter  a  narrow  glen 
or  gully,  down  which  a  strong  mountain  torrent  pours  during  the  rainy 
season.  It  is  in  the  rocks  that  form  the  two  sides  of  this  glen  that  the 
greatest  number  of  caves  are  situated. 

The  first  you  approach  on  your  right  hand  is  the  so-ealled  Durbar 
Cave,  the  finest  vihara  of  the  series,  and  the  only  one  that  can  compete 
with  the  Ajunta  ones  in  size ;  its  dimensions  are  ninety-six  feet  six 
inches  in  length,  forty-two  feet  three  inches  in  depth,  of  course  exclu- 
sive of  the  cells  ;  the  colonnade  goes  round  only  three  sides,  and  the 
sanctuary  occupies  one  intercolumniation  of  the  inner  range,  as  in  num- 
ber twenty  at  Ajunta.  It  is,  however,  too  low  for  its  other  dimensions, 
being  scarcely  nine  feet  high,  the  pillars  and  plan  of  the  same  order  as 
the  Viswakarma  at  Ellora.  The  verandah  has  a  range  of  eight  plain 
octagon  pillars,  with  pilasters.  Below  this  is  another  cave,  or  rather 
series  of  cells,  which  give  it  the  appearance  of  being  two  stories  high, 
but  there  is  nothing  remarkable  in  the  lower  ones. 

Immediately  opposite  there  is  an  immense  excavation,  but  so  worn 
by  the  rain  and  torrent,  as  to  look  more  like  a  natural  cavern ;  and 
were  it  not  for  some  fragments  of  columns  hanging  to  the  roof,  and 
details  in  some  more  sheltered  places,  I  should  have  supposed  it  to  be 
such. 

Proceeding  upwards  on  either  hand  are  some  twenty  or  thirty  exca- 
vations, but  none  worthy  of  particular  description ;  some  (two  I  think), 
contain  daghopas,  the  rest  are  small  viharas,  with  one  or  two  cells  and 
verandahs,  the  pillars  of  which  are  generally  either  entirely  washed 

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68  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

away,  or  very  much  woni)  the  material  being  soft  laterite  or  breccia, 
little  better  than  hard  gravelly  olay. 

The  first  oave  in  this  direction  has  some  of  its  pillars  the  same  as 
those  of  number  seven*  of  Ajunta,  and  which  I  have  seen  nowhere  else ; 
it  has  also  the  cushion  pillars  of  Elephanta.  From  its  position,  and 
also  from  the  gradual  progress  of  style  in  these  caves,  I  feel  inclined  to 
think  this  one  of  the  most  modern^  and  all  below  it  consequently  more 
ancient,  and  therefore  probably  coeval  with  the  group  of  the  Ajunta 
series,  described  as  numbers  sixteen  and  twenty. 

Above  these,  on  the  south  side,  under  the  brow  of  the  hill,  is  another 
series  of  viharas.  They  are  small,  but  some  of  them,  especially  three, 
very  interesting,  from  the  walls  being  entirely  covered  with  sculpture, 
of  very  fair  execution ;  the  general  design  of  which  is  a  Buddha  seated 
on  a  lotus,  the  same  as  already  described  as  placed  behind  the  northern 
daghopa  in  the  long  oave ;  this  is  repeated  here  with  almost  no  varia- 
tion, and  its  style  is  so  similar,  that  it  certainly  represents  a  form  of 
religion  and  art  that  must  be  very  nearly,  if  not  quite  cotemporary. 

The  general  siie  of  these  caves  is  from  twelve  to  fifteen  feet 
squaw ;  one,  however,  that  I  paced,  was  about  forty  feet  square,  with- 
out pillars.  It  was  covered  with  sculpture,  but  strange  to  say,  there 
was  no  sanctuary,  but  merely  one  large  standing  figure  of  Buddha 
opposite  the  entrance.  There  were  cells  as  usual,  and  benches  round 
the  sides. 

It  is  not  very  easy  to  decide  whether  these  caves  are  more  modem 
than  those  below ;  on  the  whole  I  am  inclined  to  think  they  are,  though 
their  age  cannot  differ  much;  and  if  so,  the  Kannari  series  will  be 
arranged  as  foUows :  first  those  in  the  ravine,  in  the  fourth  or  fifth 
century ;  those  last  described  with  those  on  each  side  of  the  great  cave, 
probably  at  least  a  century  later ;  then  the  great  cave ;  and,  lastly,  the 
unfinished  one  first  alluded  to. 

They  may  thus  be  considered  one  of  the  most  modem  of  the  Bud« 
dhist  series  in  India.  Indeed,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  greater 
part  of  them  at  leajst  were  executed  by  a  colony  of  Buddhists,  who  may 
have  taken  refuge  here  after  being  expelled  from  the  continent,  and 
who  have  tried  to  reproduce  the  lost  Karli  in  their  insular  retreat. 

Some  remains  of  plaster  and  painting  exist  in  almost  ail  these 
caves,  though  from  the  porous  nature  of  the  stone  through  which  the 
water  must  percolate  during  the  rains,  the  vestiges  are  small,  and 
I  could  not  find  one  complete  figure  in  any;  owing  to  this  cause 

*  I  am  not  quite  certain  this  should  not  be  number  twenty ;  the  note  was  made 
-at  Salsette,  and  I  fear  the  drawing  was  wrongly  numbered  t  for  the  context  it  is 
aounaterial  which. 


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OF    INDIA.  69 

no  vestige  of  either  exists  on  the  roofs,  but  only  on  the  waits  in 
the  less  exposed  situations.  The  porosity  of  the  rock,  however,  has 
enabled  the  ''good  monks"  to  furnish  themselves  with  a  copious  supply 
of  delicious  water ;  almost  every  cave  is  furnished  with  a  cistern  or 
well,  which  even  at  the  time  of  my  visit  in  April  wajs  nearly  full, 
though  no  rain  could  have  faUen  for  months.  Nothing  of  the  kind 
exists  at  Ajunta,  but  the  stream  with  its  koonds,  supplied  the  deficiency 
there ;  at  Karli,  Ellora,  Elephanta,  Khandagiri,  and  even  at  Gwalior, 
these  cisterns  are  to  be  found  cut  in  the  rook,  in  the  vicinity  of  all  the 
temples  and  viharas. 

Most  of  the  principal  Buddhas  in  this  series  sit  with  the  feet  down, 
only  the  smallest  ones  with  their  legs  crossed ;  and  very  often  the  prin- 
cipal figure  of  a  group,  apparently  a  Bodhisatwa,  is  a  standing  one, 
with  a  high  head-dress  I  have  not  remarked  elsewhere,  and  attended 
by  two  women  with  chowries ;  the  true  Buddha  is,  I  believe,  always 
attended  by  men. 

A  good  deal  of  masonry  exists  on  the  hill  as  the  supporting  walls 
of  terraces,  which  have  been  formed  in  front  of  all  the  diflerent  series 
of  caves,  and  no  doubt  were  formerly  planted  with  gardens,  as  those  at 
Gwalior  now  are ;  and  they  probably  existed  at  the  other  series,  but 
have  now  been  destroyed.  The  view  from  the  upper  series  of  terraces 
is  veiy  fine  and  interesting.  On  the  slope  above  the  cornice  of  some  of 
these  caves  mortices  are  cut  in  the  rock,  and  are  evidently  footings  for 
wooden  posts  which  may  have  been  used  to  support  a  decoration  of 
some  sort,  but  more  probably  an  awning  or  screen  to  shelter  the  front 
of  the  cave  from  the  sun. 

DHUMNAR. 

About  forty  miles  south-east  from  Neemucb,  and  one  from  the  vil- 
lage of  Chundwassa,  are  situated  the  series  of  caves  which  I  will  now 
proceed  to  describe. 

In  themselves  they  are  small  and  comparatively  uninteresting,  and 
were  it  not  for  the  existence  of  the  Brahmanical  rock  tranple  behind 
them,  would  not  deserve  much  notice ;  but  as  this  was  the  first  thing 
that  made  clear  to  me  the  distinction  between  Buddhist  and  Brahmani- 
cal rock-cut  temples,  and  wiU  assist  in  explaining  the  more  splendid 
ones  at  EUora,  I  must  give  such  details  as  will  enable  others  to 
understand  my  own  impressions  on  the  subject. 

The  hill  of  Dhumnar,  like  all  the  other  hills  in  the  neighbourhood, 
consists  of  a  flat  plateau  of  rock,  surrounded  by  a  perpendicular  cliff, 
from  the  bottom  of  which  a  mass  of  debris  forms  a  talus,  sloping  down 


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70  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

to  the  plain  ;  in  the  present  imitance  the  cliff  is  nowhere  liigher  than 
twenty  feet,  whioh  necessarily  circumscribes  the  dimensions  of  the 
cayes^  to  keep  within  it,  thus  rendering  them  the  most  diminutive 
series  I  know  of  in  India ;  and  besides,  the  rock  is  the  most  unfavour- 
able that  can  be  conceived  for  the  exhibition  of  sculpture,  the  whole 
hill  consisting  of  a  coarse  iron-stone  or  laterite,  very  similar  to  that  of 
Cuttack,  but  here  of  a  coarser  grain  than  I  ever  before  saw  it 

At  the  bottom  of  the  cliff  a  broad  terrace  has  been  formed,  which 
still  exists  tolerably  entire,  at  the  end  of  which  you  enter  laterally  into 
the  so-called  "  Child's  Cave."  Here  the  daghopa  stands  in  the  centre  of 
a  small  court,  in  the  open  air ;  immediately  behind  it  is  the  cell  or 
sanctuary,  in  which  is  a  iSgure  of  Buddha  sitting  cross-legged,  with  a 
male  attendant  on  each  side  of  him  ;  the  cell  is  isolated  by  a  covered 
passage  running  round  it,  one  side  of  which  is  occupied  by  a  recumbent 
figure,  about  ten  feet  long,  in  the  same  attitude  aa  the  larger  one  in  the 
most  modem  chaitya  cave  at  Ajunta,  described  above;  behind  are 
three  Buddhistical  figures,  sitting  cross-legged,  probably  Bodhisatwas, 
or  of  the  predecessors  of  the  great  occupant  of  the  sanctuary.  A 
smaller  figure  stands  between  each  of  these,  and  three  more  stand  on 
the  third  side  of  the  passage,  probably  disciples. 

The  next  in  importance  is  Bheem  Sing  ka  Bazaar.  It  is  a 
chaitya  cave,  with  vaulted  and  ribbed  roof  of  the  usual  form  and 
detail,  but  here  only  about  thirty  feet  deep  by  fifteen  wide,  and  with- 
out side  aisles.  There  has  been  a  porch  nearly  square  in  front  of  it, 
but  the  roof  has  tumbled  in,  and  now  encumbers  the  entrance.  The 
rock  in  which  this  cave  is  cut  is,  as  in  the  former  instance,  isolated  by 
a  passage  running  round  it ;  round  two  sides  of  this  passage,  and  a 
small  portion  of  the  third  side,  there  runs  a  square  colonnaded  verandah, 
from  which  open  a  number  of  small  cells,  thus  forming  a  combination 
of  a  chaitya  cave  with  a  vihara,  which  I  never  saw  before.  The 
pillars  were  evidently  intended  to  have  been  carried  round  the  third 
side,  but  it  has  been  left  unfinished,  which  does  not  say  much  for  its 
antiquity. 

The  next  three  in  importance  are  the  great  and  little  Kutchery, 
and  the  Ranee's  Abode'.  They  have  all  semicircular  domed  recesses 
at  the  inner  end,  with  daghopas.  One  has  a  rib-vaulted  roof  like  the 
bazaar,  but  the  other  two  have  square  flat  roofs  divided  into  nine 
compartments,  and  supported  by  four  pillars. 

The  other  excavations  are  of  no  great  extent,  being  merely  cells 
from  six  to  ten  or  twelve  feet  square,  with  the  usual  verandah  in 

*  Theso  names  arc  taken  from  Colonel  Tod*8  deeGripiion  of  these  caves  in  his 
Journal. 


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OF    INDIA.  71 

firont ;  but  the  extreme  coarseness  of  the  rock  seems  to  have  precluded 
eyen  the  quantity  of  ornament  being  bestowed  on  them,  that  is  usual 
in  other  series. 

Counting  those  only  commenced,  and  even  the  merest  scratchings  in 
the  rock,  there  may  be  from  sixty  to  seventy  caves  altogether.  I 
could  not  count  so  many,  and  where  therefore  Colonel  Tod  found  his 
hundred  and  seventy  caves  I  am  at  a  loss  to  conceive. 

It  is  very  difficult  to  form  an  opinion  as  to  the  age  of  these  caves, 
as  it  has  been  impossible  for  their  architects  to  express  or  define  their 
details  with  any  exactitude  in  such  a  pudding-stone.  I  have,  how- 
ever, no  doubt  that  the  whole  were  at  one  time  plastered,  and  that 
what  is  now  seen  is  merely  the  coring ;  but  here  again  the  badness  of 
the  material,  by  allowing  the  water  to  soak  through,  has  peeled  off 
every  vestige  of  the  decoration,  and  the  figures  seem  to  have  gone 
through  a  second  attack  of  the  small-pox,  which  has  disfigured  them  to 
an  extent  almost  ludicrous. 

As  far,  however,  as  I  could  judge,  they  must  all  be  very  modern. 
The  similarity  of  style  and  execution  in  the  Child^s  Cave  to  number 
twenty-seven  of  Ajunta,  convinced  me  that  they  were  of  the  same  age ; 
and  in  the  whole  of  them  there  is  want  of  that  simplicity  and  majesty 
which  distinguishes  the  earlier  Buddhist  works,  and  a  tendency  to 
Jainism,  which  exists  only  in  the  latest  caves ;  and  what  architectural 
details  I  could  make  out  by  looking  at  them  from  a  distance,  all  went 
to  confirm  this  impression. 

About  fifty  paces  from  the  edge  of  the  cliff,  in  the  centre  of  the 
plateau,  a  pit  has  been  dug,  I  thought  of  about  fifty  paces  by  twenty, 
and  about  forty-five  feet  deep.  Tod,  however,  says  a  hundred  feet  by 
seventy,  and  thirty-five  deep,  (and  he  probably  is  more  correct,  as, 
contrary  to  my  usual  custom,  I  omitted  to  measure  it) :  towards  the 
west  end  of  this  pit  a  temple  has  been  left  standing ;  the  top  of  the 
Sikra  or  spire  being  level  with  the  plateau  above.  It  differs  in  every 
respect  from  those  already  described,  being  in  fact  merely  a  model  of  a 
Brahmanical  structural  temple,  with  all  the  accompaniments  usually 
found  in  them.  Indeed,  externally,  the  temple  very  much  resembles 
those  at  Barolli,  described  by  Tod,  and  which  I  had  just  visited.  The 
vimana  is  almost  a  fac-simile,  as  far  as  the  material  would  allow, 
though  the  mantapa  or  porch  is  slightly  different  in  form,  and  larger 
in  proportion.  In  the  sanctuary  is  a  black  marble  statue  of  Vishnu, 
well  executed,  and  with  all  his  usual  attributes,  and  on  the  floor  in 
front  of  him  a  large  well-oiled  Lingam,  which  evidently  is  now  the 
principal  object  of  worship,  indicating  a  change  of  masters  I  have 
several  times  seen  in  these  parts. 

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T2  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

Around  the  large  temple  are  nine  smaller  shrines,  each  of  which 
liad  contained  a  piece  of  sculpture  \  but  only  three  are  now  so  occu- 
pied. One,  a  tablet,  with  six  figures  very  much  defaced;  another, 
Vishnu  reposing  on  the  Seseja;  and  the  third,  a  series  of  the  ten 
avatars,  but  with  this  singularity :  that  here  the  ninth,  instMul  of  beiBg- 
Gotama^  as  in  CTery  other  of  the  series  I  had  then  seen,  is  Chaturbuj 
himself,  with  his  gadhi,  chakra,  and  all  his  usual  attributes. 

In  front  of  the  temple,  a  long  level  passage,  cut  through  the  rock 
(a  hundred  and  ten  paces  long,)  leads  to  a  valley  or  depression  in 
the  plateau,  and  was  evidently  formed^  not  only  to  afford  a  level 
entrance  to  the  temple,  but  to  allow  the  rain-water  to  drain  off,  which 
otherwise  would  have  stagnated  in  the  pit. 

It  is  not  very  easy  to  understand  why  this  passage  was  not 
brought  out  through  the  scarp,  and  thus  access  given  to  the  temple  from 
the  plain.  Perhaps  it  arose  from  an  unwillingness  to  destroy  the  caves, 
which  would  have  been  necessary  had  that  been  attempted;  and  the 
Brahmans,  unlike  our  northern  reformers,  never  seem  to  have  been 
destroyers.  Perhaps,  also,  it  may  have  arisen  from  the  necessity  of 
placing  the  temple  east  and  west,  and  a  consequent  desire  to  approach 
it  in  front,  and  not  at  right  angles. 

The  Brahmans  never,  it  appears^  were  cave  diggers ;  and  when,  in 
the  struggles  with  the  Buddhists,  they  thought  it  necessary  to  engage 
the  prejudices  of  the  people  on  their  side,  by  adopting  this  most 
popular  and  splendid  way  of  erecting  places  of  worship,  nothing  can 
be  more  clumsy,  and  if  I  may  use  the  expression,  unnatural,  than 
the  way  in  which  they  set  about  it.  They  either  copied  Buddhist 
viharas,  but  without  the  cells  that  gave  them  meaning,  and  covered 
the  walls  with  sculpture,  which,  owing  to  the  badness  of  the  light, 
they  were  ill-fitted  to  display;  or,  what  was  worse,  they  copied  in  the 
rock,  (as  in  this  instance,)  their  own  structural  temples;  but  thus 
necessitating  their  being  placed  in  a  pit,  which  quite  destroyed  their 
effect.  Had  they  always  been  able  to  find  isolated  rocks,  as  they  did 
at  Mahavellipore,  this  remark  would  lose  much  of  its  force ;  but  both 
the  Kylas  at  Ellora,  and  this  temple,  are  deprived  of  half  their  effect 
from  this  cause. 

The  Buddhist  temples,  on  the  contrary,  are  always  in  good  gram- 
mar ;  they  are  all  interiors, — really  caves, — and  with  only  such  ex- 
ternal ornament,  such  as  verandahs  to  the  viharas,  and  framings  to 
the  great  window  in  the  chaitya  caves,  as  were  always  in  good  taste, 
and  the  purpose  and  meaning  of  which  was  at  once  seen.  There  is 
no  instance  of  a  Buddhist  copying  an  exterior,  as  is  here  the  case, 
or  any  building  not  a  cave. 


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OF    INDIA.  73 

The  similarity  of  this  temple  to  that  at  BaroUi  i^so  enables  me,  at 
least  approximately,  to  determine  its  age;  for  I  have  made  up  my 
mind,  for  reasons  which  I  cannot  enter  on  here,  that  the  former  was 
ereetod  in  the  eighth  or  ninth  centuiy  after  Christ.  This  probably 
was  coeval.  The  sculpture,  too,  though  executed  in  rather  a  coarser 
material,  (fine  hard  freestone,)  here  is  very  similar  in  design  and  exe- 
cution. 

ELLORA. 

I  have  put  off  speaking  of  Ellora  to  nearly  the  last,  not  only 
because  it  contains  some  of  the  most  modem  cave  temples  of  India,  but 
because  it  is  the  most  complicated  series  I  am  acquainted  with,  con- 
taining examples  of  almost  every  kind,  except,  perhaps,  the  most 
ancient,  and  therefore  demanding  more  knowledge  of  the  subject  to 
understand  it,  than  any  other  series;  and  also,  because,  as  being  the 
best  known  in  Europe  and  the  one  generally  quoted  for  its  unknown 
antiquity,  I  shall  have  to  contend  more  with  preconceived  opinions 
than  when  speaking  of  the  others.  Its  having  been  so  often  described, 
however,  will  enable  me  to  be  more  concise  and  say  less  on  the  subject 
than  I  should  otherwise  have  been  obliged  to  do. 

It  is  usual  for  travellers  to  be  awe-struck  on  first  approaching 
"this  vast  amphitheatre  of  rock-cut  temples.**  It  is,  however,  the 
principal  defect  of  this  style  of  building  that  it  makes  so  little  appear- 
ance outside.  Some  of  the  Vihara  caves  have  fine  fronts,  but  being 
either  as  a  cliff  as  at  Ajunta,  or  Karli,  they  bear  much  the  same  pro- 
portion to  the  rock  as  a  window  does  to  a  house  side,  and  therefore 
lose  any  appearance  of  size,  or  they  are  excavated  on  the  sloping  «ide 
of  a  hill  as  at  Ellora,  and  can  only  be  seen  directly  in  front;  the 
Viharas  are  never  fine  externally,  and  here  less  so  than  usual,  owing 
to  the  sloping  nature  of  the  hill ;  and  the  Kylas  is  absolutely  invisible 
from  the  exterior.  Indeed,  a  man  might  ride  along  the  whole  front, 
and  at  a  few  hundred  yards*  distance,  and,  unless  previously  warned, 
never  be  aware  that  he  was  in  their  vicinity. 

To  convey  to  the  European  mind  a  still  greater  impression  of  their 
magnificence,  it  has  been  asserted  more  than  once,  that  they  are  cut  in 
hard  red  granite,  whereas,  the  rock  is  the  usual  trap  formation  of  this 
side  of  India^  a  sort  of  porphyritio  greenstone  or  amygdaloid,  I 
believe;  but  whatever  it  is,  certainly  as  soft  and  as  easily  worked  a 
material  as  could  well  be  used  for  architectural  purposes. 

The  amphitheatre  of  rocky  hill  in'  which  they  are  situated  cannot 
be  less  than  two  or  three  miles  measured  on  the  chord ;  and  the  caves 
are  scattered  over  a  distance  about  a  mile  and  a  half.     Sir  Charles 


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74  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

Mallet  6aj6,  one  mile  from  the  Indra  Subha  to  the  Viswakarma  in 
a  direct  line ;  this  great  space  takes  very  mnch  away  from  the  effect 
when  viewed  as  a  wholes  and  it  is  only  when  in  the  courts  of  the 
caves,  or  when  studying  their  details,  that  you  are  aware  of  their 
greatness  or  magnificence. 

In  describing  these  caves  most  travellers  conunence  with  the  most 
northern  group,  the  Jugganath  Subha,  and  proceed  to  the  most  southern, 
the  Viswakarma  group ;  both  Sir  Charles  Mallet  and  Colonel  Sykes 
follow  this  plan,  and  the  guides  invariably  take  the  traveUer  to  the 
most  northern  first,  so  that  if  the  notes  are  commenced  on  the  first 
inspection,  they  almost  certainly  take  this  direction.  Seely  is  almost 
the  only  exception  I  know  to  this  rule,  and  he  plunges  at  once  "  in 
medias  res,"  and  describes  first  the  Kylas,  and  then  the  others  indis- 
criminately. 

The  true  way,  however,  to  describe  this  series  (which  as  far  as  I 
am  aware  no  one  has  followed,)  is  to  commence  from  the  southern 
extremity,  where  the  Buddhist  group  exists,  and,  consequently,  the  most 
ancient  caves  of  the  series,  and  the  gradation  is  then  easily  perceived 
by  which  they  passed  into  the  Brahmanical,  which,  after  rising  to  its 
glory  in  the  Kylas  and  Doomar  Lena,  again  for  a  short  time  passed  into 
the  half-Jaina  group  of  the  Jugganath  Subha,  and  ended  there. 

I  regret  much  that  my  notes  on  these  caves  are  not  more  full  than 
they  are ;  but  having  read  detailed  descriptions  by  such  men  as  Sir 
Charles  Mallet,  Colonel  Sykes,  Seely,  Wales,  &c.,  I  thought  nothing 
remained  undescribed,  and  merely  noted  what  bore  directly  on  the  sub- 
ject of  my  researches ;  and  the  volumes  that  contain  these  descriptions 
being  much  too  bulky  to  be  carried  about,  it  was  not  till  too  late 
that  I  discovered  how  much,  particularly  among  the  Buddhist  temples, 
remains  to  be  known,  and  described. 

The  whole  series  of  Ellora  consists  of  about  thirty  excavations,  of 
which  ten  are  Buddhistical,  fourteen  Brahmanical,  and  six  belong, 
properly  speaking,  to  neither  of  these  sects,  and  they  can  scarcely  be 
in  strictness  ascribed  to  the  Jains,  though  savouring  more  of  their 
religious  tenets  than  of  either  Brahmanism  or  Buddhism. 

Of  the  Buddhist  group  the  principal  cave  is  the  so  called  Viswa- 
karma, the  only  Chaitya  cave  of  the  series;  it  is  neither  so  large  as 
those  at  Karli  or  Salsette,  being  only  forty-three  feet  wide  internally, 
by  eighty-three  feet  one  inch  in  length,  nor  is  it  so  rich  in  its  details  as 
the  two  later  Chaityas  at  Ajunta.  Still  it  has  beauties  of  its  own 
which  render  it  highly  interesting ;  its  exterior  court-yard  (a  square 
of  about  seventy  feet  with  a  handsome  colonnade  on  three  sides,)  and 
the  simple  lines  of  the  front  form  to  my  eye  a  more  pleasing  exterior 


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OF    INDIA.  75 

than  that  of  any  of  Uie  others,  at  least  at  present,  thoagh  it  is  impos- 
sible now  to  judge  of  what  their  effect  may  have  been  when  their 
galleries  and  wooden  decorations  were  complete. 

It  differs  from  all  others  in  having  what  we  wonld  call  a  triple  or 
Venetian  window  in  the  centre,  which  externally  is  certainly  more 
pleasing  than  the  great  arch  in  the  others ;  but  that  as  I  have  sug- 
gested above  was  probably  not  seen  from  without,  and  internally, 
this  cave  is  certainly  worse  lighted  than  the  others ;  though  in  soeh  a 
climate  its  gloom  can  scarcely  be  called  a  defect. 

Internally  the  design  of  the  temple  is  marked  with  considerable 
el^ance  and  simplicity;  the  two  pillars  that  support  the  gallery  over 
the  entrance  are  rich  and  handsome;  the  twenty-eight  others  are 
simple  octagons,  changing  in  one  part  to  sixteen  sides,  and  of  great 
elegance. 

The  sculpture  in  the  panels  of  the  triforium  belt  disappointed  me, 
but  under  the  springing  of  each  of  the  stone  ribs  of  the  roof  is  a  corbel 
figure,  alternately  male  and  female,  all  the  males  having  the  snake 
hood,  which  the  females  have  not 

In  £pont  of  the  daghopa  is  Buddha  sitting  with  his  feet  down,  with 
an  attendant  on  each  side,  and  over  his  head  are  a  number  of  flying 
fignres,  only  found  in  the  most  modem  Buddhist  caves,  and  savouring 
mneh  more  of  Brahmanism  than  the  pure  worship  of  Sakya  Muni; 
there  is  no  trace  of  painting  or  stucco  on  the  cave,  though  the  side 
walls  of  the  aisles  being  left  rough,  look  as  if  that  had  been  intended 
by  the  original  excavators. 

Though  the  form  and  ordinance  of  this  temple  are  purely  and  cor- 
rectly Buddhistical,  the  sculptures  deviate  strangely  from  the  usual 
forms  adopted  by  that  sect;  standing,  for  instance,  in  the  court-yard, 
you  do  not  see  any  figures  of  the  deified,  no  cross-legged  Buddha,  or 
BodhiBatwa,  except  in  a  very  subordinate  position ;  and  on  the  con- 
trary, the  sculptures  generally  consist  of  pairs  of  figures,  male  and 
female,  as  seen  in  Brahmanical  temples,  and  in  one  group  in  no  very 
decent  attitude,  the  only  instance  I  am  aware  of  anything  approaching 
to  indecency  in  any  temple  of  this  sect;  internally  the  same  is  the 
case;  and  it  is  indeed,  too  evident,  that  the  pure  religion  of  Buddha 
had  deviated  much  from  its  primitive  simplicity  before  this  cave  was 
excavated,  and  that  it  was  already  verging  fast  to  that  which  suc- 
ceeded it;  a  circumstance  which  alone  would  be  sufiicient  to  bring 
down  its  date  to  a  very  modem  time ;  but  the  details  of  its  architecture 
afford  more  certain  means  of  comparison,  and  place  it  somewhere 
between  the  two  most  modem  Chaityas  at  Ajunta;  it  may  be  as  old  as 
the  one,  or  as  modem  as  the  other ;  but  it  cannot,  I  think,  under  any 


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76  THE    UOCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

eircumstances,  be  placed  higher  than  the  sixth  or  seventh  oentnty 
of  our  era,  and  I  would  not  bring  it  down  lower  than  the  eighth  or 
ninth. 

There  are  numerons  Viharas  attached  to  this  great  care,  the  prin- 
cipal of  which  is  the  great  Dehrwarra,  one  of  the  laigest  excavations 
of  the  class  that  I  know  of;  being  about  one  handled  and  ten  feet 
by  seventy,  including  the  side  recesses ;  it  is,  unfortunately  for  effect, 
very  low,  and  its  details  are  by  no  means  to  be  compared  to  those  of  a 
similar  age  at  Ajunta.  It  is  probably  of  the  same  date  as  the  Viswa- 
karma;  if  any  thing,  more  modern. 

Close  to  the  great  cave  is  a  small  and  very  pretty  Vihara,  in  which 
the  sanctuary  stands  free,  with  a  passage  all  round  it,  as  in  some  of 
the  Sivite  caves  further  on ;  and  the  appearance  of  the  warders  on 
each  side  of  its  door  would  lead  one  rather  to  expect  an  image  of 
Siva  inside  than  the  Buddha  which  actually  occupies  it.  The  details, 
however,  of  its  architecture  are  the  same  as  in  the  ViswakarnuL 

Communicating  with  this  one,  is  a  small  square  Vihara,  the  roof  of 
which  is  supported  by  four  pillars  of  the  same  detail  as  the  Dookya- 
ghur,  the  cave  next  it  on  the  north;  but  though  surrounded  by  ceUs  it 
has  no  sanctuary  or  images. 

Higher  up  the  hill  than  these  are  two  others  containing  numerous 
cells,  and  one  with  a  very  handsome  hall,  the  outer  half  of  which  haa 
unfortunately  tumbled  in ;  enough,  however,  remains  to  show  not  only 
its  plan,  but  all  the  details,  which  very  much  resemble  those  of  the  last 
group  of  Viharas  at  Ajunta. 

In  the  sanctuaries  of  most  of  these  caves  are  figures  of  Buddhas 
sitting  with  their  feet  down.  On  each  side  of  the  image  in  the  prin- 
cipal one,  are  nine  figures  of  Buddhas,  or  rather  Bodhisatwas,  seated 
cross-legged,  and  below  them  three  and  three  figures,  some  cro6»- 
legged,  and  others  standing,  probably  devotees,  and  one  of  them  a 
woman. 

Neither  of  these  caves  have  been  entirely  finished. 

There  is  still  another  group  of  these  small  Viharas,  called  the 
Chumarwarra,  or,  (if  I  understand  correctly,)  the  Chumars'  (or  shoe- 
makers') quarter.  The  first  is  square,  with  twelve  pillars  on  the  same 
plan  as  those  at  Ajunta,  though  the  detail  is  similar  to  the  Viswa- 
karma.  There  are  cells,  and  in  the  sanctuary  Buddha  sitting  with 
the  feet  down ;  it  never  has  been  finished,  and  is  now  much  ruined. 

The  second  is  similar  in  plan,  thou^  the  pillars  are  of  the  cushion 
form  of  Elephanta  and  the  Dehrwarra,  but  the  capitals  are  much 
better  formed,  than  in  the  last  example,  and  more  ornamented;  the 
lateral  galleries  here  contain  figures  pf  Buddha,  all  like  the  one  in  the 


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OP   INDIA.  77 

sanctuary  sitting  with  their  feet  down,  and  there  are  only  two  cells  on 
each  side  of  the  sanctuary. 

The  last  is  a  small  plain  Vihara  with  cells,  but  without  pillars,  and 
much  ruined. 

The  whole  of  the  caves  in  this  group  resemble  one  another  so  much 
in  detail  and  execution,  that  I  am  unable  to  make  out  any  succession 
among  them,  and  it  is  probable  that  they  were  all  excavated  within 
the  same  century  as  the  Viswakarma. 

The  next  three  temples  I  have  to  describe  are  particularly  interest 
ing  to  the  antiquarian,  as  pointing  out  the  successive  steps  by  which 
the  Buddhifitieal  caves  merged  into  Brahmanism.  As  they  have  been 
so  often  described,  I  need  not  repeat  the  description  here,  but  assume 
that  their  form  and  detail  are  known. 

The  first  is  the  Do  Tal,  or  Dookya  Ghur,  a  Buddhist  Vihara  of  two 
stories ;  most  of  its  details  are  so  similar  to  those  above  described,  that 
it  may  be  assumed  to  be  without  doubt  of  the  same  age;  it  is  strictly 
Baddhistic  in  all  its  details,  and  shows  no  more  tendency  towards 
Brahmanism  than  what  I  pointed  out  in  speaking  of  Viswakarma. 
It  apparently  was  intended  to  have  three  stories,  but  has  been  left 
anfinifihed. 

The  next,  or  Teen  Tal,  is  veiy  similar  to  the  last  in  arrangement 
and  detail,  and  its  sculptures  are  all  Buddhistical,  though  deviating  so 
far  from  the  usual  simplicity  of  that  style,  as  almost  to  justify  the 
Brahmans  in  appropriating  them  as  they  have  done. 

The  third,  the  Dasavatar,  is  another  two-storied  cave,  very  similar 
in  ail  its  architecture  and  details  to  the  two  preceding,  but  the 
scnlptuies  are  all  Brahmanical.  At  first,  I  assumed,  that  the  exca- 
vation had  been  made  by  the  Buddhists,  and  appropriated  and  finished 
bj  their  successors.  This  may  be  true  to  a  certain  extent,  but  on  a 
more  careful  examination  I  am  more  inclined  to  think  we  owe  it 
entirely  to  the  Brahmans.  It  it  evidently  the  earliest  Brahmanical 
temple  here,  and  it  is  natural  to  suppose  that  when  the  Sivites  first 
attempted  to  rival  their  antagonists  in  cave  temples,  they  should  follow 
the  only  models  that  existed,  merely  appropriating  it  to  their  own 
worship.  The  circumstance,  however,  that  makes  me  most  incline  to 
this  opinion,  is  the  existence  of  a  pseudo-structural  Mantapa,  or  shrine 
of  Nundi,  in  the  court-yard ;  this  evidently  must  have  been  a  part  of 
the  original  design,  or  the  rock  would  not  have  been  left  here  for  it, 
and  it  is  a  model  of  the  usual  structural  building  found  in  Sivite  tem-* 
pies  in  different  parts  of  India.  And  as  I  pointed  out  in  speaking  of 
the  Dhnmnar  caves,  this  is  a  piece  of  bad  grammar  the  Buddhists  never 
were  guilty  of;  their  excavations  always  are  caves,  whilst  the  char 


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78  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

racteristic  of  Brahmanical  excavation  is  to  copy  their  stnictural  build- 
mgs,  a  system  which  rose  to  its  height  in  the  Kybis,  which  is  the  next 
I  shall  have  to  describe. 

After  the  successful  attempt  at  a  small  rock-cut  model  of  one  of 
their  own  temples,  it  is  not  wonderful  that  the  Brahmans  should  attempt 
something  of  the  same  class  on  a  larger  scale,  though  some  powerful 
motive  must  have  existed  to  induce  them  to  attempt  any  thing  so 
splendid  as  the  Kylas. 

In  it  there  is  no  trace  of  the  forms  or  ordinances  of  the  caves  I 
have  just  been  describing;  every  thing  is  Brahmanical,  every  thing  is 
copied  from  structural  buildings;  and  had  it  been  cut  out  of  a  rock 
on  a  plain,  (its  proper  situation,)  no  stranger  would  have  suspected  that 
it  was  a  Monolith,  without  at  least,  a  most  careful  examination  of  its 
structure. 

If,  as  I  suppose  was  the  case,  it  was  undertaken  to  mark  the 
triumph  of  the  Sivites  over  the  Buddhist  faith,  it  was  a  noble  idea;  and 
whatever  faults  may  be  inherent  in  the  design,  we  owe  to  it  not  only 
the  most  splendid  excavation  in  India,  but  we  are  also  fortunate  in 
possessing  a  record  of  the  architecture  of  its  date  in  so  imperishable  a 
form,  and  which  may  hereafter  help  us  to  make  important  historical 
deductions. 

The  greatest  fault  inherent  in  the  design  is  the  situation  in  which 
the  Kylas  stands,  being  literally,  as  at  Dhumnar,  a  temple  standing  in 
a  pit.  From  this  circumstance,  the  gateway,  or  gopura,  and  screen  in 
front,  entirely  hide  the  temple  from  view  outside,  and  when  in  the 
interior  court  the  space  is  so  confined,  that  the  spectator  can  never  get 
to  a  sufficient  distance  to  get  a  good  general  view,  and  look  what  way 
he  will  he  has  always  the  perpendicular  scarp  of  the  pit,  higher  than 
the  temple  itself. 

When  I  first  approached  the  Kylas,  it  was  after  a  long  journey, 
during  the  course  of  which  I  had  visited  almost  all  the  Hind<j  remaina 
between  Jaganath  on  the  shores  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  and  Mount 
Abu  on  the  borders  of  the  western  desert ;  and  I  had  acquired  such 
familiarity  with  the  style  and  details  of  Hindu  architecture,  that  I  felt 
convinced  I  should  at  once  be  able  to  synchronize  this  wonder  of  Ellora 
with  some  of  the  temples  I  had  seen,  and  even  perhaps  to  affix  a  date 
to  it.  The  first  glance  however  undeceived  me,  as  the  style  was 
totally  different  from  any  thing  I  had  seen,  and  one  might  as  soon 
attempt  to  fix  the  date  of  a  Gothic  cathedral,  from  having  acquired  an 
intimate  knowledge  of  the  classic  styles.  Unlike  the  temple  at 
Dhumnar,  which  is  an  exact  copy  of  the  structural  buildings  in  its 
neighbourhood,  this  belongs  to  a  southern  type,  and  that  type  I  had  not 


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OF    INDIA.  S^ 

then  had  an  opportanity  of  seeing  or  examining ;  and  as  I  have  often  said, 
there  are  no  drawings  extant  of  Indian  buildings  which  will  enable 
an  antiqaarian  to  make  the  comparison  without  personal  inspection. 

It  was  not  till  the  spring  of  the  present  year  that  I  wajs  able 
to  complete  my  survey  of  Hindii  architecture  by  a  tour  in  the  Car- 
natic,  and  it  was  then  at  Tanjore  and  Chillumbrum  that  I  found  the 
tjpe  I  was  looking  for.  It  would  perhaps  be  going  too  far  to  assert 
that  the  builders  of  the  great  pagoda  at  Tanjore  were  the  excavators 
of  the  Kylas ;  and  it  would  certainly  take  up  more  time  and  space 
than  I  can  afford  here  to  attempt  to  prove  it;  but  so  strong  is  the 
evidence,  not  only  from  the  similarity  of  styles  but  also  from  history, 
(I  should  rather  say  tradition,)  that  I  have  no  doubt  in  my  own  mind, 
that  the  Chola,  or  at  least,  some  of  the  Kamata  Rajius  were  the  exca- 
vators of  this  temple,  and  the  restorers  of  Sivite  worship  in  the 
Dekkan ;  my  own  impression  is,  that  we  must  ascribe  this  to  either 
Raja  Rajendra  or  Keri  Kala  Cholan,  and  that  consequently  the  date 
given  by  Meer  Ali  Khan  to  Sir  Charles  Mallet  is  very  near  the  truth, 
if  applied  to  this  excavation,  at  least,  and  that  it  was  made  in  the  first 
half  of  the  ninth  century  of  our  era. 

The  external  gateway  is  exactly  one  of  the  gopuras  which  adorn 
all  the  temples  of  the  south,  and  are  unknown  in  the  north ;  whether  it 
had  ever  the  pyramidical  top  with  which  all  these  are  adorned  it  is  not 
veiy  easy  now  to  determine.  I  am  inclined  to  think  it  had,  but  if  so, 
it  would  be  of  brick,  as  all  those  are,  though  their  base  is  universally 
of  granite,  to  the  height  at  which  this  one  of  the  Kylas  remains. 

The  colonnade  which  surrounds  the  area  in  which  the  temple 
stands,  is  of  course  more  modem  than  the  temple  itself;  probably  con- 
siderably so,  as  the  style  is  different,  and  resembles  more  the  northern 
style  than  any  thing  in  the  temple  itself,  so  much  so  indeed,  that  it 
would  almost  seem  as  if  the  architects  had  reverted  to  the  familiar 
types  of  the  caves  previously  described,  after  the  retirement  of  their 
southern  friends. 

Of  a  still  more  modem  date  is  the  beautiful  temple  of  Lanka  in  the 
northern  scarp  of  the  rock,  to  which  I  shall  revert  presently,  and  to  a 
later  date  than  even  this  would  I  ascribe  the  two-arched  Buddhist- 
looking  excavation  on  each  side  of  the  entrance,  one  of  which,  that 
of  the  north,  is  only  commenced,  that  on  the  south  nearly  finished. 
It  is  possible  they  may  have  been  placed  there  with  the  idea  of 
conciliating  the  Buddhists  by  the  first  designers  of  the  temple,  but  I 
consider  it  as  much  more  probable  that  they  have  been  added  at  some 
time,  when,  for  a  short  interval,  the  Buddhists  may  have  had  the  upper 
hand,  and  consequently  possession  of  the  temple. 

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so  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

I  should  also  mention,  that  the  Vimana  itself  is  the  only  thing  here 
•of  a  purely  southern  type,  its  adjuncts  are  less  so ;  and  the  caves,  both 
on  the  north  and  south  sides,  have  much  more  affinity  with  the  northern 
styles,  than  with  those  found  on  the  south  of  the  Kistna. 

The  next  six  caves  proceeding  north,  have  been  so  often  and  so 
well  described,  that  I  may  be  excused  saying  much  about  them ;  the j 
are  usually  called  the  Rameswara,  Neelcant,  Teeli  ka  kanafa,  Kumar- 
warra,  and  the  two  Chendwassas. 

They  are  all  very  much  on  the  same  plan,  and  all  singularly  like 
«mall  Buddhist  Viharas  at  first  sight,  so  much  so,  that  after  being  con- 
vinced they  were  Brahmanical^  I  still  clung  to  the  idea  that  they  must 
be  appropriations  i  but  this  idea  most  be  abandoned,  for  they  are  all 
without  cells,  and  there  are  arrangements  about  them  never  seen  in 
Viharas;  and  had  they  been  once  used  by  the  Buddhists  it  would 
have  been  impossible,  in  a  rock  temple,  to  obliterate  the  marks  of  their 
former  destination.  Imitations  they  certainly  are,  and  this  is  perhaps 
all  that  can  be  said  of  them;  though  it  is  difficult  to  understand  why 
the  Brahmans  should  have  imitated  the  Buddhists,  unless  it  was  (as 
before  suggested)  to  conciliate  the  followers  of  the  latter  religion,  by 
allowing  them  to  worship  the  new  gods  in  rock-cut  temples,  similar  to 
those  in  which  their  fathers  had  worshipped  before  them. 

The  architecture  of  all  these  temples  is  of  a  northern  type,  and 
resembles,  with  some  variation,  details  found  in  the  caves  to  the  south 
of  the  Kylas,  and  at  Ajunta,  though  differing  in  some  respects  to  suit 
the  two  different  religions  to  which  they  are  dedicated. 

The  Rameswara  is  the  most  complete,  and  its  sculpture  the  best  of 
any  temple  here,  though  much  in  the  same  style  as  those  surrounding 
the  Kylas. 

The  most  northern  of  the  two  Chendwassas  is  the  only  Vaishnava 
temple  here,  and  at  the  same  time  the  one  that  looks  most  like  an 
Appropriation,  for  it  has  cells,  and  the  sculpture  seems  to  have  been 
interpolated  on  the  original  design.  The  sculpture,  however,  is  so 
bad  that  the  whole  may  belong  to  an  age  very  much  more  modem 
than  the  others. 

The  next  to  be  described  is  the  Doomar  Lena*,  the  finest  and  largest 
Brahmanical  cave  excavation  here.  From  its  plan  and  details,  there 
can  be  no  doubt  that  it  was  as  purely  Brahmanical  as  the  Kylas.  The 
plan  exactly  resembles  the  Chaori,  or  nuptial  hall,  such  as  those  in 
front  of  the  great  temple  at  BaroUi,  and  also  the  one  in  the  fort  at 

^  Plate  No.  4. 

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OF    INDIA.  81 

Kamnlmair;  and  if  I  am  oon^t  in  tranalating  Cbabri  9S  nuptial  hall^ 
as  Tod  does,  the  appellation  Doomar  Lena  here  given,  Is  the  correct 
one,  and  not  merelj  a  trivial  name,  derived  from  one  of  the  sculptured 
groups,  as  usually  supposed.  Indeed,  had  that  been  the  case,  thej 
would  hardly  have  used  the  Pali  word  Lena.  The  only  difference 
between  this,  and  the  structural  Chaoris,  is  that  here  the  temple  or 
vimana  is  inclosed  in  the  cave,  while  at  BaroUi,  and  elsewhere,  the 
Ghaori  stands  in  front  of  the  temple.  The  same  thing  occurs  in 
Buddhist  architecture,  for  in  all  Buddhist  countries  we  find  the  daghopa 
^NitsBde,  and  near  the  temple :   in  the  caves  it  is  placed  inside. 

Though  the  architecture  of  this  cave  is  finished,  the  sculpture  does 
not  seem  so  complete  as  at  Elephanta,  a  cave  which  this  one  singu^ 
l&rly  resembles  in  every  respect,  both  of  size,  plan,  and  detail ;  this, 
however,  is  the  largest,  being  a  hundred  and  fifty  feet  each  way,  while 
the  other  is  only  a  hundred  and  thirty,  and  its  details  are  somewhat 
better  finished ;  though  the  pillars  are  so  much  alike,  that  it  requires 
drawings  made  on  the  spot  to  detect  the  difference  between  them '. 

The  sculptures,  too,  seem  intended  to  have  been  nearly  the  same, 
and  on  the  side  of  the  entrance  we  find  the  same  figure  of  Buddha, 
or,  as  the  people  call  him  here.  Jam  Dhurm,  the  Dharma  Raja, 
which  puzzles  the  antiquarian  at  Elephants  I  can  only  ascribe  his 
presence  to  the  same  system  of  conciliation  which  induced  the  Brah- 
mans  to  go  out  of  their  way  to  dig  these  caves  at  all. 

This  temple,  with  the  one  at  Elephanta,  if  I  am  correct  in  the 
views  I  have  stated  above,  must  have  been  excavated  in  the  tenth 
century  of  our  era,  a  date  which  I  do  not  think  can  possibly  be  far 
from  the  truth. 

In  a  nullah  above  this  are  several  small  caves,  containing  Tri^nurti 
busts,  and  one  also  exists  near  the  Kylas.  They  are  not  remarkable 
for  any  thing  else,  and  what  I  have  to  say  of  the  busts  in  question  had 
better  be  deferred  till  I  come  to  speak  of  Elephanta. 

There  are  two  caves  which  I  have  passed  over  in  the  above  enume- 
ration, so  as  not  to  brei^L  the  chronological  sequence  in  my  description. 
The  first,  the  Havana  ka  Kaie,  (Ashes  of  Havana,)  is  situated 
between  the  Teen  Tal  and  Das  Avatar,  but  lower  down  in  the  hill, 
and  has  few  points  of  similarity  with  those  on  each  side  of  it.  It  is  a 
purely  Brahmanical  cave  of  a  florid  style  of  architecture.  In  form  the 
pillars  resemble  a  good  deal  those  that  surround  the  court-yard  of  the 
Yiswakarma,  thoagh  more  ornamented,  and  it  is  here  that  first  appears 
the  vase  and  falling  leaf,  so  common,  afterwards,  in  the  temples  of 


1  PUte  No.  9. 
VOL.  vm. 


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82  THE    ROOK-CUT  TEMPLES 

Dortheni  Indk.  Tke  scmlptnre  is  good,  and  fiimilar  to  tbat  of  the 
Rameewara  in  mseay  fespeots.  I  havo  howv^er  described  it  hj  itself 
as  there  is  no  Ga^e  in  Elk>m  whose  rebtive  date  I  found  so  diffioolt 
to  determine.  It  may  possibly  belong  to  the  position  it  holds  loealiy 
in  the  series,  and  would  be  thos  the  eariiest  Brahmwiieal  eave  here, 
and  the  similarity  of  its  pillars  to  those  of  the  Viswakanna)  raUier 
favour  this  supposition ;  but  its  fleridness,  the  style  of  sealptnre,  and 
the  general  disposition  of  the  cktb,  tnclme  me  to  j^aee  it  much  latw, 
or,  as  here  de8er9)ed,  alter  the  Doomar  Lena. 

The  other  oave  is  called  Lanka^  and  is  sitnaited  above  the  colonnade 
In  the  nortiiem  scarp  of  the  Kyks;  from  its  position  evidently  exe- 
ented  subsequently  to  the  great  temple,  and,  from  its  design,  I  should 
think  not  less  than  one  or  two  'centuries  later.  Its  details  all  bdong 
to  the  northern  styles,  and  are  bold  and  good;  indeed,  as  a  specimen  of 
cave  architecture,  I  consider  it  the  finest  and  best  designed  in  the 
whole  series.  The  pillars,  wbich  would  be  dumsy  and  heavy  in  a 
structural  building,  are  elegant  and  appropriate  wben  viewed  in  con- 
junction with  the  mass  of  rock  they  support.  There  are  very  few 
sculptures,  and  these  are  not  remarkable  either  for  execution  or  design. 
Indeed  the  cave  does  not  seem  to  have  been  entirely  finished,  or  every 
compartment  would,  without  doubt,  have  contained  some  group  of 
sculpture. 

The  next  caves  to  be  described  are  the  Tndra  Subha  group,  con- 
sisting of  four  principal  caves,  and  several  smaller  ones. 

In  their  architecture  they  difier  very  considerably  from  those 
already  described,  being  generally  more  ornate,  the  pillars  shorter  and 
more  massive,  and  a  species  of  leaf  falling  over  a  vase  being  here 
introduced,  which  does  not  occur  in  any  of  the  earlier  examples; 
though  something  of  the  kind  is  seen  as  above  mentioned,  in  the 
Havana  ka  Kaie,  and  in  the  Lanka;  indeed  the  style  of  the  last- 
named  cave  so  completely  resembles  that  of  die  Indra  Subha,  that  I 
have  no  hesitation  in  placing  them  nearly  in  the  same  age,  though  it 
would  be  difficult  to  say  which  is  the  more  modem. 

The  sculptures  to  this  group  have  hitherto  proved  a  stumbling- 
block  to  antiquaries,  and  no  fixed  opinion  seems  to  have  been  arrived 
at  regarding  them.  Buddhist  they  certainly  are  not,  or  at  all  events 
of  so  degenerate  a  type  as  scarce  to  deserve  that  name;  nor  are  they 
Brahmanical;  and  though  they  certainly  resemble  Jaina  sculpture 
more  than  any  other,  I  do  not  think  they  can  be  correctly  ascribed  to 
that  sect  either,  at  least  as  we  now  know  it.  In  no  place  in  these 
caves  do  the  twenty-four  thirthankars  appear,  nor  have  the  cross- 
legged  figures  the  symbols  which  almost  invariably  accompany  theee 


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OF    INDIA.  83 

worthitt^  and  are  tlie  only  meaos  of  distingnuhing  one  from  another. 
If,  how)6yer,  I  am  correct  in  suppomng  JainiBm  to  be  a  sort  of  com- 
promiM  between  the  other  two  religions,  which  did  not  acquire  its 
present  form  and  consistency  till  after  the  downfall  of  the  Bnddhists, 
when  they  were  joined  by  most  of  that  seot  who  had  not  em- 
bmoed  the  dominant  religion,  these  caves  are  doubly  interesting  as 
showing  ns  the  religion  in  a  state  of  transition  from  one  set  of  tenets 
to  another. 

Be  this  as  it  may,  I  have  little  doubt  tibat  they  are  the  liust  cayes 
executed  here,  and  I  do  not  think  their  date  can  be  carried  higher  than 
the  elerenth  or  twelfth  century  of  our  era.  Indeed,  from  a  similarity 
in  some  of  the  details,  I  would  feel  almost  inclined  to  ascribe  them  to 
Baja  Indra  Dyumna,  who  plays  so  important  a  psjrt  here,  and  in  the 
building  of  the  famous  Jaganatha  Pagoda,  in  Orissa,  in  the  twelfth 
century;  but  it  would  require  more  knowledge  and  labour  than  I  can 
at  present  apply  to  the  subject,  to  make  out  whether  this  be  really  the 
esse  or  not '. 

There  is  one  singularity  in  these  caves  that  I  am  unable  to  explain^ 
which  is  the  form  of  the  pseudo-structural  temple  in  the  court  yard,  in 
(ami  of  the  Indra  Subha.  Like  the  Kylas,  it  seems  to  have  come  from 
the  south,  while  the  details  all  round  it  belong  to  the  northern  types ; 
and  though  its  age  would  by  no  means  interfere  with  the  date  given 
above,  its  appearance  here  is  singular,  and  its  detail  still  more  so* 
The  difficulty  will  periiaps  only  be  solved  by  a  more  attentive  ezami- 
ntion  of  die  structural  temples  of  the  Dekkan  than  I  have  been  able 
Umake. 

ELEPHANTA. 

The  great  cave  at  Elephanta  has  been  described  so  well,  and  in 
such  detail,  by  Mr.  Erekiae,  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Bombay 
Literaiy  Society,  that  I  may  be  excused  saying  much  about  it. 

The  rock  here  is  much  harder  than  at  Ellora^  and  all  the  details 
are  consequently  cut  with  more  precision,  and  better  preserved,  than 
in  the  caves  there;  but  neither  the  outline  nor  general  design  are 
better  than  in  the  sculpture  of  the  Hindu  series  there. 

The  great  cave,  as  I  said  before,  is  of  the  form  now  called  a  Chaori^ 
and  differs  from  the  one  at  Ellora  only  in  the  position  of  the  Ling 
chapel,  or  sanctuary ;  and  the  great  Trimurti  bust,  which  may  have  been 

*  See  Introdnction  to  Wilson's  Catalogue  of  Mackencie*8  MSS.,  p.  ctL;  ahK» 
Atttie  Reeearehes,  voL  xy.,  p.  316;  and  Dr.  Buchanan  Hamilton's  Statistics  of 
^^P^W,  p.  ffl. 

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84 


THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 


intended,  in  the  Doomar  Lena,  for  the  space  opposite  the  entrance,  is 
there  left  blank,  though  the  position  of  the  sanctaary  renders  this 
improbable.  The  great  bust  is  now  generally  allowed  to  be  of  Si^ 
alone,  and  I  will  not  add  anything  to  the  discussion,  further  than  by 
mentioning  that  at  BaroUi  there  is  a  bust  of  large  dimensions,  and 
almost  exactly  similar  to  this ;  but  being  cut  in  fine  hard  stone,  all 
that  remains  of  it  is  more  easily  distinguishable  than  here.  The  centre 
face,  however,  is  unfortunately  entirely  defaced,  but  that  on  its  right 
has  a  chaplet  of  skulls,  and  the  ''frontlet  eye**  open,  and  an  angiy  and 
animated  expression  of  countenance.  The  face  on  the  left  has  also  the 
frontlet  eye  distinctly  marked,  but  as  no  eyeball  is  shown,  I  presume 
it  is  meant  to  be  represented  as  shut ;  but  what  adds  particular  inte- 
rest to  this  bust  is,  that  over  it,  on  the  same  stone,  are  full-length 
statues  of  Brahma  and  Vishnu,  the  former  over  the  right  face,  with 
his  three  (query  four?)  faces,  and  his  Vahana,  the  goose,  the  latter  as 
usually  represented,  with  his  four  arms,  and  the  gadhi,  chakra,  &c., 
circumstances  which  quite  put  to  rest  the  idea  of  the  bust  itself  repre- 
senting the  three  persons  of  the  Trinity,  nor  can  I  concur  with  Colonel 
Sykes  in  supposing  the  left  face  to  be  Parvati.  The  three  I  believe 
to  be  Siva,  as  creator,  preserver,  and  destroyer ;  an  assumption  of  the 
Attributes  of  the  other  two  ascribed  to  him  by  his  votaries  when  his 
worship  became  dominant. 

In  a  ravine  running  from  the  great  cave  across  the  island,  there 
are  two  other  caves,  similar  in  plan  to  those  situated  between  the 
Kylas  and  Doomar  Lena,  at  EUora.  These  unfortunately,  however, 
are  so  much  injured  by  the  falling  of  the  rock  and  the  damp,  that  it  is 
impossible  to  make  out  more  than  their  dedication  to  Siva,  and  a 
general  similarity  to  those  of  Ellora^  with  which  I  have  no  doubt  they 
are  cotemporary :  indeed  there  is  a  degree  of  similarity  between  the 
two  series  which  is  singular  in  structures  so  distant,  and  which  can 
only  be  accounted  for  by  their  being  undertaken  at  the  same  time,  and 
probably  under  the  same  direction. 

I  could  find  no  trace  of  Buddhism  in  the  whole  island,  and  these, 
therefore,  are  perhaps  singular,  as  being  the  only  purely  Brahmanical 
aeries  in  the  north  of  India;  for  though  those  at  Joyghesir  and  Mont- 
pezir  are  likewise  purely  Hindu,  and  apparently  of  the  same  age  as 
these,  they  are  situated  in  the  same  island,  and  so  nearly  in  the  vici- 
nity of  the  great  Buddhist  series  of  Kannari,  that  the  motive  before 
ascribed,  as  inducing  the  Brahmans  to  become  cave  diggers,  applies  to 
them. 


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OF    INDIA.  85 


MAHAVELLIPORE. 

One  only  series  remiuns  now  to  be  described,  and  which,  though 
not  80  magnificent  or  extensive  as  some  of  those  which  have  already 
passed  under  review,  still  possesses  peculiarities  and  distinctive  features, 
which  render  it  scarce  less  interesting  to  the  artist  or  the  antiquary. 

Like  Ellora,  however,  it  has  been  so  often  described  by  Europeans, 
that  little  remains  to  be  added  to  what  has  been  already  published  on 
the  subject,  first  by  Messrs.  Chambers  and  Goldingham  in  the  Asiatic 
Researches,  and  afterwards,  with  more  precision,  by  Mr.  Babington,  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society.  The  notices  of  Bishop 
Heber  and  Mrs.  Graham  are  also  interesting,  though  not  bearing  on 
the  present  subject  of  inquiry. 

Between  Covelong  and  Sadras,  a  long  sandy  ridge  extends  near 
forty  miles,  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  sea,  and  on  the  west  by  a  salt- 
water lagoon,  now  dry  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year.  Towards 
the  southern  extremity  of  this  ridge,  a  number  of  masses  of  granite 
rock  protrude  through  the  surface,  so  numerous  and  large  in  one  spot 
as  to  form  a  hill  about  a  mile  in  length,  with  half  that  breadth,  and 
rising  to  the  height  of  about  a  hundred  or  a  hundred  and  fifty  feet ; 
and  it  is  in  this  hill  that  the  principal  antiquities  are  situated,  con- 
Slating  of  some  half-dozen  of  caves  in  various  states  of  progress,  one 
pseudo-structural  temple,  and  the  famous  bas-reliefs.  About  half  .a 
mile  to  the  south  of  this,  are  the  ^ve  raths,  and  on  the  rock  jutting 
into  the  sea^  due  east  from  the  centre  of  the  hill,  the  famous  structural 
temple,  known  as  the  remaining  one  of  the  seven  pagodas,  from  which 
the  place  takes  its  European  name. 

The  most  completely  finished  cave  here,  (for  none  is  entirely  so,)  is 
the  small  one  in  the  ravine,  figured  in  Babington's  ninth  plate.  It  is 
architectttrally  complete,  though  its  sculpture  is  not  quite  finished. 
The  finest  cave,  however,  is  the  one  containing  the  fine  bas-relief  of 
Kali  killing  Mahaasura,  (see  plate  4  in  Babington's  description)  by 
fiir  the  finest  piece  of  sculpture  here,  and  equal  to  anything  at  Ellora. 
The  frt>ntispiece  of  this  cave,  however,  is  merely  blocked  out,  and  its 
cells  are  unfinished.  Like  the  others  it  is  small  when  compared  with 
the  northern  oaves,  being  only  thirty-two  feet  ten  inches,  by  fifteen  feet 
six  inches,  in  the  interior,  exclusive  of  the  three  cells ;  the  centre  one  of 
which  is  occupied  by  Siva  sitting  on  Nandi,  with  Parvati  and  Sobra- 
muni,  and  above  them  Brahma  and  Vishnu.  In  form  and  detail  this 
cave  may  be  compared  to  the  Rameswar  at  Ellora,  or  perhaps  rather 
to  number  seven  at  Ajnnta.     It  cannot,  however,  be  so  old  as  either  of 

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86  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

them,  as  the  architecture  is  poorer,  leaner,  and  its  details  resemble 
much  more  those  used  in  stmctoral  buildingB  of  a  more  modern  date 
than  the  massive  style  of  cave  architecture  that  distinguishes  these 
specimens  \  That  it  is  a  copy  from  these  caves  can  scarcely  I  think 
be  doubted^  but  not  one  of  the  same  age. 

Immediately  above  this  cave,  and  apparently  intended  to  form  part 
of  the  design,  is  the  base  of  a  s^ractnral  vimana  of  the  same  age  and 
style;  the  part  remaining  is  of  granite,  and  it  probably  never  was 
finished,  or  if  the  pyramid  was  built  of  brick^  as  is  the  univeraal  custom 
in  the  south,  it  probably  has  fallen  down.  This  is  the  only  instance  I 
am  aware  of  such  an  adjunct^  thou^  they  may  have  been  oonunon  in 
Brahmanical  caves. 

Opposite  the  front  of  this  cave^  at  the  distance  of  a  few  yards,  the 
workmen  have  commenced  to  hew  a  temple  oat  of  an  imm«ise  blook 
that  stands  there ;  its  form  is  scarcely  distinguishable,  but  it  is  interest- 
ing as  showing  the  mode  in  which  the  workmen  set  about  an  nnder- 
taking  of  this  sort,  which  was  simply  to  divide  the  rock  into  s^piares 
of  about  twelve  and  eighteen  inches,  by  channels  two  and  Ihree  inches 
deep,  and  then  to  split  off  the  remaining  mass,  which  the  tendeoey 
of  granite  to  exfoliate  easily  enabled  them  to  do. 

There  is  another  pseudosstructural  temple  of  nearly  the  same  siie 
and  design  as  this  one  was  intended  to  be,  at  the  northern  end  of  the 
hill,  and  which  is  nearly,  though  not  quite,  finished. 

Immediately  behind  the  present  village  temple,  and  about  half  way 
between  the  two  caves  above-mentioned,  is  the  great  baa-relief  so  often 
figured,  though  never  so  well  as  by  Mr.  Babington,  in  the  pi^^er  above 
referred  to.  The  elephants  are  good,  and  so  are  many  of  the  figures, 
particularly  the  ascetic ;  but  the  whole  wants  unity  of  design  and  pur- 
pose, and  is  inferior  in  every  respect  to  the  Kali  sculpture  in  the  cave 
above,  to  many  of  those  at  Ellora,  and  to  all  the  sculptures  of  file- 
phanta.  The  rock,  too,  has  not  been  smoothed  away  between  the 
figures,  which  gives  the  whole  an  appearance  of  not  being  finished,  and 
isolates  the  figures  and  groups  in  a  very  disagreeable  manner. 

Adjoining  is  an  unfinished  excavation  very  like  (in  plan),  to  the 
trimurti  cave  near  the  Kylas,  and  a  little  further  to  the  south  the  other 
huge  bas-relief,  which,  though  of  the  same  age,  is  of  inferior  execution 
to  the  great  one. 

The  five  raths  are  situated  about  a  mile  south  of  the  hill  in  the 
direction  of  its  axis,  and  though  small,  and  of  course  unfinished,  (like 
everything  else  here,)  are  as  pleasing  examples  of  their  style  as  any  I 

>  Plate  No.  10. 

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OF   INDIA.  87 

know.  They  possefis  an  immeiupe  adrantage  over  the  pseadoHstruotoral 
tempJas  of  the  sorth ;  for  being  cut  out  of  detached  mafises  of  granite, 
tbej  ataiid  aione  in  the  8and,  and  are  in  evegr  respect  so  like  structural 
baiidiDgSy  that  it  requires  some  examination  to  convince  one's  self  they 
are  not  so.  Thej  hare  also  the  advantage  in  material,  being  cut  from 
a  fine,  bold-gcainad  granite^  of  a  reddish  tinge.  It  has^  however,  a 
tendenoy  to  eplit^  which  the  trap  of  the  north  has  not^  and  exfoliates 
when  long  exposed  to  the  weath«r« 

Daaielis  views  of  these  temples^  and  the  various  descriptions  extant, 
have  rendered  them  so  familiar  to  the  public  that  I  need  not  say  more 
tegaiding  them  here  ;  though  I  much  wish  that  the  elaborate  architec- 
tural drawings  made  of  them  for  Colonel  Mackenzie  could  be  given  to 
the  public,  as  thej  would  afford  juster  notions  of  what  Indian  antiqui- 
ties really  are,  than  any  thing  that  has  yet  been  published. 

I  eovld  not  find  in  any  of  the  temples  or  sculptures  here  the  small- 
est trace  of  Buddhist  worship.  Every  where  Siva  appears  as  the  pre- 
siding deity,  though  with  a  singularly  liberal  allowance  of  Vishnuism. 
In  the  cave  first  mentioned  so  completely  is  this  the  case,  that  it  might 
ahnost  be  called  Vaishnava;  and  in  the  second  the  pendant  to  the  Kali 
bas-relief  is  a  Vishnu  reposing  on  the  Ses  Seja ;  and  in  the  raths  the 
only  cell  that  is  occupied  is  occupied  by  Lakshmi,  though  this  arises,  I 
beheve,  tram  the  unfinished  state  of  the  others;  for  they  were  certainly 
intended  to  be  dedicated  to  Siva.  It  has  been  doubted  to  whom  the 
temple  on  the  shore  is  dedicated;  and  its  sculptures,  those  at  least 
on  the  walls,  have  been  so  corroded  by  the  sea  air,  that  they  cannot 
well  be  made  out ;  and  though  Siva  and  Parvati  appear  on  two  sepa- 
rate bae-reliefis,  occupying  the  principal  places,  they  may  sot  be  inte- 
gral, and  the  large  figure  drawn  by  Babington,  plate  twelve,  is  Vishnu 
<m  the  Ses  Seja,  extremely  similar  to  the  one  in  the  Kali  cave,  while 
the  broken  Sthamba  in  the  central  apartment  may  or  may  not  be  a 
Lingam,  though  I  myself  have  little  doubt  that  it  is,  and  that  the 
tenple  wae  Sirita. 

One  of  the  most  singular  charaeteristios  of  this  series  of  caves  is 
that  tiiey  are  all  of  one  age,  and  probably  the  work  of  one  prince,  who 
bas  carried  on  the  works  simultaneously,  but  from  some  cause  or 
other  has  been  unable  to  ooraplete  even  one  of  them ;  had  one  been 
finished,  or  had  there  been  any  gradation  of  ^tyle  or  workmanship, 
some  chronological  arrangement  might  easily  have  been  traced;  but 
nothing  of  the  sort  exists,  at  least  among  the  monoliths,  and  the  temple 
ea  the  shore  does  not  fall  strictly  within  my  present  limits,  though  I 
may  mention  that  its  age  does  not  dafier  materially  from  that  of  the 
wst 

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88  THE    ROCK-CUT   TEMPLES 

If  the  north  owe  ito  Kylfts  to  the  Chola  mandaJam^  which  I  helieye 
it  certainly  does^  the  south  as  certainly  owes  these  Monoliths  to  the 
Dekkan.  There  is  nothing  here  of  which  the  prototype  cannot  be 
traced  in  the  caves  of  the  north.  In  plan  and  design  they  resemble 
the  Hindu  series  at  EUora,  though  many  of  their  details  are  only  to- 
be  found  at  Ajunta  and  Salsette ;  and  it  cannot  be  supposed  that  two 
people,  unless  copying  from  one  another,  could  have  invented  the  same 
details  in  so  short  a  period  as  could  have  elapsed  between  the  exca- 
vating of  these^  and  those  of  the  northern  caves ;  and  besides,  no  one, 
I  believe,  will  doubt,  after  what  has  been  said  above,  that  cave  archi- 
tecture is  indigenous  in  the  north,  while  diese  are  the  only  specimens 
found  in  the  south. 

Passing  by  those  traditions  which  refer  to  Maha  Bali  and  the  Gk>ds, 
which  at  all  events  have  no  reference  to  anything  now  existing  here, 
there  are  two  which  bear  an  appearance  of  great  probability.  The  first 
mentioned  by  Mr.  Goldingham,  vol.  v..  Trans.  A.S.,  p.  74,  thus  : 

''A  northern  prince,  (perhaps  one  of  the  conquerors,)  about  on* 
thousand  years  ago,  was  desirous  of  having  a  great  work  executed, 
but  the  Hindu  sculptors  and  masons  refused  to  execute  it  on  the  terms 
he  offered.  Attempting  force,  they  (in  number  about  four  thousand,) 
fled  with  their  effects  from  his  country,  hither,  where  they  resided  four 
or  five  years,  and  in  this  interval  executed  these  magnificent  works. 
The  prince  at  length  discovering  them,  prevailed  on  them  to  return, 
which  they  did,  leaving  the  works  unfinished  as  they  appear  at 
present." 

The  second  is  from  the  Mackenzie  MSS.,  as  abstracted  by  Mr. 
Taylor^  in  the  Madras  Journal,  No.  20,  p.  65. 

"  In  the  Cali  Yug,  Singhama  Nayadu,  the  Zemindar  of  the  Vellu- 
goiivaru  race,  seemed  to  have  ruled  here.  In  that  time,  during  a 
famine,  many  artificers  resorted  hither,  and  wrought  on  the  mountain  a 
great  variety  of  works  during  two  or  three  years." 

Who  this  Singhama  was  appears  from  another  MS.  in  the  same 
collection,  (M.  J.  No.  19,  p.  373,)  where,  speaking  of  this  race,  it  is 
said,  "  Vennama  Nayadu  became  head  of  his  race.  His  son  was  Yirar 
dacha  N.,  who  with  his  cousin  were  successful  in  their  incursions 
against  neighbouring  places,  extending  to  Canchi  and  to  the  Pandya 
kings.  The  Mussulmans  are  also  mentioned  as  beaten  in  defence  of 
another  chieftain.  The  son  of  Vennama,  named  Singhama  Nayadu, 
became  the  head  of  this  race." 

The  thousand  years  of  the  first  quotation  I  look  upon  as  the  usual 
Hindu  synonym  for  '^  some  time  ago,"  while  the  allusion  to  foreign 
eonquerors  seems  to  point  to  the  only  event  I  am  a^are  of  that  would 

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OF    INDIA*  89 

give  probability  to  the  tradition^  namely,  tlie  invafiion  of  Deoghur  by 
Alla-nddin,  in  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century ;  a  supposition  ren- 
dered probable  by  the  extracts  from  the  Mackenzie  manuscripts ;  for 
though  no  date  is  there  given  for  Singhama's  reign,  it  appears  in  the 
context  that  his  grand-uncle  or  great-grand-uncle,  was  engaged  in  the 
rerolution  that  placed  Pratapa  Rudra  on  the  Ganapati  throne,  A.D. 
1167,  and  he  therefore  flourished  in  the  thirteenth  century,  probably 
towards  the  end  of  it.  The  allusion  to  the  Mahomedan  in  this  extract 
alao  renders  this  still  more  likely,  as  before  AUa-uddin  they  scarcely 
meddled  in  the  affairs  of  the  south. 

Though  this  eyidence  appears  tolerably  oonclusiye,  I  should  not  be 
inclined  to  rely  upon  it  were  it  not  corroborated  by  the  internal  eyi- 
denoe  of  the  caves  themselves.  But  altogether  I  ifear  five  centuries 
and  a  half  is  all  the  antiquity  we  can  allow  to  these  boasted  monuments 
of  primeval  times. 

Singhama's  death  in  the  field,  before  the  fort  of  Jalli  Palli,  is  still 
more  probably  the  cause  of  the  sudden  interruption  of  the  works,  than 
the  reconciliation  of  the  workmen  with  their  northern  master ;  it  being 
entirely  a  fancy  of  his  own,  and  neither  indigenous  in  the  country,  nor 
a  part  of  the  religion  of  the  people,  it  is  not  probable  that  his  successor 
would  continue  the  follies  of  his  parent. 

There  is  one  other  means  of  fixing  approximately  the  date  of  these 
temples,  to  which  I  have  not  alluded,  and  on  which  I  am  incapable  of 
forming  an  opinion ;  I  mean  the  date  of  the  characters  inscribed  on  the 
large  rath  over  the  figures  there.  Their  form,  and  Mr.  Babington's 
being  able  to  translate  them,  does  not  say  much  for  their  antiquity, 
though  their  general  illegibility  does,  I  confess,  argue  a  higher  anti- 
quity than  I  have  ascribed  to  the  buildings. 

Had  any  one  done  for  the  Alphabets  of  the  south  what  Mr.  Prinsep 
did  for  those  of  the  north,  the  question  would  be  easily  determined,  but 
till  that  is  done,  I  fear  this  mode  of  proof  is  scarcely  available. 

In  concluding  this  paper  I  would  wish  to  add  a  few  words  on  the 
present  state  of  the  caves,  and  on  the  means  that  might  (and  I  now 
hope  will,)  be  taken  to  preserve  them  from  further  injury  before  it  is 
too  late. 

Those  of  Guttack  are,  as  I  mentioned  above,  inhabited  by  Hindfi 
Fakirs,  but  as  they  are  not  used  lus  places  of  worship,  or  esteemed 
sacred  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  country,  an  order  from  the  magistrate 
would,  I  conceive,  be  sufficient  to  dislodge  them,  and  without  inter- 
fering with  any  religious  feelings  of  the  people,  which  the  Government 
are  juatly  so  careful  of  offending.     If  this  were  done  very  little  trouble 

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90  THE    ROCK-CUT  TEMPLBB 

or  exjpQDM  *m>ald  be  roquired  ta  femove  the  mud  w}aUs  and  tttfabiah 
they  lubve  aoeumnlated,  aad  thus  restore  to  ykfw  these  rery  iiitgnwitmg 
monamente. 

Unless,  however^  it  is  intended  to  mike  and  pvbinh  Boeunte 
drawings  of  the  series,  and  to  take  some  measures  for  their  prDtao- 
tion  in  future,  it  is  soarcely  to  be  wished  that  this  shouM  be  done;  for 
there  is  little  doubt,  judging  from  what  has  happened  in  other  platoes, 
that  a  few  pio-nio  parties  fh)m  Cuttaok  or  Pnri,  and  the  deBtnH>- 
tive  pilfering  of  a  few  wouid-be  antiquarians,  would  do  more  ham 
in  a  few  years,  than  has  been  done  by  their  present  occupants  in 
eenturies. 

The  oaves  of  Ellora,  Salsetto,  Junit,  &c.,  ate  entirely  deserted  as 
places  of  worship,  and  therefore  easily  accessible  to  all  Europeans. 
Their  stucco  and  painting  have  however  almost  entirely  disappeared, 
but  their  sculptures  are  not  so  easily  broken,  and  are  on  too  large  a 
scale  to  tempt  the  cupidity  of  most  collectors. 

The  cave  at  Elephanta  being  situated  so  near  Bombay,  was  more 
exposed  to  injury  than  any  of  the  others,  and  much  was  done^  till 
Government  at  length  appointed  an  invalid  seijeant  to  look  after  and 
protect  it ;  since  that  time  it  has  been  tolerably  well  oared  for. 

The  great  cave  at  Karli  is  now,  strangely  enough,  taken  posseesion 
of  by  the  Brahmans,  and  considered  a  temple  of  Mahadeva.  How  far, 
therefore,  interference  with  it  would  be  jHracticable  I  do  not  know, 
access,  however,  is  allowed  to  any  strangers,  «ind  there  are  no  paint- 
ings or  sculptures  which  are  likely  to  be  iz^ured  by  ite  present  occu- 
pants, or  even  by  English  tourists. 

The  only  series,  therefore,  that  demands  immediate  attention  is  that 
of  Ajunta;  the  caves  there  are  entirely  deserted  by  the  natives,  and 
are  only  visited  by  Europeans. 

As  I  mentioned  above  they  still  retain  the  greater  portion  of  th^r 
original  paintings,  but  that  is  fiost  disappearing,  and  a  traveller  who 
would  now  visit  them,  will  miss  much  that  I  saw  a  few  years  ago. 

It  is  sad  to  think  that  after  standing  so  many  years  an  exposure 
to  so  destructive  a  climate,  after  escaping  the  bigotry  of  the  Moslem, 
and  the  rough  usage  of  the  robber  Bheel,  they  should  be  fast  perishing 
from  the  meddling  curiosity  of  the  Europeans  who  now  visit  them. 
But  such  is  unfortunately  the  caae;  for  few  come  away  without  picking 
off  one  or  two  of  the  heads  he  thinks  most  beautiful  or  interesting,  and 
as  most  of  them  are  reduced  to  powder  before  they  reach  their  desti- 
nation, they  are  lost  to  the  world  for  ever.  The  only  instance  of  this 
I  can  refer  to  in  print,  is  in  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of 
Bengal,  vol.  v.,  p.  561,  where  it  is  stated,  that  Dr.  Bird  peeled  four 


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OF    INDIA.  91 

iguves  off  the  Zodiae  in  cave  No.  17,  and  this  ib  nnfortanatelj  not  the 
only  hutanoe  that  has  fallen  under  my  observation. 

I  have  now  brought  to  a  conclusion  the  remarks  I  had  to  make  on 
the  Cave  Temples  of  India^  which  have  extended  to  a  much  greater 
length  than  I  supposed  they  would  do  when  I  originallj  undertook 
the  task  of  compiling  them.  The  number  of  objects,  however,  to  be 
described  is  so  great,  that  I  have  found  it  impossible  to  compress  into 
shorter  limits  the  foregoing  descriptions,  with  the  few  remarks  that 
were  necessary  to  render  the  subject  intelligible.  Indeed,  I  am  afraid 
that  I  am  equally  open  to  the  opposite  accusation  of  abruptness  and 
obscurity  from  attempting  too  great  conciseness ;  but  I  must  be  allowed 
to  plead  as  an  apology  for  this  fault,  as  well  as  for  the  want  of 
polish  of  style  that  pervades  my  descriptions,  that  in  almost  eveiy 
instance,  I  have  copied  word  for  word  in  this  paper  the  notes  I  made 
on  the  spot  and  in  the  caves  themselves.  By  a  little  amplification  and 
attention  to  style  it  would  have  been  easy  to  have  rendered  the  paper 
much  more  readable,  but  this  would  have  added  to  its  length,  which 
is  already  too  great;  and  besides,  might,  in  describing  objects  so  long 
after  they  were  visited,  have  rendered  my  descriptions  less  correct,  and 
thus  have  taken  from  them  the  only  merit  to  which  they  can  fairly 
pretend.  I  may  also  add,  that  when  this  paper  was  first  written,  it 
was  my  intention  to  have  published  at  the  same  time,  in  a  folio  form, 
some  eighteen  or  twenty  of  my  sketches  of  the  caves  and  temples 
described  in  the  text,  which,  when  taken  with  the  illustrations  now 
given,  would,  I  conceive,  have  added  much  to  the  interest  of  the  sub- 
ject, besides  supplying  many  of  the  deficiencies  of  the  descriptions,  of 
which  no  one  is  more  fully  awrare  that  I  am. 

I  regret^  however,  to  say,  that  I  have  not  as  yet  been  able  to  find 
any  publisher  willing  to  undertake  the  publication  on  satisfactory 
terms,  nor  has  the  project  met  with  sufficient  encouragement  in  any 
quarter  to  which  I  have  hitherto  referred  it,  to  induce  me  to  undertake 
the  risk  and  annoyance  of  bringing  it  out  myself  and  on  my  own 
account;  I  am  not,  however,  without  hope  that  this  may  still  be 
accomplished. 


Since  the  foregoing  paper  was  read,  a  Memorial  was  presented  by 
the  Council  of  this  Society  to  the  Court  of  Directors  on  the  subject  of 
these  caves,  to  which  I  am  happy  to  hear  they  have  responded;  and 
orders  have,  I  believe,  been  forwarded  to  the  different  Presidencies  to 

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92  THE   BOCK-CUT  TEMPLES   OF    INDIA. 

employ  competent  persons  to  draw  and  copy  the  antiquities  and  paint* 
ings  in  each  district^  and  thus  we  may  at  last  hope  to  have  these  cayes 
illustrated  in  a  manner  worthy  of  their  magnificence  and  great  his- 
torical interest.  I  only  hope  the  subject  will  not  now  be  allowed  to 
drop  till  every  monument  of  ancient  India  has  been  thoroughly 
examined  and  detailed,  and  we  may  thus  escape  the  hitherto  too  well 
merited  reproach  of  having  so  long  possessed  that  noble  country,  and 
done  so  little  to  illustrate  its  history  or  antiquities. 


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93 


Aet.  hi. — Notet  on  Indian  Agriculture^  as  practised  in  the 
Western  or  Bombay  Provinces  of  India ;  by  Albxandeb 
Gibson,  Esq.,  Superintendent  of  the  Botanic  Garden  at 
Daporee. 

Read  I5ih  June,  1844. 

I  DO  not  offer  these  notes  for  pemsal  in  the  idea  that  they  commu- 
nicate any  thing  very  new,  neither  do  I  suppose  that  from  their  con- 
tents can  be  elicited  any  thing  likely  to  be  of  solid  benefit  to  the  more 
enlightened  agriculturist  of  Great  Britain ;  as  little  do  I  fancy  that 
they  can  possess  eyen  a  tithe  of  the  interest  which  must  attach  to  a 
detailed  description  of  the  careful  cultiyation  practised  by  the  indus- 
trious Chinese  husbandman.  Still,  I  deem  it  possible,  that  they  may 
in  some  points  not  be  destitute  of  interest : 

Ist  As  showing  that  the  agriculture  of  India  is  not  altogether  of 
«o  rude  or  sIoYonly  a  character  as  it  is  often  supposed  to  be. 

2nd.  That  many  of  the  means  and  instruments  used,  albeit  simple, 
are  yet  well  adapted  to  attain  the  end  in  view. 

3rd.  That  much  of  what  is  bad  in  the  husbandry  of  India,  is  owing 
rather  to  the  faulty  framework  of  the  social  system  of  the  Hindtis, 
than  to  any  natural  want  of  acuteness. 

4tL  That  until  the  habits  of  the  people  ajs  regards  their  social 
system,  be  in  some  measure  changed,  little  or  no  alteration  in  the 
present  routine  of  practice  is  to  be  looked  for. 

The  remarks  which  have  led  me  to  form  the  aboye  general  conclu- 
sions, will  be  found  scattered  among  the  details  given  hereafter. 
Having  premised  thus  much,  I  will  proceed  to  notice  separately  the 
modes  of  cultivation  of  the  various  Cereal  Grains,  Legumes,  Oil- 
Plants,  &c.,  in  common  use. 

1st,  Wheat. — Is  grown  chiefly  above  the  Ghits  in  the  Dekkan, 
Kandesh,  and  the  Oamatic ;  also  most  extensively  in  Gujarat,  even  to 
the  sea  border.  Farther  south,  the  climate  and  soil  under  the  Ghdts, 
do  not  admit  of  its  being  grown.  It  is  also  extensively  raised  in  many 
level  table-lands  met  with  before  the  Ghats  soften  down  to  the  flat^ 
ter  plains,  and  on  such  high  levels  the  same  measure  of  grain  is  found 
to  weigh  about  one-quarter  more  than  a  similar  quantity  raised  in  the 
more  plain  country. 

Wheat  is  universally  sown  as  a  crop  of  the  cold  season.  The  land 
intended  for    it,    however,   receives    its   first   preparation    either   in 


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94  NOTES    ON 

November  or  December  of  the  previous  year,  or  after  the  first  rains 
in  May  of  the  year  in  which  it  is  to  be  grown.  In  Gujarat,  this  pre- 
paration consists  in  ploughing  three  or  four  times  with  the  two 
bullock  plough.  A  deeper-going  instrument  is  deemed  prejudicial 
as  bringing  up  an  inferior  sub-soil.  In  the  Dekkan,  the  land  is  most 
generally  prepared  with  the  six  bullock  plough^  while  in  the  more 
southern  districts,  bordering  on  and  in  the  Camatic,  a  plough  of  from 
twelve  to  sixteen  bullocks  is  in  general  use,  but  is  not  had  recourse 
to  in  the  same  land  till  after  a  period  of  twelve  years;  and  often 
besides  a  ploughing  with  the  great  plough,  the  land  has  to  be  hand-dug 
to  root  out  the  Haryali  grass,  so  destructive  to  crops. 

The  land  having  been  thoroughly  broken  up  and  cleared  of  grass- 
roots by  ploughing,  digging  and  hand-picking,  is  left  to  be  beaten 
down  by  the  action  of  the  rainy  weather.  In  September  it  again  under- 
goes a  slight  preparation  by  the  knife-harrow,  koolas,  (kulava?)  and  on 
the  weather  being  deemed  favourable,  the  seed  is  sown  by  the  simple 
drill  harrow  of  hollow  bamboos,  converging  upwardly  into  a  cup,  and 
spreading  below,  so  as  to  allow  of  the  lower  extremity  of  each  being 
inserted  into  a  thick  and  hollow  harrow  tooth  tipped  with  iron.  Rain 
falling  after  germination  is  deemed  to  lessen  the  value  of  the  crop,  but 
a  few  heavy  showers  after  it  has  attained  the  height  of  three  inches 
materially  assist  its  growth.  The  resison  of  the  idea  is  sound  and 
apparent. 

The  land  best  fitted  for  this  growth  is  the  strong  black  soil,  which 
may  be  called  our  oldest  alluvial,  dating  probably  from  the  period 
when  the  world  was  a  mass  of  lakes ;  hence,  where  this  black  soil  is 
found  in  greatest  quantity  the  country  is  a  perfect  level.  In  the  best 
tracts  of  such  soil  no  artificial  manure  is  ever  required.  The  soil  itself 
seems,  owing  to  the  predominance  of  calcareous  matter  in  a  state  of 
very  minute  division,  to  have  the  property  of  converting  every  leaf- 
blade  and  stick  which  falls,  into  a  substance  identical  with  itself,  in  a 
very  short  space  of  time.  This  may  be  one  reason  why  manure  is 
not  required. 

Rotation  is  certainly  necessary  and  universally  practised,  but  not 
always  until  two  or  three  crops  in  succession  have  been  taken  from 
the  ground.  Wheat  is  esteemed  a  very  exhausting  crop,  or  as  the 
natives  say,  ''its  roots  are  foolish.''  A  person  attempting  to  take 
a  crop  of  sugar-cane  after  wheat,  even  supposing  that  he  manures 
largely,  is  sure  to  fail.  This  I  have  more  than  once  had  occasion 
to  see. 

In  the  best  black  soils,  the  power  of  retaining  moisture  is  so  great, 
that  a  wheat  crop  sown,  will,  without  the  aid  of  any  after-showers, 

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INDIAN    AGRICULTURE.  95 

bat  simply  by  tbe  retained  morsture  and  the  action  of  cold  afr,  turn 
out  full.  The  rationale  of  this  action  of  the  cold  I  hare  not  heard 
explained,  but  the  fact  as  to  its  materially  aiding  in  the  growth  of 
wheat  and  other  grain  is  nniversally  admitted.  Should  rain  fall  after 
the  ear  has  begun  to  fill,  the  effect  is  most  prejudicial,  nay,  even  the 
preralence  of  a  southerly  wind,  which  brings  with  it  the  moisture  of 
the  aea,  is  hardly  leas  bo.  The  effect  of  either  of  these  is  to  produce  a 
red  smut  with  mildew  of  the  ear,  so  that  in  an  extent  of  many  acres 
not  one  hundred  pounds  of  grain  may  be  reaped. 

In  some  seasons,  also,  rats  are  epidemically  destructive.  For 
inaianoe,  in  1834-5, 1  recollect  that  in  some  districts  large  remissions 
of  revenue  had  to  be  given  on  this  account.  The  wheat  once  sown 
requires  no  farther  care  until  the  reaping  season.  It  is  then  pulled^ 
bandied,  and  tbe  shares  of  the  villt^  establishment  having  been  duly 
paid  to  them,  the  remainder  is  trodden  out  on  the  threshing  floor. 
The  chaff  is  carefully  set  apart  as  a  most  necessary  provision  for 
bollockB,  and  stored  until  the  season  when  other  provender  is  scarce. 
I  believe,  that  but  for  this  chaff,  the  cultivation  of  wheat  would  be 
by  no  means  so  extensive  as  it  is,  for  the  grain  is  not  so  certain  a 
erop  as  some  other  crops  are.     It  is  also  a  necessary  part  of  rotation. 

Of  varieties  of  wheat  which  I  have  seen  grown  in  India,  the  number 
\a  six.  Of  these,  may  be  first  mentioned,  Bakhshi,  also  called  Daood 
Khani,  in  allusion,  doubtless,  to  its  northern  origin;  these  two  are 
very  nearly  related  if  not  identical;  both  give  a  superior  fiour,  best 
fitted  for  white  bread,  sweetmeats,  &c. ;  the  first  is  always  raised  on 
irrigated  land;  the  second  is  a  dry  crop  fitted  only  for  the  best  soiL 
I  find  that  the  produce  does  not  generally  exceed  twelve  hundred 
pounds  per  acre,  and  is  most  frequently  short  of  this  quantity;  the 
price  at  which  these  wheats  sell  is  higher  than  that  of  other  wheats; 
but  it  varies  according  to  situation,  season,  &c.,  from  sixty  pounds  to 
ninety  pounds  per  rupee,  t.  e.,  it  may  be  said  to  vary  from  ten  to 
sixteen  shillings  per  quarter.  In  Gujarat,  however,  the  produce  may 
be  larger  than  that  above-mentioned. 

The  tax  on  an  acre  of  the  best  wheat  ground,  may  in  Gujarat 
amount  to  eight  or  ten  shillings.  In  the  Dekkan  and  Camatic  border, 
the  rate  of  such  ground,  per  acre,  will  probably  vary  from  two  to  five 
shillings  under  the  new  survey.  Each  acre  of  wheat  will,  in  addition 
to  the  grain  produce,  be  expected  to  yield  chaff  to  the  value  of  two 
rupees. 

The  other  varieties  of  wheat  are, — 

2nd,  Kathi.  Inferior  to  the  last  in  colour  and  quality,  but  rather 
superior  in  quantity  of  produce. 

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96  NOTES    ON 

drd,  Pothi.  Inferior  to  the  last,  but  suited  to  poorer  and  even  to 
grej  soil  if  manured. 

4th,  Kowri  or  Khapale,  Do.     Do. 

5th9  Tambari.    Inferior  to  all  of  the  above. 

6th,  Beardless  wheat.  Not  common  here,  but  grain  fine.  Said  to 
be  common  at  Delhi. 

The  tax  on  the  land  whereon  it  is  raised  may  not  exceed  one  and 
nixpence  or  two  shillings. 

As  to  the  storing  of  ti^  crop,  this  in  a  tropical  climate,  where 
animals  of  every  description  abound,  is  a  most  essential  part  of  rural 
economy.  The  granaries  are  always  underground  pits,  excavated  in 
sloping  places,  or  places  where  the  sub-soil  is  hard  and  dry;  these 
pits  are  from  six  to  eight  feet  in  depth,  closing  to  a  narrow  mouth ; 
and  having  the  bottom  well  puddled  with  clay,  and  the  sides  lined 
with  thick  ropes  made  of  the  leaves  of  sugar-cane,  or  other  dry  mate- 
rial, twisted;  over  these,  teak  or  any  other  large  leaves  are  carefully 
built  as  the  filling  proceeds ;  and  the  mouth  is  closed  by  grass  beaten 
down  and  puddled  over  with  earth.  The  leaves  of  the  Nim-tree 
are  usually  put  in  along  with  the  grain,  as  they  from  their  bitter 
quality,  have  some  power  in  warding  off  attacks  of  the  weevil  or  other 
insects. 

In  countries  where  dry  grain  is  much  grown,  the  number  of  these 
subterranean  receptacles  is  so  great,  that  an  elephant  driver  will  most 
reluctantly  and  carefully  pilot  his  animal  through  the  quarter  of  a 
city  where  the  grain  shops  are,  from  the  fear  of  the  hollow  ground 
giving  way  under  the  elephant's  weight.  In  a  year  of  scarcity  (and 
fortunately  these  are  becoming  less  and  less  common  under  our 
Government,)  the  value  of  such  receptacles  is  fully  felt. 

At  present  prices,  a  quantity  of  wheaten  flour  sufficient  for  a  meal 
for  two  natives,  may  be  purchased  for  about  one  penny,  and  as  the 
wages  of  labour  on  this  side  of  India,  rule  at  from  four  to  eight  shil- 
lings per  month,  it  will  be  obvious  that  the  number  of  persons  who  can 
afford  to  feed  on  wheaten  flour,  is  large.  The  greater  proportion, 
however,  of  the  labouring  population  seem  to  prefer  as  a  food,  the 
cereal  next  mentioned. 

Bajri  (Holcus  spicat.) — This  grain  is  a  staple  of  first  importance 
as  an  article  of  food  for  the  working  classes,  and,  indeed,  many  of  the 
higher  ranks,  especially  Mahrattas,  prefer  Bajri  to  wheaten  bread.  It 
is  generally  believed  to  be  the  best  food  for  a  man  who  has  to  labour 
hard. 

It   is  grown  extensively  in  Gujarat,  the  Dekkan,  and  Kandesh. 


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INDIAN    AGRICULTURE.  97 

It  does  not  floarish  below  the  OMts  southward,  neither  does  it 
appear  to  be  grown  in  the  Oamatic  provinces.  The  soil  which  best 
suits  it  is  a  brown  mouldy  partly  composed  of  red  and  partly  of  black 
soil;  though  this  be  its  most  choice  habitat^  it  will  be  found  growing  in 
all  the  coarser  varieties  of  soil  up  to  the  merest  detritus  of  trap  rock^ 
forming  the  lower  shelves  of  hills.  In  the  sandy  soils  forming  the  borders 
of  the  Northern  Desert  or  Run,  it  will  be  found  growing  luxuriantly. 

Bajri  land  is  generally  ploughed  and  turned  up  as  soon  as  possible 
after  November ;  it  is  then  ploughed  a^  cross-ploughed^  and  allowed 
to  benefit  as  much  as  possible  by  the  action  of  the  sun  in  the  hot 
weather;  after  the  first  heavy  rain  of  June,  and  £rom  that  time  until 
the  20th  of  July,  the  final  preparation  is  given  by  the  knife-harrow 
twice  nin  over  the  land.  Weeds  are  carefully  collected,  heaped,  and 
burned  in  the  land,  and  manure,  if  procurable,  is  then  spread.  The 
grun  is  now  sown  with  the  common  drill  sowing  machine,  and  the 
ground  is  then  smoothed  down  by  the  drill  machine  inverted,  and  kept 
down  by  the  weight  of  one  or  more  men. 

When  the  crop  has  reached  the  height  of  four  or  five  inches  weeds 
and  grass  are  removed,  and  the  plants  are  clustered  up  by  a  light 
bullock  hoe^  composed  of  two  pairs  of  horizontal  iron  brackets  fixed  in 
frames,  and  at  such  distance  as  to  sweep  the  edges  of  each  drill, 
removing  weeds  in  their  progress,  and  also  loosening  and  turning  up 
the  earth  before  them.  The  cost  of  a  pair  of  such  hoes  may  be  about 
one  shilling;  they  are  very  efiectual  for  the  purpose  intended. 

From  this  time  until  the  grain  has  eared  no  farther  care  is  requi- 
site; should  timely  showers,  usually  looked  for  in  August,  fall,  the  crop 
will  probably  be  abundant;  but  even  should  these  £eu1  at  the  appointed 
season,  the  plant  is  very  tolerant  of  long  drought;  much  rain  is  inju- 
rious, particularly  in  the  shallower  and  sloping  soils ;  in  these,  the 
under  stratum  being  nearly  impermeable  to  water,  this  is  accumulated 
about  the  roots  of  the  plants  and  speedily  rots  them,  especially  when 
no  manure  has  been  given.  In  parts  of  the  same  field,  the  manured 
portion  may  often  be  seen  to  retain  a  dark  and  healthy  green  hue, 
while  the  unmanured  portions  are  of  a  sickly  and  dying  yellow. 
The  grain  having  been  formed,  the  next  care  is  to  preserve  it  from 
birds,  such  as  sparrows,  parrots,  &c.  These  animals  are  most  destruc-' 
tive,  particularly  if  trees  happen  to  be  situated  near  to  the  field ;  when 
this  is  the  case,  it  must  be  watched  from  sunrise  to  sunset^  and  for  this 
purpose  members  of  the  peasant's  family  relieve  each  other  on  a  stage 
erected  in  the  field,  and  with  cries,  slings,  and  stones,  keep  the  birds  at 
bay.  The  grain  having  ripened,  it  is  stacked  to  await  the  peasant's 
leisure  for  threshing. 


VOL.  VIII.  H 

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98  NOTES    ON 

In  threshing,  the  headtii  ore  fiVst  separated  from  the  stems;  this  is 
performed  by  women,  who,  if  hired,  are  paid  at  the  rate  of  six  pounds 
and  a  half  of  grain  per  one  hundred  bundles  or  sheaves  of  the  straw 
thus  separated.  It  has  often  oocurred  to  me  that  a  small  and  simple 
machine,  like  the  model  of  a  loaded  guillotine,  might  be  made  efficient 
in  chopping  off  the  heads  of  grain.  The  chief  obstacle  to  this^  would 
consist  in  the  different  lengths  of  the  straws  composing  a  bundle;  a 
machine  of  this  kind  would  save  a  vast  quantity  of  manual  labour. 

The  produce  of  an  average  crop  per  acre,  will  be  found  to  be  about 
six  hundred  pounds ;  but  in  rich  districts,  such  as  Gujarat,  one  thou- 
sand pounds  will  be  nearer  the  quantity. 

The  straw  is  in  many  districts  the  only  resource  of  the  peasant  for 
eattle-forage,  and  therefore  is  most  carefully  stored,  but  it  is  very 
inferior  in  nutriment  to  the  straw  of  millet,  or  Jowari.  The  amount  of 
straw  per  acre  may  be  about  six  hundred  bundles,  value  about  one 
rupee  ten  annas,  or  three  shillings. 

As  to  the  price  of  the  grain  itself,  I  conclude  that  the  ryot  can 
seldom,  except  in  Gujarat,  realise  a  gross  product  of  more  than  four 
rupees  per  acre,  and  on  poor  unmanured,  watery,  or  rocky  lands  about 
two  rupees  per  acre. 

The  tax  on  land  fit  for  Bajri,  may  be  in  Gujarat  from  two  to  four 
rupees  per  acre;  in  the  Dekkan,  &c.,  at  least  under  the  new  survey, 
I  believe,  that  one  rupee  eight  annas  may  be  the  maximum,  and  six 
annas  the  minimum,  giving  an  average  of  fourteen  annas;  the  chaff  of 
this  grain  is  not  eaten  by  cattle. 

In  the  poorer  soils  along  with  Bajri,  is  always  sown  a  small 
Legume  (Hoolga,  hvMowlay/  this  is  hardly  in  flower  when  the  Bajri  is 
taken  off;  it  is  left  to  ripen  and  may  give  about  one  and  a  half  maunds 
per  acre. 

In  the  richer  soils,  Tiir  {Cytisus  hajar%)y  is  commonly  sown  in  the 
alternate  rows,  and  is  also  left  to  ripen  after  the  crop  of  Bajri  is 
taken  off. 

The  selling  price  of  Bajri  in  the  inland  districts  can  be  hardly 
quoted  as  higher  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds  per  rupee;  since 
the  abolition  of  transit  duties  it  has  been  exported  to  the  coast  dis- 
tricts in  much  larger  quantities  than  was  formerly  the  case,  and  this 
has  had  some  tendency  to  equalise  prices.  It  is  reckoned  as  a  yery 
sanatory  rotation  crop ;  it  is  also  subject  to  fewer  casualties  than  are 
most  of  the  other  cereal  grains.  Alone  it  is  not  given  to  horses,  being 
esteemed  too  heating,  but  mixed  with  math  (Phcueoltu  aconitifoHus),  it 
forms  an  excellent  food. 

'  Mahratf,  Hnlagi  or  hiilagf :  Dolichos  hlfioras,— Editor, 

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INDIAN    AGRICULTURE.  99 

Great  Millet  {Holcus  sorghum).  Millet  is  a  grain  V6ry  exten- 
mvely  cultivated  in  this  Presidency,  throughont  Gujarat,  Kandesh, 
the  Dekkan,  and  Camatic,  but  in  the  narrow  strip  of  coast  composing 
the  two  Conkans^  it  is  not  suited  to  climate  or  soil,  and  consequently 
is  never  raised.  In  the  rich  black  plains  of  Gujarat  or  Kandesh  it 
may  often,  indeed  most  generally,  be  seen  twelve  feet  high;  in  Uiese 
black  soil  districts  it  is  the  established  rotation  crop  for  cotton  and 
wheat 

The  first  variety,  or  red  Jowari,  is  sown  immediately  after  the  first 
fiall  of  rain  in  June.  The  land  requires  little  preparation,  as  it  had 
been  in  former  seasons  either  prepared  by  trenching  or  by  ploughing, 
and  freed  from  all  weeds;  thus,  the  only  farther  preparation  neces- 
sary  in  sowing  Jowari  is  to  run  the  knife-harrow  several  times  over 
it,  and  afterwards  to  sow  with  the  drill  machine  before^mentioned. 
The  plant  is  afterwards  earthed  up  or  weeded  with  the  bullock  hoe ; 
watching  is  required  as  in  the  case  of  Bajri,  and  unless  done  by  the 
peasant's  family,  constitutes  a  considerable  item  of  the  expense  of  the 
crop;  it  ripens  in  October,  and  is  pulled,  stacked,  and  the  ear  after- 
wards separated  by  numual  labour. 

The  second  variety,  or  White  Millet,  is  sown  in  the  end  of  August 
or  beginning  of  September;  this  is  a  much  lower  growing  grain  than 
the  first,  but  the  ear  is  greatly  larger,  fuller,  and  both  grain  and 
straw  are  superior.  The  straw  of  this  last  contains  much  saccharine 
matter,  and  is  wholly  consumed  in  forage;  whereas,  of  the  first  only 
the  leaves  and  tender  ends  are  eatable,  while  the  entire  stem  is 
rejected  by  beasts.  In  quantity  of  grain  this  cereal  is  most  produc- 
tive, two  thousana  &ve  hundred  pounds  per  acre  being  a  common  crop 
in  good  soil. 

The  growth  of  the  second  variety  is  confined  to  the  more  inland 
and  open  country,  particularly  to  those  districts,  which  from  their 
situation,  get  showers  in  October  or  November,  the  commencing 
showers  of  the  Madras  monsoon.  It  is  a  crop  which  bears  a  good 
deal  of  wet  without  injury  to  the  straw,  particularly  when  manure 
is  used;  cold  has  a  beneficial  action  on  the  filling  of  the  ear,  but 
the  least  excess  of  it  kills  the  plant,  and  this  blight  takes  place 
chiefly  in  situations  near  a  running  stream,  where  the  cold  is  a  de- 
gree or  two  greater  than  that  of  the  surrounding  country.  Should 
frost  occur,  which  is  sometimes  the  case,  whole  fields  are  imme- 
diately dried  up.  It  is  a  beneficent  provision  of  nature  that  the 
straw  of  this  grain  should  most  abound  in  the  black  soil  districts 
in  which  cotton  is  raised,  and  which  are  generally  destitute  of  pasture 
ground. 

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100  NOTES    ON 

For  the  transport  of  an  article  so  bulky  as  cotton,  large  numbers 
of  bullocks  are  required ;  the  Jowari  straw  can  be  afforded  at  a  rate 
so  cheap,  as  to  be  accessible  to  the  poorest;  the  price  varies  according 
to  situation,  season,  &c.,  from  four  to  fifteen  rupees  per  thousand 
bundles,  and  the  size  of  these  may  be  judged  of  by  the  fact  that  ten 
of  them  form  a  load  for  a  man.  The  straw^  particularly  of  the  second 
variety,  is  very  nutritive;  it  is  carefully  stored  up  as  a  resource  in  case 
of  a  bad  season.  In  Gujarat  it  is  stored  in  houses ;  in  the  Dekkan  and 
Gamatic,  I  remark  that  it  is  preserved  simply  by  overlaying  the  sloping 
stacks  with  clods  of  the  black  soil;  these  are  beaten  down  by  the  rain 
into  a  uniform  mass,  which  forms  a  hard  crust  over  the  stack.  This 
straw  is  the  principal  food  for  elephants  and  camels  in  countries  where 
trees  and  shrubs  are  scarce. 

This  cereal  is  often  sown  solely  for  the  sake  of  the  straw;  this  is 
done  in  districts  where  other  pasturage  is  scarce,  but  where  the  means 
of  irrigation  are  abundant;  when  sown  for  this  purpose,  sowing  takes 
place  in  March,  in  ground  well  manured;  it  is  sown  very  thick,  as 
length  of  straw  and  not  weight  of  ear  is  the  object.  It  ought  to  be  fit 
to  begin  cutting  by  May  15th,  and  a  careful  husbandman  calculates  on 
having  a  supply  sufficient  for  his  bullocks  until  the  first  rank  grass  of 
the  rains  gathers  some  heart  and  is  fit  for  food ;  it  is  cut  green,  and 
the  quantity  required  for  daily  consumption  is  cut,  and  the  remainder 
left  standing.  In  seasons  when  from  deficiency  of  the  early  rain 
forage  is  scarce,  this  straw  can  often  be  sold  standing,  at  the  rate  of 
about  fifty  rupees  per  acre. 

In  a  poor  country,  such  as  that  which  forms  a  large  portion  of  our 
Dekkan  province,  where  there  is  almost  always  an  under  supply  of 
forage,  every  fair  means  should  be  taken  to  encourage  the  extension  of 
a  cultivation  so  essential  for  the  preservation  of  animals  as  this.  It 
is  therefore  with  sorrow,  I  remark,  that  under  the  new  survey  now 
in  progress,  a  tax  on  wells,  even  of  the  most  common  description,  is 
being  re-imposed.  Since  the  total  abolition  of  well  tax  in  the  Poonah 
zilla  which  took  place  about  seventeen  years  ago,  the  ryots  have 
exerted  themselves  in  vastly  multiplying  the  means  of  irrigation. 
We  may  now  look  for  a  complete  check  to  this  spirit,  and  it  seems 
too  probable,  that  even  many  wells  now  in  use  will  be  thrown  up. 

The  selling  price  of  millet  may  be  quoted  as  varying  from  one 
hundred  and  forty  to  one  hundred  and  seventy  pounds  per  rupee.  It 
seems  to  form  the  principal  food  of  the  inhabitants  of  large  cities, 
artisans,  weavers,  and  others  whose  employments  are  sedentary.  A 
quantity  sufficient  for  two  meals  may  be  purchased  for  about  a  half- 
penny. 


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INDIAN    AGRICULTURE.  101 

The  roots  of  the  crop  of  a  previous  season  are  thrown  into  embank* 
ments  to  help  in  binding  together  the  soil.  Every  good  cultivator 
constructs  such  embankments  when  the  soil  of  his  field  is  at  all  sloping, 
and  consequently  liable  to  be  washed  away.  Sometimes  they  are 
done  by  the  labour  of  his  own  household,  but  more  generally  under 
contract  with  wirdars,  a  class  who  travel  about  the  country  performing 
work  of  this  kind. 

Eleusinb  Coracana  {Natdveny,  ndgali,  maud). — Cultivated  prin- 
cipally as  a  hill  grain,  but  also  in  the  plains.  B,  stricta  is  the  species 
cultivated  in  the  latter;  it  is  not  an  article  of  general  culture,  but  only 
in  garden  villages,  near  and  below  the  Ghits,  where  soil  is  alluvial, 
and  stream  water  abundant 

The  young  plants  are  raised  in  a  bed  formed  by  ash  manure ;  on 
the  ground  being  thoroughly  moistened,  which  it  ought  to  be  by  the 
l(Hh  July,  the  young  plants  are  taken  out  and  puddled  down  in  the 
adjacent  fields  previously  prepared  by  a  light  plough  and  harrow.  The 
increase  of  this  grain  is  very  great,  in  good  soil  about  three  thousand 
pounds  per  acre ;  it  is  a  cheap  grain  ;  its  price  may  be  quoted  at  from 
one  hundred  and  fifty  to  one  hundred  and  ninety  pounds  per  rupee.  I 
believe  that  the  Banyans  often  refuse  it  as  a  return  for  cash  borrowed, 
a  proof  of  the  small  value  attached  to  it  in  proportion  to  its  bulk. 

The  hill  species,  E,  coracana,  is  a  smaller  plant  and  much  less 
productive ;  it  is  planted  out  in  July.  As  the  mode  of  its  cultivation 
is  identical  with  that  pursued  with  the  other  hill  grains  (one  excepted,) 
one  description  may  serve  for  all. 

A  piece  of  jungle  is  cleared  of  bushes  or  trees  in  any  of  the  dry 
months;  the  bushes,  leaves,  and  wood,  are  thickly  spread  so  as  to 
cover  the  ground  intended  for  the  plants ;  fire  is  applied  in  April  or 
May ;  with  the  first  rainfall  seed  is  sown  broadcast.  When  the  plants 
are  sufficiently  high,  advantage  is  taken  of  wet  weather  to  scratch 
the  adjoining  ground  into  furrows,  either  by  hand  or  a  light  plough, 
a  person  follows  in  the  furrows  with  a  basket  of  the  plants,  which  are 
simply  dropped  in,  and  left  to  be  brought  on  by  the  rain  acting  on  the 
loose  soil.  No  farther  care  is  required,  and  reaping  takes  place  in 
October  or  November. 

On  account  of  the  broken  nature  of  the  ground  it  is  impossible  to 
estimate  accurately  the  quantity  of  grain  obtained  from  a  given 
portion  of  soil,  but  it  is  certainly  less  by  three-quarters  than  that 
obtained  from  the  garden  species  above  alluded  to. 

Land  thus  treated  is  cultivated  for  four  years  in  the  following 
rotation. 


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102  NOTES    ON 

Ist  BUusine  Cor.,  Natoheny. 

2nd.  Wari,  or  Kang^  (Kangni?)  Panicum  IfUiare,  and  P,  ItaUeum, 

3rd.  Harik,  Kodroo,  (Kadrava,)  Pcupdlum  BcrcbienUOum. 

4th.  Verbesina,  Black  Til,  an  oil  plant. 

These  fonr  crops  are  considered  to  exhaust  the  soil,  which  is  left 
in  fallow  for  twelve  years.  The  straw  of  Natcheny  is  indispensable  to 
the  Ghdt  peasant  and  the  Concan  cultivator,  as  a  food  for  their  cattle. 
In  those  countries  the  grass,  either  from  the  nature  of  the  climate,  or 
the  late  period  at  which  it  is  cut,  contains  little  or  no  nutriment, 
and  cattle  fed  on  it  could  not  labour  for  any  time.  The  sale  of  l^e 
spare  straw  is  one  of  the  resources  of  the  peasant,  and  it  is  largely 
purchased  by  the  Lingayet  and  other  travelling  grain  dealers,  whose 
cattle  are  generally  in  good  condition.  The  Banjaras  again,  or  Lu^ 
mans,  make  no  provision  of  the  kind  for  their  cattle,  and  the  con- 
sequence is,  that  of  those  who  come  down  for  salt  late  in  the  season 
immense  numbers  die. 

The  straw  of  the  E.  naJtcheny  is  also  used  for  burning  bricks  when 
it  is  intended  that  these  should  be  large,  or  of  choice  quality;  it  is 
chopped  up  and  mixed  with  the  brick  clay;  the  effect,  of  course,  is  the 
thorough  baking  of  the  brick.  The  large  bricks  to  be  met  with  in  all 
old  buildings  of  the  Mussulman  princes  of  India  have  been  prepared 
in  this  way,  so  that  the  children  of  Israel  had  reason  for  grumbling 
in  that  they  were  compelled  by  Pharaoh  to  make  bricks  without  straw. 
(  Vide  Exod.  c.  v.). 

As  the  roots  are  many,  the  grain  is  thrown  on  embankments  in 
order  that  the  plant,  as  it  grows,  may  bind  together  the  earth  and 
stones. 

Other  Hill  Cbrealia. — Of  these,  it  may  be  said  generally,  that 
the  mode  of  cultivation  is  as  in  that  last  described;  that  the  produce 
is  quite  as  cheap  or  cheaper,  and  is  seldom  used  as  food  beyond  the 
districts  where  it  is  produced.  The  patch  of  rice  is  chiefly  looked  to 
as  a  mean  of  paying  the  land-tax,  and  the  cultivator  is  fortunate  if  he 
has  a  sufficiency  of  the  other  grains  to  last  until  the  following  October. 

I  remark,  that  tliis  season  locusts  appear  to  have  alighted  only  in 
villages  close  to  the  Gh^ts,  or  in  the  Gh^ts,  and  in  many  of  these 
the  crops  have  been  so  completely  eaten  up,  that  the  villagers  have 
already  begun  to  feed  on  the  stems  of  the  wild  plantain-tree^  the  wild 
yam,  and  the  more  delicate  but  rarer  root  of  an  undescribed  umbel- 
liferous plant  named  ^'Peenda." 

Before  concluding,  I  will  advert  to  the  remarkable  intoxicating 
property  found  in  one  of  these  grains,  Harik,  a  Patpalum  (frumenta- 


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INDIAN    AGRICULTURE.  103 

oenmt)  I  hare  bad  oooasion  to  see  a  large  number  of  inbabitants  of 
a  Tillage  gimnltaneonflly  affected  with  intoxioation,  after  a  meal  made 
from  cakes  of  this  floor.  Vertigo^  a  degree  of  sleepiness  and  fatuity, 
ratber  tban  active  excitement,  is  the  cbaracteristio  effect  of  this  grain. 
Tbe  symptoms  are  sometimes  of  a  character  more  severe,  lasting  for 
seven  days  and  attended  witb  a  vomiting  of  blood;  fatal  cases  it  is 
said  sometimes  happen,  but  I  have  not  any  case  well  authenticated ; 
tbe  effect  from  the  grain  eaten  is  not  constant.  It  is  most  apt  to 
oecor  when  tbe  grain  has  attained  full  development  owing  to  late  and 
heavy  rain,  acting  on  a  highly  manured  soil. 

Its  intoxicating  property  is  said  to  be  neutralised  by  previous 
steeping  in  water  wherein  cow  dung  has  been  diffused. 

The  remedies  had  recourse  to  after  the  effects  have  taken  place  are, 

1st,  A  pottage  composed  of  the  flour  of  '^Borud,"  (Phaaeolua  mungo); 
and  2nd,  expressed  juice  of  leaves  of  ^'Harsinga^**  {NyctarUhes  arbor 
tristis). 

The  action  of  this  grain  on  the  human  system  is  well  worthy 
foriher  investigation. 


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104 


Art.  IV. — A  Letter  to  Richard  Clarke,  Esq.,  Honorary  Secre- 
tary to  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society^  on  the  Oriental  M8S.  in 
the  Library  of  Eton  College. 

[Read  IQth  March,  1844.] 
My  dear  Sir, 

At  the  close  of  last  season  yon  did  me  the  faroar  to  oommani^ 
cate  to  me  a  letter  from  a  member  of  this  Society,  Major  Postans, 
alluding  to  the  Oriental  MSS.  in  the  Library  of  Eton  College.  That 
collection  had  occupied  my  attention  some  time  before,  having  during 
the  last  three  or  four  years,  on  occasional  visits  to  the  College, 
examined  the  MSS.  veiy  minutely,  for  the  purpose  of  making  their 
existence  better  known  than  it  appears  to  be.  With  the  exception  of 
the  late  lamented  Sir  W.  Ouseley,  aaid  Professor  Lee  of  Cambridge, 
they  seem  to  have  entirely  escaped  the  inspection  of  Orientalists. 

The  histoiy  of  the  collection  is  curious  and  interesting.  Above 
fifty  years  ago,  Mr.  E.  Pote,  a  Scholar  on  the  Foundation  of  Eton 
College,  having  subsequently  completed  his  studies  at  the  sister 
institution,  King's  College,  Cambridge,  and  entered  on  public  life  in 
India,  collected  in  that  country  between  four  and  five  hundred  MSS., 
chiefly  Persian  and  Arabic,  as  the  most  appropriate  offering  he  could 
make  to  the  two  royal  foundations  to  which  he  was  grateful  for  his 
earlier  education  and  preferment.  The  gift  was  announced  by  a 
letter  from  Mr.  Pote,  from  Patna,  Feb.  1788,  explaining  its  object,  and 
arrived  in  England  in  1790,  when,  in  compliance  with  the  donor's 
wishes,  the  books  were  divided  between  the  Colleges  of  Eton  and 
King's,  and  deposited  in  their  respective  libraries.  A  catalogue,  pre- 
pared in  India,  was  to  have  accompanied  the  collection,  but  was  not 
received  till  four  years  after.  It  will  readily  be  conceived  by  those 
conversant  with  Eastern  bibliography  that  the  description  it  contains 
would  be  far  from  satisfoxstory  in  the  present  more  advanced  stage  of 
science.  The  kind  friends  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  greatest 
indulgence  in  visiting  the  College  Library,  have  promised  me  a  copy 
of  this  catalogue,  from  which,  with  the  numerous  notes  I  have  taken 
of  the  MSS.  themselves,  I  hope  to  be  able  to  arrange  a  list,  if 
not  entirely  satisfactory,  at  least  more  .available  for  reference  and 
research.  In  the  mean  time,  the  following  hasty  sketch  of  its  con- 
tents may  perhaps  be  worthy  the  notice  of  lovers  of  that  literature. 

The  portion  of  the  Pote  Collection  appropriated  to  Eton  College 
contains  222  volumes.  The  department  of  history  in  which  it  is  most 
rich,  relates  chiefly  to  the  country  in  which  the  collection  was  formed. 


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ETON  COLLEGE  ORIENTAL  M6S.  105 

It  oompreben(is  tho  Valuable  hlstoiy  the  B6stdni  Khaydl ;  a  Tdrikh 
Kashmiri  by  Haider  Ibn  Hasan  Mulk;  the  Ayini  Akbari;  the  Tdrikh 
Shah  Shujdi,  or  History  of  the  Four  Sons  of  Shah  Jehan ;  and  the 
Histories  of  Baber^  Akber,  Jehangir, ' Alamglr,  Ferruksir^  and  Moham-^ 
med  Shah^  which  bear  their  names.  Merely  in  reference  to  our  recent 
success  in  India  I  may  mention  also  a  copy  of  the  Owalior  Nameh^  an 
account  of  the  capture  of  that  fortress  in  1780. 

In  General  History  there  are  the  Majmna  al  Tawarikh ;  the  Labb 
al  Tawarikh ;  the  Mukhtasar  al  Tawarikh,  by  ' Abdasselto ;  the  Tarikh 
Bedawani;  the  Compendium  called  Muntakhab  al  Tawarikh;  and  a 
History  called  Kutub  al  Tawarikh,  terminating  with  the  reign  of  Shah 
Tahmasp ;  while  the  Aalam  Ardi^  Tarikh  N^diri,  and  Zafar  Nameh  (a 
yaluable  copy  made  at  Herat,  877),  illustrate  the  reigns  and  conquests 
of  Timnr,  Shah  Abbas,  and  Nadir  Shah.  I  must  particularly  notice 
a  beautiful  copy  of  the  Matla  as'saadin,  in  2  vols.,  (written  993),  the 
Tarikh  Elfi,  or  Chronicle  of  the  first  1000  years  of  the  Hijrah,  and 
another  History  of  Abbas  the  Great,  styled  the  Abbas  Nameh,  which 
I  do  not  remember  to  have  seen  elsewhere.  To  the  historical  series 
may  be  appended  a  few  works  on  Biography,  Geography,  and  His- 
torical Geography;  as,  the  valuable  Heft  Akllm,  the  Nigaristan  of 
Ghaffdri,  and  the  MS.  of  the  Mesdlik  u  Memalik  used  by  Sir  W. 
Ouseley  in  his  edition  of  Ibn  Haukal.  In  Lexicography  there  is  the 
K£mus,  one  of  the  most  exquisite  copies  I  have  oyer  seen ;  the  Sahh^, 
a  magnificently  written  large  folio,  pointed  throughout;  the  Dictionaries 
Kashf  al  Loghdt,  (from  the  library  of  Sulten  Ahmed  ben  Masoul) ;  the 
Kunz  al  Loghat,  Maadan  al  Logh^t,  Lutayif  al  Logh^t,  and  Gherdyib  al 
Loghat ;  the  Ferhengi  Rashidi,  and  a  Ferhengi  Akhldki  Ndsiri  specially 
devoted  to  the  difficulties^  of  that  ethical  work.  Nor  is  the  collection 
deficient  in  Theology,  Ecclesiastical  History,  Jurisprudence,  and  Tradi- 
tion, which  form  so  large  a  proportion  of  the  contents  of  most  Muham- 
medan  libraries.  Accordingly,  we  have  several  Korans,  with  numerous 
Commentaries,  including  that  of  Baidhawi ;  the  curious  work  Fusiis  al 
Hnkama;  a  beautiful  MS.  of  the  Mirat  al  Kadas,  or  Tarikh  Hezrati 
Isa;  the  Majmua  al  Bahrein  by  Dara  Shikoh;  the  Rawzat  al  Ahb^b, 
a  noble  folio  in  beautiful  Naskhi;  fine  old  copies  of  the  Madrij  la 
Nebuwwat,  of  the  Mishkdti  Sherif  and  the  Sharhi  Mishk^t,  with  the 
voluminous  compilations  of  Decisions  collected  under  the  titles  of 
Awrddi  Imamiyah,  Fataw&i  Alamgiri,  and  Fatawdi  Firozsh&hi.  Among 
the  philosophical  and  scientific  works,  besides  several  medical  books, 
there  is  the  valuable  Encyclopedia,  Nefayis  al  Fun  (in ;  and  there  is  a 
Persian  Commentary  on  the  'Milal  wa'l  Nahal'  of  Shahrest&ni,  now 
edited  by  the  Text  Society. — The  Poetical  works  are  not  numerous. 

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106         ETON  COLLEGE  ORIENTAL  MSS.. 

Th6t«  iff^  faoWerer,  a  8t>l^i^di(i  Shah  Nameh  (in  2  yoU,),  Ibfraerly  be- 
longing to  Gol.  Poller,  of  which  there  is  another  copy^  apparently  not 
of  the  Pote  collection;  and  there  are  duplicates  of  the  well-known 
paraphrase  Shamshir  Kh^i,  besides  a  Mesnawi  Manawi  of  great  beauty 
and  value.  Also  the  Makhzan  al  Asrar  of  Nizami ;  Jami*s  Yusuf  and 
Zulaikha,  Hatifi's  Laili  and  Mejnun,  and  a  poem  of  Mahmud  n  Ayaz ; 
the  Mystical  poems  of  the  Mantak  al  Tayr,  and  the  Golshani  Baz ; 
the  Kardn  as'saadein  of  Amir  Khusm  of  Dehli,  and  his  Khamsah; 
and  the  entire  works  of  Shaikh  Ali  Hazin.  The  few  Hindustani  MSS. 
the  collection  contains  are  chiefly  in  this  class,  comprising  the  '  Story  of 
Madhu  Null;*  Kamrup,  (of  which  there  is  also  the  Persian  version;) 
and  Sawda's  KuUidt, — a  very  beautiful  copy.  There  is  also  the  Per- 
sian Nal  u  Damna,  and  a  full  set  of  a  Persian  translation  of  the  Maha^ 
bharata. 

Some  of  the  MSS.  of  small  Persian  poems  are  of  beautiful  penman* 
ship  and  ornament,  but  the  gem  of  the  collection  is  an  exquisite  little 
Aj^3rib  al  Makhldk^t,  in  verse,  of  which  the  original  work  in  Arabic, 
and  the  usual  Persian  version  of  Kazwini  should  have  been  mentioned 
before,  and  are  all  three  embellished  with  miniature  paintings.  A 
Sanskrit  work,  highly  ornamented,  forms  also  one  of  the  show  pieces  of 
the  Library;  I  believe  it  is  the  SivaPurdna. 

The  usual  lighter  works  of  Arabic  and  Persian  literature  have  also 
a  place  here;  the  Gulistan  and  Bostan,  beautifully  written;  Hatim 
Tai;  Lutayif  al  Zardyif  (stories);  Tdti  Namah;  the  Mak&mdt  ul 
Hariri,  with  a  commentary;  and  the  usual  sprinkling  of  Risalahs  on 
Music,  Grammar,  Cookery,  and  Farriery,  which  is  incidental  to  a 
miscellanous  collection.  I  may  conclude  in  the  words  of  that  accom- 
plished Persian  scholar.  Major  Charles  Stewart,  who  in  the  postscript  to 
his  '  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Tippoo  Sultan's  Library,'  says : — 

"  Were  the  Oriental  Manuscripts,  dispersed  through  England,  either 
generally  known,  or  assembled  in  one  place,  Britons  need  not  travel 
far  to  prosecute  their  Oriental  studies." 

Believe  me  to  be, 

My  dear  Sir, 

Very  faithfully  yours, 

N.  Bj«AND. 

RandalCi  Fork,  March,  1844. 


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107 


Art.  V. — Abstract  of  a  Discourse,  by   Dr.  Falconer,  on   the 
Fossil  Fauna  of  the  Sewalik  Hills. 

Two  eyening  meetings  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  were  held  at 
the  Society's  Rooms,   in  Grafton-Street,    on    the    1st   and    8th    of 
June,  when  Dr.  Hugh  Falconer  gave  a  discoarse,  in  two  lectures,  on 
the  ancient  animal  races  of  India,  as  indicated  by  the  Fossil  Fauna  of 
the  Sewalik  hills.     The  first  meeting  was  occupied  with  a  general 
description  of  the  Sewalik  fossil  animals.     Dr.  Falconer  referred  to  the 
antiquity  of  the  human  race  in  India,  and  the  spreading  of  its  mytho- 
logy, arts,  and  sciences,  over  other  nations:  they  had  extended  to 
Greece  and  Italy  through  Egypt.      There  is  a  limit  to  antiquarian 
research,  at  the  point  where  we  cease  to  have  indication^j  of  the  human 
race.     If  we  desire  to  dive  further  into  antiquity,  we  have  to  fall  back 
on  the  monuments  and  inscriptions  constructed  by  nature,  on  the  fossil 
remains  of  the  extinct  races  of  animals  which  formerly  peopled  the 
earth.     Some  of  the  Sewalik  fossils  appear  to  afford  grounds  for  enter- 
taining the  presumption  that  it  may  be  possible  to  connect  the  human 
epoch  with  very  remote  times.     The  Colossochelys  Atlas,  or  gigantic 
foesil  tortoise  of  India,  discovered  by  Captain  Cautley  and  Dr.  Falconer, 
supplies  a  fit  representative  of  the  tortoise  which  sustained  the  elephant 
and  the  infiB.nt  world  in  the  fables  of  the  Pythagorean  and  Hindu  cos- 
mogonies.    It  is  a  point  of  great  interest  to  trace  back  to  a  probable 
source,  a  matter  of  belief  like  this,  so  widely  connected  with  the  specu- 
lations of  an  early  period  of  the  human  race.     Dr.  Falconer  gave  a 
brief  historical  account  of  the  discovery  of  fossil  remains  of  extinct 
mammalia  in  India,  commencing  with  the  incident  mentioned  in  Ferish- 
ta*s  history,  during  the  reign   of  Feroz  Toghluki,  a  d.  1360;    the 
discoveries  of  Captain  Webb  and  Mr.  Henry  Colebrooke,  in  the  elevated 
plain  of  Tibet;  the  Irrawaddi  remains  met  with  by  Mr.  Crawford,  and 
described  by  Mr.  Clift;    the  Sewalik  fossils  discovered  by  Captain 
Cautley  and  Dr.  Falconer,  Captains  Baker  and  Durand,  and  Colonel 
Colvin;  the  Nerbudda  fossils,  by  Dr.  Spilsbury;  the  Gulf  of  Cambay 
fosdls,  by  Dr.  Lush  and  Lieutenant  Fitzjames;  and  the  Jumna  fossils, 
by  Serjeant  Dean.     Dr.  Falconer  then  briefly  described  and  exhibited 
specimens  of  the  most  remarkable  fossil  species.     There  were  no  less 
than  five  extinct  species  of  mastodon  and  elephant ;  viz. :  the  Mastodon 
latidens,  (Clift) ;  M.  ElephaiUoides,  (Clift) ;  M.  Sivalensis,  (Falc.  and 
Caut.);  JSlephas  quadrifrons,  (F.  and  C);  and  B.  Hysudrensis,  (C.  and 


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108  ox    THE    FOSSIL    FAUNA    OF 

F.) :  the  Sewalik  fossils  showing  that  these  so-called  genera  are  andis- 
tinguishable  through  any  characters  derived  from  the  form  and  struc- 
ture of  the  teeth.  Then  followed  the  fossil  species  of  Rhinoceros,  the 
Hexaprotodon  hippopotami,  Meiycopotamus,(Caut.  and  Falc.)  a  remark- 
able new  genus;  Anoplotherium  Sivalense;  several  species  of  Sus,  and 
three  species  of  the  genus  Equus.  There  were  nearly  as  many  fossil 
species  of  mastodon  and  elephant,  as  there  are  now  species  of  the  whole 
order  of  Pachydermata  upon  the  continent  of  India.  The  fossil  Rumi- 
nants were  then  described.  They  were  surprisingly  rich,  including 
almost  every  type,  fossil  or  recent,  known  in  the  order;  viz.,  two  spe- 
cies of  Giraffe,  Camelopardalis  Sivalensis,  (Falc.  and  Cant.),  and  C. 
afinis,  (C.  and  F.);  species  of  Camel,  Deer,  Antelope,  Musk,  Bm, 
Bvhalvsy  Bison,  in  a  great  variety  of  forms,  and  the  colossal  ruminant, 
Sivatherium  giganteum,  (C.  and  F.),  bearing  four  horns,  and  nearly  ap- 
proaching the  elephant  in  size.  The  Sivatherium  was  illustrated  with 
a  full-sized  restored  diagram  of  the  head. 

The  Camivora  were  described  as  comprehending  fossil  species  of 
Felis,  Hyena,  Oanis,  Mustelidsa,  Machairodus,  and  the  new  forms  of  Hyse- 
narctos,  and  Enhydriodon  (F.  and  C.)  There  were  several  fossil  species 
of  Quadrumana,  and  forms  of  Rodentia  and  Insectivora.  The  Sewalik 
Reptilia  were  exceedingly  rich  in  forms,  particularly  of  the  Crocodiles 
and  Chelonians,  some  of  which  were  undistinguishable  from  existing 
species;  while  the  Coloasockelys  Atlas  tortoise  is  a  prodigy  of  size  in  the 
order.  It  was  in  every  part  of  its  organization  a  true  land  tortoise ; 
estimated  from  numerous  remains,  to  have  had  a  shell  twelve  feet  long, 
and  six  feet  high.  This  colossal  reptile  has  lately  been  described  in  a 
communication  to  the  Zoological  Society ;  and  was  illustrated  by  an 
excellent  restored,  diagram  of  the  inferred  natural  size,  by  Mr.  Scharf, 
eighteen  feet  long.  Dr.  Falconer  speculated  on  the  possible  connexion 
of  this  fossil  form  with  the  gigantic  tortoise  which  figures  so  prominently 
in  the  Pythagorean  and  Hindu  cosmogonies. 

In  his  second  lecture,  on  the  8th  instant,  Dr.  Falconer  gave  the 
general  conclusions  drawn  from  the  Sewalik  Fossil  Fauna,  and  its  bear- 
ings on  the  climate,  geography,  and  geological  changes  of  ancient  India. 
The  first  prominent  character  was  the  wonderful  variety  of  forms.  It 
seemed  as  if  all  the  geographical  divisions  of  the  old  continent,  and 
every  geological  epoch  from  the  older  tertiaries  down  to  the  modem, 
had  contributed  representatives  to  form  one  comprehensive  fauna  in 
ancient  India.  Monkeys,  Camels,  Giraffes,  &c.,  were  mixed  up  with 
Anoplotherium,  Sivatherium,  &c.  All  the  mammiferous  remains  which 
had  been  gone  fully  into,  belonged  to  extinct  species;  while  some,  in 

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THE    SEWALIK    HILLS.  109 

r^ard  to  wiiich  the  ev^idence  was  incomplete,  came  very  near  to  exist- 
ing species,  and  might  ultimately  prove  to  be  identical  with  them. 
Some  of  the  reptilian  forms  appeared  to  be  identical  with  existing 
forms.  The  Sewalik  Fauna  was  remarkable  for  a  general  peculiarity 
of  type,  and  for  the  number  of  transitionary  forms  contained  in  it. 
Half  of  it  exhibits  a  parallel  representation  of  the  existing  Fauna  of 
India,  and  the  remainder  represented  the  forms  met  with  in  the  older 
tertiaries.  It  contained,  so  far  as  the  inquiries  had  yet  gone,  no  species 
of  the  Marsupial,  Edentate,  or  Cetaceous  orders.  The  abundance  of  the 
remains  in  the  Sewalik  strata  was  indicated  by  the  immense  extent  of 
the  collections.  That  which  Captain  Cautley  had  munificently  pre- 
sented to  the  British  Museum,  amounted  to  about  two  hundred  chests, 
ayeraging  about  four  hundredweight  of  contents  each,  while  other 
collections,  nearly  equal  in  extent,  were  formed  by  Captains  Baker  and 
Duraud,  Dr.  Falconer,  Colonel  Colvin,  and  others. 

Dr.  Falconer  then  gave  the  geological  and  climatal  bearings  of 
the  question.  The  continent  of  India,  at  an  early  period  of  the  tertiary 
epoch,  appears  to  have  been  a  large  island,  situated  in  a  bight  formed 
by  the  Himalayas  and  Hindoo  Koosh  ranges.  The  valleys  of  the 
Ganges  and  Indus  formed  a  long  estuary  straight  into  which  the 
drainage  of  the  Himalayas  poured  its  silt  and  alluyium.  An  upheave- 
ment  took  place,  which  converted  these  straits  into  the  plains  of  India, 
connecting  them  with  the  ancient  island,  and  forming  the  existing  con- 
tinent. The  Sewalik  Fauna  then  spread  over  the  continent,  from  the 
Irrawaddi  to  the  mouths  of  the  Indus,  two  thousand  miles;  and,  north- 
west, to  the  Jhelum,  fifteen  hundred  miles.  After  a  long  interval  of 
repoee,  another  great  upheavement  followed,  which  threw  up  a  strip  of 
the  plains  of  India  forming  the  Sewalik  Hills,  and  increased  the  elevation 
of  the  Himalayas  by  many  thousand  feet.  This  event,  and  the 
climatal  changes  which  it  involved,  caused  the  extinction  of  the  Tibetan 
and  Sewalik  Faunas.  Dr.  Falconer  then  discussed  the  climatal  condi- 
tions of  the  case,  and  the  changes  implicated  in  these  upheavements. 
He  inferred  that  India  is  now  enjoying  ''the  summer  of  the  great 
cycle;"  that,  in  contrast  with  what  has  taken  place  in  Europe,  there 
has  been  no  decrease  of  temperature  in  that  country,  which  has  now  as 
warm  a  climate,  if  not  warmer,  than  it  ever  had,  during  any  part  of 
the  tertiary  period.  He  endeavoured  to  show  that  the  Sewalik  Fauna 
may  have  lived  through  a  period  equal  to  that  occupied  by  several 
divisions  of  the  tertiary  epoch  in  Europe.  A  great  addition  to  the 
hei^t  of  the  Himalayas  was  inferred  to  have  been  made  at  a  very 
late  period. 

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110  ON    THE    FOSSIL    FAUNA    OF 

At  the  eonolasion  of  the  lecture^  Charles  LYBLL/Esq.,  at  the 
inyitation  of  the  President  of  the  Society,  made  some  nouurks  on  the 
sabjeet  of  Dr.  Falooner  8  digcoreriea.  He>  said  he  could  bear  ample 
testimony  to  the  value  of  the  discoyeries  made  by  Dr.  Falconer  and  his 
coadjutors  in  India,  and  expressed  his  belief  that  no  Goremment  expe^ 
dition  in  a  distant  country  had  ever  done  more  than  they  had  by  their 
private  exertions  to  enlarge  our  knowledge  of  Natural  History  and 
Geology,  and  enrich  our  national  Museum  with  important  treasures. 
Dr.  Falconer  and  Captain  Cautley  had  been  separated  from  the  rest  of 
the  scientific  world,  when  prosecuting  their  investigations,  and  had  no 
access  to  large  libraries  or  collections  of  osteology,  while  they  were 
determining  the  specific  characters  of  new  fossil  animals,  and  founding 
new  genera,  some  of  which  supplied  links,  as  they  had  pointed  out, 
between  widely  distant  genera,  or  families  previously  known.  It  is 
therefore  highly  creditable  to  their  skill  and  scientific  acquirements, 
that  the  justness  of  their  views  and  determinations  had  since  been 
confimied  by  Mr.  Owen,  and  other  eminent  comparative  anatomists  in 
Europe.  This  collection  of  organic  remains  from  the  Sewalik  hills 
derives  a  novel  and  peculiar  interest  from  the  circumstance  of  theiv 
affording  the  first  example  of  a  large  number  of  fossil  Vertebrata  (with 
very  few  exceptions  of  extinct  species)  procured  from  a  country  where 
the  climate  may  be  presumed  to  be  as  hot  now,  as  at  the  period  when  the 
fossil  animals  flourished.  The  fact  of  some  of  these  Sub-Himalayan 
fossil  Vertebrata  having  been  ascertained  by  Dr.  Falconer  to  be  identical 
with  species  still  living  in  the  same  region,  may  perhaps  be  explained 
by  a  considerable  similarity  of  temperature  in  ancient  and  modem 
times.  Nevertheless  Mr.  Lyell  conceives  that  intermediate  changes  of 
climate  may  have  been  among  the  most  influential  causes  which  extern 
minated  the  greater  part  of  the  Fossil  Fauna  of  the  Sewalik  hiUs,  and  he 
suggests  that  the  colder  temperature  of  that  comparatively  modem  era, 
when  erratic  blocks  were  drifted  by  ice  from  the  poles  towards  lower 
latitudes  in  both  hemispheres,  may  have  destroyed  numerous  species  in 
India. 

To  determine  the  relative  age  of  the  Sewalik  fossils,  a  more  careful 
comparison  of  the  fossil  shells  brought  home  by  Dr.  Falconer  with  a 
larger  collection  than  we  yet  possess  in  London  of  recent  Indian  species, 
will  be  necessary.  So  far  as  they  have  yet  been  compared  a  decided 
majority  of  the  fossils  appear  to  be  of  extinct  or  unknown  species,  and 
Mr.  Lyell  would  not  be  surprised  if  the  Sewalik  strata  should  prove  to 
belong  to  the  older  Pliocene,  or  even  the  Miocene  period,  in  which  latter 
epoch  in  Europe  the  Palsootherium  lived  contemporaneously  with  the 
Mastodon,  Elephant,  Hippopotamus,  Dinotherium,  Ape,  Crocodile,  and 


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THE    SEWALIK    HILLS.  Ill 

oUier  recent  and  extinct  genera  of  mammalia  and  reptiles,  constituting 
a  Faana  in  many  points  analogous,  and  scarcely  less  rich  or  remarkable 
than  that  of  which  the  remains  have  been  so  successfully  investigated 
by  Dr.  Falconer  and  others  in  India.  Mr.  Lyell  concluded  by  express- 
ing a  hope  that  the  results  of  these  elaborate  researches  would  speedily 
be  made  known  to  the  public,  and  that  the  Goyemment  and  East  India 
Company  would  contribute  funds  towards  the  Osteological  and  other 
necessary  illustrations. 

The  Marquis  of  Northampton  begged  to  say  a  few  words  on  the 
important  nature  of  the  discoveries  which  had  just  been  laid  before 
them,  in  addition  to  the  able  observations  of  Mr.  Lyell.  It  was 
fortunate,  he  said,  that  these  discoveries  were  made  in  a  region  which 
formed  a  portion  of  a  civilized  empire,  so  that  they  might  not  be  lost 
as  soon  aj9  found,  but  conununicated  to  the  world.  The  situation  of 
our  country — "penitus  toto  orbe  divisa" — ^made  it  more  incumbent 
upon  OS  as  a  nation  to  publish  the  results  of  our  scientific  enterprises : 
we  were  less  accessible  than  the  other  countries  of  Europe;  and 
although  at  this  moment  we  were  honoured  by  the  presence  of  an 
Emperor  and  a  King  on  our  shores,  such  visits  were  necessarily  few 
and  far  between.  He  thought  that  the  publication  of  such  extensive 
investigations  and  important  discoveries,  as  those  of  Captain  Cautley 
and  Dr.  Falconer,  in  geology,  should  be  matter  of  national  concern ;  and, 
as  President  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  one  of  the  trustees  of  the  British 
Museum,  he  felt  it  incumbent  upon  him  to  express  his  opinion,  that  the 
learned  Societies  of  England  should  unite  to  call  upon  the  Government 
of  the  country  to  afford  means  for  so  doing;  and  he  had  little  doubt 
that  the  call  would  be  successful.  He  would  not  sit  down  without 
expressing  his  sincere  thanks  to  Dr.  Falconer,  for  the  intellectual  treat 
he  had  afforded  his  hearera 

Lord  Auckland  concurred  fully  with  the  noble  Marquis ;  and  said 
that  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  would  be  most  happy  to  co-operate  with 
the  Royal  Society,  or  with  any  other  institution,  in  furthering  so  valu- 
able an  enterprise. 


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ROYAL  ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  TWENTY-FIRST  ANNIVERSARY  MEETING 
OP  THE  SOCIETY, 

Held  on  the  11th  of  Mat,  1844, 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  AUCKLAND, 

PRESIDENT, 

IN   THE  CHAIR. 


The  Honobart  Sbcrbtart  read  the  Annual  Report  of  the  Council,  as 
follows : — 

The  Council  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  have  the  satisfaction  of 
congratulating  the  Meeting  on  the  increasing  prosperity  of  the  Society, 
both  in  respect  of  the  accession  of  Members,  and  the  improvement  of  its 
finances.  The  number  of  elections  in  the  past  year  has  exceeded  that  of 
imy  previous  year  since  1839;  and  consists  of  fourteen  contributing*,  and 
two  Honorary  Memberst. 

Although  the  loss  by  death  and  retirement  exceeds  numerically  the 
gain  by  accession,  (but  only  to  the  extent  of  five) ;  yet  the  increase  in 
the  number  of  contributing  members  is  a  subject  of  congratulation, 
and  horn,  this  improvement  the  Council  derive  a  confident  hope  that  the 
advantages  which  the  Society  possesses  for  the  collection  and  diffusion  of 
knowledge  relative  to  Asia  are  more  widely  appreciated,  and  wiU  be 
more  extensively  drawn  forth. 

*  Contributing  Mefiiben:-^.  S.  Colriii,  Esq.,  Lieut  C.  J.  Cruttenden,  Right  Hon. 
Lord  Elphinstone,  Profewor  Forbes  Falconer,  Capt.  Septimus  Hart,  J.  A.  St  John,  Esq., 
Capt  GranriUe  Loch,  Major  J.  A.  Moore,  Joseph  Muisabini,  Esq.,  Lieut  Col.  J. 
Outram,  C.B.,  Henry  Thoby  Prinaep,  Esq.,  Right  Honorable  Sir  Edward  Ryan, 
Edmund  Smith,  Esq.,  General  E.  Wyatt. 

■f  Honorary  Members: — Momdenr  E.  Biot,  Hon.  F.  W.  A.  Bruce. 

1844.]  h 

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ii  ANNUAL    REPORT   OF   THE  [June, 

The  following  Members  have  died  since  the  last  Anniversary  Meet- 
ing:— 

Resident  and  Nan^Resident  Members. 
Greorge  Arbuthnot,  Esq.  Maj.-Gen.  Sir  Joseph  CHalloran. 

Thomas  H.  Baber,  Esq.  The  Hon.  George  Tumour. 

J.  C.  C.  Sutherland,  Esq.  The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Wallace. 

William  Stanley  Clarke,  Esq.  C.  J.  Whatman,  Esq. 

John  Morice,  Esq.  Arthur  Mills  Raymond,  Esq. 

Honorary  Members, 
Major  C.  P.  J.  Elout.  The  Hon.  J.  R.  Morrison. 

Professor  Ippolito  Rosellini. 

Members  who  have  retired, 
Alexander  S.  Finlay,  Esq.  Lieut.-Col.  R.  King. 

G.  F.  Travers,  Esq.  Major-GrenersI  Evans. 

Capt  W.  Dunn.  James  Johnstone,  Esq. 

Members  whose  names  have  been  removed  under  the  provisions  of 
Article  LIU,  of  the  ReguUoions. 
Col.  Hugh  Percy  Davison.  Thomas  Miln,  Esq. 

Peter  Auber,  Esq. 

Among  the  distinguished  Members  of  whom  the  Society  has  been 
deprived  by  death,  the  names  of  Professor  Rosellini,  the  Hon.  J.  Robert 
Morrison,  Mr.  J.  Colebrooke  Sutherland,  Major  Elout,  and  the  Hon. 
George  Tumour,  are  entitled  to  particular  notice. 

Ippolito  Roseluni  was  Professor  of  Oriental  Languages  and  Anti- 
quities at  the  University  of  Pisa.  His  acquaintance  with  Egyptian 
Antiquities  and  the  Coptic  Language,  led  to  his  being  selected  in  the 
year  1829  to  be  a  member  of  a  scientific  body,  deputed  by  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Tuscany  to  investigate  the  monumental  and  hieroglyphic  re* 
mains  in  the  valley  of  the  Nile;  and  after  the  death  of  Champollion,  the 
honourable  duty  of  publishing  the  results  of  their  united  labours  was 
entrusted  to  him.  The  magnificent  work  in  which  these  results  were 
contained  began  to  appear  in  the  year  1832,  at  Pisa,  imder  the  auspices, 
and  at  the  expense  of  the  Grand  Duke,  Leopold  II.  The  first  issue  com* 
prised  a  series  of  beautifully  executed  eligravings,  accompanied  by  a  volume 
of  descriptive  text  in  Italian;  and  the  whole  was  preceded  by  a  learned 
dissertation  on  ancient  Egyptian  history,  compiled  from  Herodotus  and 
Diodoms  Siculus,  with  full  catalogues  of  all  the  dynasties,  as  preserved 
by  Manetho,  Julius  Afiricanus,  Eusebius,  and  Syncellus.  fVom  that 
period,  until  the  decease  of  the  Professor,  volume  after  volume  appeared 
with  undiminished  interest  and  splendour,  at  intervals  of  little  more 
than  a  year.  The  printing  of  the  whole  work  had  not  been  accom- 
plished at  the  date  of  the  author's  decease;  but  it  is  understood  that  the 


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1844.]  ROYAL    ASIATIC   SOCIETY.  ill 

materials  for  its  completion  were  left  bj  him  in  such  a  state  of  forward- 
ness, that  the  small  portion  remuning  will  be  issued  to  the  public  with 
very  little  delay.  Copies  of  this  beautiful  work  were  regularly  presented 
to  the  Society  by  their  learned  Member,  and  form  a  valuable  accession 
to  their  library.  Professor  Rosellini  was  also  the  author  of  a  practical 
Coptic  Grammar,  published  at  Rome,  in  1887 ;  of  a  Philologico-Critical 
Letter  to  Professor  Amedeo  Peyron,  published  at  Pisa  in  1831 ;  and 
of  a  Tribute  of  Gratitude  and  Affection  to  the  Honoured  Memory  of 
G.  F.  Champollion,  Jnn.,  published  at  Pisa  in  1832. 

The  Honourable  John  Robert  Morrison,  Esq.,  was  son  of  the  late 
Dr.  Morrison,  the  Author  of  a  Chinese  Grammar  and  Dictionary,  and 
translator  of  the  Bible  into  the  Chinese  language.  He  was  bom  at 
Macao  on  the  17th  April,  1814.  He  was  taken,  while  an  infant,  to 
England,  where  (with  the  exception  of  nearly  the  whole  of  the  years 
1820  and  1821,  which  he  passed  at  Macao)  he  resided  until  he  had  com- 
pleted his  twelfth  year.  On  his  return  to  China  in  1826,  he  remained 
for  a  short  time  under  his  father's  care;  and  was  then  sent  to  the 
Anglo-Chinese  College  at  Malacca,  where  he  resided  three  years^  assi- 
duously occupied  in  the  study  of  the  Chinese  language,  which  he  after- 
wards continued  under  his  father's  superintendence  at  Canton. 

After  the  death  of  Dr.  Morrison,  his  son  was  appointed  Chinese  Secre- 
tary and  Interpreter  to  the  Superintendents  of  British  Trade  in  China. 
Daring  the  succeeding  five  years  he  resided  chiefly  in  Canton,  improving 
his  knowledge  of  the  language  and  customs  of  China  by  much  study  and 
research,  as  well  as  by  the  exercise  of  his  ofiicial  duties.  In  the  year 
1839  the  conflict  of  Great  Britain  with  the  Chinese  Empire  began ;  and 
the  services  of  Mr.  Morrison  were  found  invaluable.  From  tluit  period 
until  his  death,  Mr.  Morrison's  time  was  wholly  devoted  to  the  service  of 
his  country;  and  it  may  not  be  too  much  to  say  that  his  indefatigable 
exertions  in  conducting  the  diplomatic  correspondence  of  Her  Majesty's 
Plenipotentiary,  and  in  acting  as  interpreter  between  the  British  Au- 
thorities and  the  Imperial  Commissioners  from  the  Court  of  China,  both 
by  land  and  sea,  during  three  expeditions  along  the  coast,  contributed  to 
shorten  his  term  of  life.  He  died  at  the  age  of  twenty-nine,  on  the 
29ih  of  August,  1843,  the  anniversary  of  the  treaty  of  peace  of  Nankin ; 
an  event  which  he  ardently  desired,  and  which  his  exertions  essentially 
aided  in  eflecting. 

Mr.  Morrison  devoted  both  time  and  money  to  the  Medical  Mis- 
sionary Society,  the  Society  for  the  Diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge  in 
China,  and  the  Morrison  Education  Society ;  of  all  these  institutions  he 
was  one  of  the  founders,  and  he  acted  in  each,  from  their  first  establish- 
ment, as  Secretary.  He  contributed  generously  to  every  benevolent  asso- 
ciation; and  expended  much  money  in  private  benefactions.  His  death 
was  unfeignedly  lamented  by  numbers  of  Chinese ;  and  the  loss  of  his 
services  was  felt  by  the  English  community  as  a  public  calamity. 

52 

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iv  ANNUAL   REPOKT   OF   THE  [June, 

At  the  period  of  his  decease  Mr.  Morrison  was  Member  of  the  Legis- 
lative Council  of  Hong  Kong,  and  Chinese  Secretaiy  to  Her  Majesty's 
Goyemment  in  China. 

The  Honourable  Georob  Tcrnour  was  a  Member  of  the  CivU  Service 
of  the  Island  of  Ceylon,  and  latterly  of  the  Supreme  Council.  At  an 
early  period  of  his  residence  his  attention  was  attracted  to  the  ancient 
vestiges  and  actual  condition  of  Buddhism  on  Ceylon ;  and  after  master- 
ing the  Cingalese  language  he  acquired  a  knowledge  of  Pali,  as  the  most 
effective  means  of  prosecuting  his  inquiries.  The  success  which  rewarded 
his  efforts  placed  him  at  the  head  of  this  department  of  Oriental  lite- 
rature, and  he  has  the  merit  of  having!  first  rendered  accessible  to  the 
public,  authentic  materials  for  the  history  of  the  origin  and  progress  of 
the  religion  of  Buddha.  His  coDtributions  to  this  subject  and  to  the 
history  of  Ceylon,  appeared  originally  in  the  Ceylon  Almanack,  a  section 
of  which  was  devoted  for  a  considerable  portion  of  Mr.  Tumour's  resi- 
dence in  Ceylon,  to  the  literature  and  antiquities  of  the  island.  In  this 
compilation  for  1883,  was  published  an  Epitome  of  the  History  of 
Ceylon  by  Mr.  Tumour,  derived  chiefly  from  the  Mahawanso ;  a  work 
which  had  for  some  time  occupied  his  attention,  and  the  translation  of 
which  he  had  commenced  in  1826. 

Under  an  impression  that  a  translation  of  the  same  work  was  about 
to  be  published  in  London,  Mr.  Tumour  suspended  his  labours;  but 
resumed  them,  on  finding  that  the  London  publication  contained  only  an 
inaccurate  translation  of  an  imperfect  Cingalese  version  of  the  original. 
The  first  volume  of  the  Mahawanso,  containing  the  text  in  Roman  cha- 
racters, and  Mr.  Tumour's  translation,  was  published  in  1887.  A  spe- 
cimen of  his  work  had  been  previously  circulated,  and  procured  him  his 
election  as  an  Honorary  Member  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal. 

The  Mahawanso  was  composed  in  the  fifth  century  of  our  era,  and 
brings  down  the  history  of  Buddhism,  on  the  continent  of  India  and 
on  Ceylon,  to  the  beginning  of  the  fourth.  Different  continuations  under 
the  same  title  carry  on  the  history  of  Ceylon  to  a.d.  1758.  The  portion 
published  terminates  with  a.d.  477,  and  records  many  important  events 
in  the  annals  of  Buddhism  and  Ceylon.  The  subsequent  portions  are  of 
less  value  to  ancient  history;  but  as  they  must  contain  circumstances  of 
importance  not  only  with  respect  to  Ceylon,  but  the  neighbouring  penin- 
sula of  India,  it  is  highly  desirable  that  the  whole  should  be  published. 
As  fEur  as  the  work  given  to  the  world  extends,  it  establishes  Mr.  Tur- 
nour*s  reputation  as  a  Pali  scholar,  and  as  an  industrious,  careful,  and 
learned  investigator  of  the  past  history  of  the  Island  of  Ceylon,  and  of  its 
national  system  of  religious  worship. 

The  light  which  the  paleographic  discoveries  of  Mr.  James  Prinsep 
reflected  upon  Buddhist  history  in  India,  could  not  fail  to  excite  a  lively 
interest  in  Mr.  Tumour  ;  and  accordingly  in  the  year  1836,  and  for  some 
years  afterwards^  he  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  pages  of  the  Journal 


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1844.]  ROYAL   ASIATIC   SOCIETY.  V 

of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  BengaL  Besides  other  contributions,  a  series  of 
valuable  papers  occurs  in  the  sixth  and  seventh  volumes,  entitled  **  Exa- 
mination of  Pali-Buddhistical  Annals,"  in  which  Mr.  Tumour  describes  a 
number  of  original  works  of  authority  previously  unknown.  But  his  most 
important  contribution  was  comprised  in  a  paper  in  the  sixth  volume,  on 
the  Tooth  Relic  of  Ceylon,  with  remarks  on  the  LSt  inscription.  In  this 
he  furnished  an  identification  of  the  prince  by  whom  the  edicts  inscribed 
on  the  Lit  and  on  the  rocks  of  Dhauli  and  Gimar  were  promulgated,  and 
whose  name,  Piyadassi,  had  not  been  met  with  elsewhere  in  the  writings 
of  either  Buddhist  or  Brahman.  A  copy  of  the  Dipawanso,  a  Pali 
Buddhist  work,  having  been  brought  to  Ceylon  from  Slam,  enabled  Mr. 
Tumour  to  identify  Piyadassi  with  Asoka,  the  grandson  of  Chandra- 
gupt%  a  sovereign  of  Magadha,  in  the  third  century  b.c.  The  identity 
of  these  names  still  rests  exclusively  upon  the  authority  of  the  Dipawanso, 
as  cited  by  Mr.  Tumour. 

Mr.  Tumour's  health  hanng  been  seriously  impaired  by  his  protracted 
residence  in  Ceylon,  he  returned  to  Europe  in  1841.  After  a  short  stay 
in  England,  he  was  advised  to  spend  some  time  in  Italy.  He  died  at 
Naples,  in  the  beginning  of  last  year. 

Late  accounts  from  India  have  notified  the  sudden  death  of  Mr.  J. 
CoLBBROOKE  ScTBEBLAND,  ucphcw  of  the  Icamed  founder  of  this  Society. 
This  gentleman  was  an  accomplished  Sanskrit  scholar;  and  while  en- 
gaged in  the  duties  of  the  civil  service,  he  gave  to  the  world  his  excellent 
tnmslations  of  two  important  works  on  the  law  of  adoption,  as  severally 
held  by  the  schools  of  Bengal  and  Benares, — the  Dattaka  Mimansa  and 
the  Dattaka  Chandrika.  These  are  not  only  interesting  accessions  to 
Oriental  literature,  but  are  works  of  the  highest  authority  in  the  impor- 
tant relation  created  by  that  extensively  practised  and  peculiar  rite, 
which  gives  rise  to  many  and  intricate  questions  before  the  Courts  in 
India  and  the  supreme  tribunal  of  appeal  in  this  countiy. 

Major  C.  P.  J.  Elout  is  well  known  by  his  excellent  translations 
into  the  Dutch  and  French  languages  of  Marsden's  Grammar  and  Dic- 
tionary, which  appeared  at  Harlem  in  1824  and  1826.  He  is  also  the 
author  of  an  original  Malay  grammar  of  very  great  value. 

The  more  intimate  relations  which  have  recently  been  established 
between  this  country  and  the  great  empire  of  China,  naturally  excite  the 
most  lively  hopes  that  our  acquaintance  with  every  subject  of  interest  in 
the  vast  and  varied  regions,  and  among  the  singular  people  of  that 
remarkable  portion  of  Asia,  will  be  largely  and  rapidly  improved.  The 
government  of  Hong-Kong  has  been  happily  confided  to  a  learned 
and  zealous  Member  of  this  Society,  whose  intimate  knowledge  of  the 
language,  and  extensive  acquaintance  with  the  literature  and  the  people 
of  China,  will  enable  him  to  direct  the  researches  of  the  officers  under 


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vi  ANNUAL   REPORT   OF  THE  [Junk, 

his  authority  into  the  most  promising  fields  of  inquiry.  The  Council 
have  not  failed  to  solicit  his  Excellency's  powerful  aid  in  furtherance  of 
the  Society's  objects  in  that  quarter ;  and  his  Excellency  has  promised 
them  his  own  exertions,  as  far  as  his  important  avocations  wiU  permit, 
as  well  as  the  best  application  in  their  behalf  of  the  resources  at  his 
command. 

A  learned  Member  of  the  Society  having  communicated,  in  a  paper 
lately  read  at  a  general  meeting,  the  result  of  his  personal  observations 
and  scientific  examination  of  the  most  remarkable  and  interesting  of  the 
Cave  Temples  of  India,  the  attention  of  the  Society  has  been  particularly 
drawn  to  the  present  state  of  some  very  curious  and  important  remains  of 
ancient  Hindu  art,  which  exist  in  the  caves  of  Ajunta,  exhibiting,  in  a 
peculiar  style  of  fresco  painting,  the  characteristic  forms  and  appearance 
of  various  races,  at  a  period  probably  antecedent  to  the  Cliristian  era. 
These  singular  reliques  being  in  the  course  of  destruction  or  obliteration, 
not  only  by  the  wear  of  time,  but  also  by  the  rough  hand  and  careless 
treatment  of  those  who  occupy,  irom  time  to  time,  the  recesses  in  which 
they  are  found,  the  Council  have  addressed  to  the  Honourable  Court  of 
Directors  of  the  East  India  Company  an  earnest  request  that  some  com- 
petent person  may  be  engaged,  under  their  orders,  to  make  accurate 
drawings  from  those  ancient  paintings,  which  may  preserve  faithful 
memorials  of  these  highly  curious  remains  of  the  graphic  art  among  the 
natives  of  India*. 

It  has  appeared  to  the  Council  that  some  impulse  might  be  given 
towards  a  more  general  interest  in  the  operations  of  the  Society,  by 
occasional  meetings  being  held  in  the  evening,  at  w^hich  topics  of  general 
interest,  rather  than  of  learned  research  or  abstruse  investigation,  might 
be  discussed ;  such  especially  are  those  which  relate  to  the  developement 
of  the  natural  resources,  and  the  progress  of  improvement  in  the  produc- 
tions of  art,  and  industry,  both  in  our  vast  Indian  possessions  and  in  the 
Empire  of  China.  Such  subjects  fall  legitimately  within  the  scope  of 
the  Society's  labours;  but  the  information  which  may  be  obtained  res- 
pecting them  would  lose  much  of  its  value  and  usefulness  if  produced 
at  an  hour  when  those  to  whom  it  would  be  of  the  greatest  advantage  are 
preventing  from  attending  by  the  pressure  of  other  avocations.  One 
evening  meeting  was  held  at  the  close  of  the  last  season,  and  one  has 
taken  place  very  recently,  at  which  information  of  great  interest  and 
value  respecting  the  cultivation  of  the  tea-plant,  and  Uie  suitableness  of 
the  climate  of  the  valley  of  the  Dhoon  to  its  growth,  was  imparted  to  a 
numerous  auditoiy,  by  Professor  Royle  and  Dr.  Falconer.  If  the  feeling 
of  the  Society  be  fiivourable  to  the  introduction  of  more  frequent  evening 

*  It  is  gratifying  to  state  that  the   represeotation  of  the  Council  has  been  moat 
favourabh  entertained  hj  the  Honourable  Court 


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1844.]  ROYAL   ASIATIC    SOCIETy.  Vll 

meetings,  on  a  systematic  plan,  the  Council  will  take  measures  for 
settling  the  times  at  which  they  shall  he  held,  and  will  make  such  other 
arrangements  as  may  he  requisite  before  the  ensuing  season  of  1844-6. 
It  may  he  thought  desirable  to  hold  one  more  evening  meeting  in  the 
present  season. 

Among  the  donations  to  the  Society's  Library,  the  Council  wish  to 
advert  to  the  valuable  Recueil  de  Monnaies  de  la  Chine,  du  Japon,  de  la 
Cor^,  d'Annam,  et  de  Java,  by  the  Baron  de  Chaadoir,  published  at  St. 
Petershurgh,  in  1842.  This  valuable  work  is  illustrated  by  sixty  large 
folio  plates,  containing  representations  of  more  than  a  thousand  coins, 
ancient  and  modern,  as  well  as  of  the  various  kinds  of  paper-money 
which  for  more  than  three  centuries  was  the  principal  circulating  medium 
of  the  Chinese  empire.  The  plates  present  not  only  the  current  coins, 
but  the  numerous  medals  cast  in  China  by  the  votaries  of  Buddha  and 
Tao-tze,  which  are  adorned  with  mysterious  symbols,  and  are  known  to 
be  preserved  as  talismans  or  amulets,  or,  at  least,  as  memorials  of  objects 
of  worship.  The  text  contains  a  full  description  of  all  the  coins  figured, 
with  many  historical  details;  and  also  an  interesting  account  of  the 
introduction  of  paper-money  into  the  empire,  and  of  the  causes  which 
led  to  its  depreciation  and  disuse  towards  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  centuiy. 

The  lithogn^hed  edition  of  the  Vendidad  Sade,  edited  by  Framji 
Aspandiar-jiand  other  Dasturs,  and  printed  in  1842,  has  been  presented 
to  the  Society  by  their  Bombay  Branch.  Of  this  valuable  publication 
twenty-five  copies  only  were  taken  off,  intended  exclusively  for  presen- 
tation to  national  libraries :  the  Council  may  therefore  congratulate  the 
Society  on  its  possessing,  in  this  work,  a  rare,  as  well  as  an  important 
volume. 

The  Council  refer  with  some  satisfaction  to  the  Annual  Account, 
which  will  be  found  to  exhibit  a  more  fieivourable  balance  than  that  of 
the  preceding  year  by  113^.  4s.  dd,^  the  sum  in  hand  at  the  dose  of 
1843  being  291^.  149. :  to  this  sum  should  be  added  105^.,  the  yearly 
donation  of  the  Honourable  East  India  Company,  which  was  not  received 
till  January,  and  therefore  too  late  to  appear  in  the  account :— making 
together  a  total  of  390/.  149.  A  part  of  this  increase,  to  the  amoimt 
of  101/.  89.,  is  occasioned  by  the  most  desirable  of  all  causes—an 
increase  in  the  number  of  subscribing  members.  A  hundred  pounds 
were  the  generous  donation  of  James  Alexander,  Esq.,  which  was 
acknowledged  in  the  report  of  last  year.  A  diminution  of  expenditure 
in  printing,  caused  by  some  of  the  lithographic  work  of  the  XlVth  Num- 
ber of  the  Journal  having  been  paid  for  in  the  previous  year,  will  account 
for  the  rest  of  the  favourable  balance  now  ex^lhited.  Of  this  comparative 
improvement,  however,  the  Council  are  bound  to  observe,  that  it  must  be 
attribated  to  contingent,  rather  than  to  permanent  causes;  and  that  fair 
scope  cannot  be  given  to  the  beneficial  operations  of  the  Society  so  long 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


viii  ANNUAL   REPORT   OF   THE  [Junk, 

88  their  limited  finances  are  burdened  with  the  heavy  chaige  of  260/.  a 
year,  for  house-rent.  The  Council  must  repeat  the  expression  of  their 
deep  regret  that  a  Society,  instituted  **  for  the  advancement  of  knowledge 
in  relation  to  Asia,"  and  honoured  by  the  Royal  Patronage,  should  still 
be  unprovided  with  accommodation  in  a  public  building. 

The  Council  have  the  high  gratification  of  notifying  to  the  meeting 
a  second  munificent  donation  to  the  funds  of  the  Society,  that  ainoe  the 
preparation  of  this  Report  has  been  received  from  their  veiy  generoua 
and  much  respected  fiiend  Mr.  James  Alexander,  the  former  Treasurer 
of  this  Society.  Such  donations,  made  for  the  purpose,  as  Mr.  Alexander 
has  expressed  it,  "of  being  applied  in  the  manner  that  may  be  deemed 
best  suited  to  promote  the  beneficial  intercourse  between  England  and 
India,  and  to  make  the  wants  and  the  capabilities  of  each  country  known 
to  the  other,"  are  at  once  the  most  honourable  testimonials  of  the  giver'a 
zeal  in  the  cause  of  the  Society,  and  of  his  confidence  in  its  exertions, 
and  a  most  seasonable  accession  to  its  general  resources. 

From  the  Secretary  of  the  Oriental  Translation  Committee  the 
Council  have  received  the  foUowing  notice  of  the  proceedings  of  the 
Committee  during  the  past  year,  which  they  have  much  satisfaction  in 
submitting  to  the  Meeting.  It  will  be  found  to  afford  continued  proofi» 
that  the  labours  of  that  important  branch  of  the  Society  in  the  wide  field 
of  Eastern  learning  have  in  no  way  relaxed,  however  inadequate  the 
income  of  the  Fund  may  be  to  carry  out  its  objects  to  the  extent  desired 
by  Oriental  scholars. 

The  works  published  by  the  Committee  since  the  last  Anniversary  of 
the  Society  are  the  following:— 

1.  The  History  of  the  Mahommedan  Dynasties  in  Spain ;  Vol.  II. 
Translated  from  the  Arabic  of  Al-Makkari,  by  Don  Pascual  de 
Gayangos. 

This  valuable  and  extensive  work,  occupying  two  thick  quarto 
volumes,  is  now  completed,  at  an  expense  of  upwards  of  IQOOL  To 
the  present  volume  the  translator  has  added  many  valuable  notes,  col- 
lected from  scarce  manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  and  the  collec- 
tion of  Nathaniel  Bland,  Esq.,  which  compensate  for  various  deficiencies 
in  the  original  text  of  Al-Makkari. 

2.  The  Second  Volume  of  Ibn  Khallikan's  Biographical  Dictionary ; 
translated  firom  the  Arabic,  by  Baron  MacGuckin  de  Slane :  700  pages, 
quarto. 

In  the  Preface  to  this  volume  the  translator  has  introduced  an  inte- 
resting inquiry  into  the  course  of  study  and  system  of  mental  culture, 
usually  considered  necessary,  in  Mahommedan  countries^  to  fonn  a  well- 
educated  Moslim. 


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1844.]  ROYAL   ASIATIC   SOCIETY.  IX 

3.  The  third  Uvrauon  of  Histoire  des  Sultans  Mamlouks  de  FEgypte; 
tranalated  from  the  Arabic  by  Monsieur  Quatremere. 

This  portion  of  the  work  contains  the  history  of  the  reigns  of  Mansur 
Kalawun,  and  of  his  son  Ashr&f  Khaiil,  comprising  the  period  from 
A.]>.  1279  to  1294. 

4.  The  Dabistdn,  or  School  of  Manners;  translated  from  the  Persian^ 
with  Notes,  &c.,  by  D.  Shea,  and  A.  Troyer.    3  vols.  8yo. 

More  than  half  a  century  has  elapsed  since  Sir  William  Jones 
directed  the  attention  of  the  learned  to  the  Dabutdn;  and  pronounced  it 
the  most  amusing  and  instructive  book  he  had  ever  read  in  Persian. 
Notwithstanding  this  eulogy,  small  portions  only  of  the  work  had 
hitherto  been  translated  into  English ;  and  to  the  Oriental  Translation 
Committee  must  be  awarded  the  credit  of  placing  the  entire  work  before 
the  European  world. 

The  translation  was  commenced  several  years  ago,  by  the  late  David 
Shea,  Esq^  Assistant  Oriental  Professor  at  the  East  India  Compan3r's 
College,  at  Haileybury,  but  whose  labours  were  stopped  by  death  when 
about  a  third  of  the  translation  had  been  finished.  Mr.  Shea's  manuscript 
translation  was  handed  over  to  Captain  Troyer,  who  undertook  to  com- 
plete the  version,  at  the  particular  request  of  the  late  Earl  of  Munster, 
to  whose  memory  the  present  work  is  dedicated.  Captain  Troyer  makes 
honorable  mention  of  the  correct  state  in  which  he  found  his  predecessoi^s 
version,  so  £Eur  as  he  had  carried  it ;  and  bringing  to  the  labour  an  inti- 
mate acquaintance  with  the  Sanskrit  language,  the  present  translator  has 
been  enabled  to  clear  up  ambiguities  in  the  text,  particularly  where  it 
related  to  Hindu  creeds,  which  might  otherwise  have  been  left  unex- 
plained. The  names  of  both  translators  are  most  favourably  known 
amongst  Oriental  students ;  and  both  have  been  actuated  in  their  labours 
by  a  disinterested  zeal  for  the  advancement  of  Oriental  literature  rarely 
surpassed. 

The  Dabisidn  al  Mazaheb,  <'  The  School  of  Sects,"  is,  as  this  allow- 
able version  of  the  title  imports,  devoted  to  accounts  of  the  religious 
systems  of  mankind,  so  &r  as  the  compiler  was  able  to  collect  them. 
The  accounts  appear  to  have  been  collected  with  care,  judgment,  and 
impartiality ;  and  the  work  abounds  with  examples  that  tolerance  is  the 
abstract  profession  of  Eastern  sectaries,  however  contrary  to  it  may  be 
their  actual  practice.  The  work  seems  to  have  been  composed  in  the 
beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  was  long  attributed  to  one 
Mohsan  Fani,  whose  identity,  however,  has  not  been  satisfBMstorily  esta- 
blished. A  carefully  revised  edition  of  the  text  was  printed  at  Calcutta 
in  1809,  under  the  superintendence  of  W.  Butterworth  Bayley,  Esq. 

Captain  Troyer  has  appended  to  hb  translation  a  learned  dissertation 
on  the  authorship  of  the  Dabistin,  in  which  the  authenticity  of  that 
remarkable  book  the  Desatir,  and  the  originality  of  the  Zend  writings, 
are  defended  with  much  critical  zeal. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


X  ANNUAL   REPORT  OF  THE  [Junk, 

Among  the  traiulations  preparing  for  the  press  may  be  noticed  a 
History  ojf  Tipu  Sult&n,  being  a  continuation  of  the  Nishan-i  Halderi ; 
translated  from  the  Persian,  by  Col.  W.  Miles;  and  the  Kitab-al  Ya- 
mini,  containing  an  account  of  the  conquests  of  Sultan  Mahmud,  of 
Ghazna ;  translated  from  the  ALrabic  by  the  Rev.  James  Reynolds,  the 
Secretary  to  the  Committee.  The  latter  work  was  equally  celebrated 
for  its  illustrious  subject,  for  the  beauty  and  for  the  difficulty  of  the 
composition.  The  intricacy  of  phrase  and  arrangement  which  distin- 
guishes this  remarkable  work  discouraged  even  native  scholars,  and 
imposed  important  obstacles  to  the  efforts  of  a  European  translator.  But 
by  the  liberality  of  the  Committee,  the  translator  has  been  furnished 
with  the  transcript  of  a  Persian  MS.  version  in  the  Royal  Library  at 
Paris;  and,  by  the  assistance  of  this  version,  it  is  hoped  that  the 
English  translation  will  be  shortly  completed  and  published. 

The  offers  which  the  Committee  continue  to  receive  of  translations 
are  more  numerous  than  their  limited  funds  allow  them  to  entertain. 
They,  however,  have  favourably  received  a  proposal  from  Mr.  James 
Ballantyne,  of  Edinburgh,  of  a  translation  from  the  Persian  of  Khafi 
Khin's  History  of  India,— the  Muntakhab  ul  Labdhy—^  work  highly 
praised  by  Stewart,  Elphinstone,  Erskine,  and  others,  as  containing 
accounts  of  events  occurring  in  the  reigns  of  Akhbar  and  Aurangzib,  but 
little  known  among  Europeans. 

The  third  volume  of  Professor  Fliigers  edition  of  "  Haji  Khalfi^ 
Lexicon  Encyclopiedicum  et  Bibliographicum,"  b  about  to  be  delivered 
to  the  Subscribers. 

Colonel  Stkes  read  the  report  of  the  Auditors  on  the  financial 
afiurs  of  the  Society,  as  follows : — 

Gentlehjsn,  Londony  Aik  May^  1844. 

We  have  the  honour  to  report  that  in  conformity  with  our 
appointment  we  have  audited  the  Accounts  of  the  Society,  furnished  by 
the  Treasurer,  for  the  year  ending  31st  December,  1843,  and  that  after 
carefully  examining  the  books,  and  comparing  the  receipts  and  disburse- 
ments with  the  respective  vouchers,  we  liave  found  them  correct.  The 
balance  in  favour  of  the  Society  at  the  end  of  1843  is  291/.  14«. ;  and 
the  assets  of  the  Society  consist  of  a  sum  of  1,942/.  Vis,  Id.  in  3  per 
Cent.  Consols,  exclusive  of  the  value  of  the  Library,  Museum,  Furni- 
ture, &c. 

The  value  of  these  last-mentioned  items  has  for  many  years  been 
stated  at  3,500/.  This  includes  1,500/.  for  value  of  copyrights,  and 
stock  of  the  Society's  publications,  which  appears  to  us  considerably 
to  exceed  what  is  reasonable;  and  we  have  no  means  of  forming  any 
accurate  estimate  of  the  value  of  the  Library  and  Museum :  we  con- 
sider, however,  that  they  would  not  be  over-rated  at  1,700/.  or  1,800/.; 
and  if  the  Furniture  be  taken  at  300/.,  the  property  which  it  would  be 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


1844.]  BOYAL   ASIATIC   SOCIETY.  xi 

pmdent  to  cover  by  insurance  may  be  estimated  moderately  at  2^000^. 
Now  the  factual  insoiance  is  only  for  1,000/. ;  and  we  beg  to  submit 
to  the  Council  the  expediency  of  adding  another  1,000/.  The  additional 
annual  charge  would  be  21.  53. 

We  beg  also  to  bring  to  the  notice  of  the  Council  the  large  amount 
chargeable  to  the  Society  on  account  of  house-rent,  and  other  items  con- 
sequent on  the  nature  of  the  building  occupied  by  it.  We  have  reason 
to  think  that  accommodation  better  suited  for  the  purposes  of  the  Society 
might  be  obtained  at  a  lower  rent,  and  of  a  kind  requiring  a  lower 
amount  of  incidental  expenses ;  and,  as  immediately  connected  with  this 
matter,  we  have  to  state  that  the  third  term  of  the  Society's  lease  will 
expire  at  Christmas  next ;  and  that  if  the  Council  are  not  disposed  to 
continue  the  lease  for  a  further  term  of  seven  years,  notice  must  be  given 
before  Midsummer  next. 

In  conclusion,  we  beg  leave  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Council  to  the 
very  close  approximation  of  the  Receipt  and  Expenditure  in  the  estimate 
for  the  ensuing  year,  notwithstanding  that  the  Receipts  accidentally  in- 
clude an  extra  sum  of  105/.  from  the  East  India  Company,  which  was 
not  paid  within  the  last  official  year;  its  place,  however,  having  been  sup- 
plied by  the  very  liberal  donation  of  100/.  from  Mr.  James  Alexander. 
We  have  the  honour  to  be.  Gentlemen, 

Your  obedient  humble  servants, 

Holt  Mackenzie,  )  Auditors  on  th€ 

W.   H.  SykbS,         }  part  qf  the  SocUty. 


T     r\  \  Auditor  on  the  part 


J     o/the  Council. 


To  the  Presideta  and  Council  of 
The  Royal  Asiatic  Society. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


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xiv  ANNUAL   REPORT  OP  THE  [June, 

When  the  reading  of  the  preceding  Reports  was  concluded, 

Nathaniel  Bland,  Esq.,  moved,  "  That  the  Report  of  the  Council 
and  that  of  the  Auditors,  he  received  and  adopted ;  and  that  the  thanks 
of  the  Meeting  he  given  to  the  Auditors  for  the  attention  and  efficiency 
with  which  they  have  perfonned  the  duty  of  their  office." 

Seconded  hy  Dr.  Roobrs,  and  carried  unanimously. 

Sir  Gbobgb  Staunton  sMd  he  had  great  pleasure  in  performing  the 
duty  which  had  heen  assigned  to  him,  of  moving  a  vote  of  thanks  to  their 
nohle  President.  As  one  of  the  original  Memhers  of  this  Institution, 
and  having  at  all  times  felt  a  warm  interest  in  its  prosperity  and  advance- 
ment, it  had  given  him  pain  to  ohserve  on  some  former  occasions  symptoms 
of  depression  and  decline ;  hut  it  was  no  less  gratifying  to  him  to  he  able, 
on  the  present  occasion,  to  congratulate  the  Meeting  on  the  evidences  that 
had  heen  given  of  increased  vigour  and  activity  in  its  proceedings  since 
our  last  anniversary.  He  felt  assured  that  he  only  expressed  the  general 
sense  of  the  gendemen  present,  when  he  attributed  this  improvement 
mainly  to  the  zealous  and  assiduous  attention  of  our  noble  President,  in 
personally  superintending  our  affairs.  The  high  station  which  his 
Lordship  had  filled  in  India,  had  enabled  him  to  become  familiarly 
acquainted  with  those  various  interesting  objects  of  science,  literature, 
and  the  arts,  connected  with  the  East,  which  this  Society  was  instituted 
to  promote.  We  now  had  the  pleasure  of  observing  the  great  interest 
his  Lordship  also  took  in  their  advancement;  and  it  was  fair  to 
expect  that  his  example  would  excite  an  additional  zeal  in  this  cause 
in  the  many  other  able  and  qualified  individuals  who  are  Members  of 
our  Institution. 

It  must  he  acknowledged.  Sir  George  observed,  that  this  Society, 
having  for  one  of  its  main  objects,  a  purpose  of  such  public  and  national 
importance  as  an  inquiry  into  and  development  of  the  resources  of  that 
vast  Oriental  Empire  which  Providence  has  placed  under  British  rule ; 
and  being,  moreover,  peculiarly  qualified  to  perform  this  service,  fipom  the 
constant  accession  to  its  Members  from  amongst  those  distinguished 
public  servants  who  annually  retire  from  the  East  to  this  country,  has 
not  yet  received  that  share  of  public  patronage  and  support  to  which  it  is 
justly  entitled.  Patronage,  it  was  true,  could  not  create  talent ;  nor  was 
it,  perhaps,  required  in  our  case,  in  order  to  stimulate  it  into  action  ;  but 
it'might  contribute  very  important  subsidiary  aid  to  the  promotion  of  the 
objects  to  which  our  attention  is  devoted.  The  patronage  of  the  Govern- 
ment and  the  public  might  be  most  beneficially  employed  in  supplying 
the  Society  with  suitable  accommodation  for  our  Meetings,  our  Library, 
and  our  valuable  Museum,  much  of  which  was  now  hidden  in  boxes  and 
in  cellars,  and  thus  lost  to  the  pubUc  for  the  want  of  suitable  position  for 
its  exhibition.   Much  of  the  existing  funds  of  the  Society,  which  was  now 

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1844.]  ROYAL   ASIATIC   SOCIETY.  XV 

necessarily  devoted  to  the  cluurge  of  rent,  would  be  thus  set  free,  and 
applicable  to  the  purchase  of  books,  the  procuring  of  interesting  objects 
of  £astem  art  and  antiquity,  and  the  general  purposes  of  the  Society. 
Sir  Greoige  said,  in  conclusion,  that  he  trusted  that  the  great  public 
utility  of  an  Institution  of  this  character  would  ultimately  force  itself 
into  the  notice  of  Her  Majesty's  Ministers  and  the  public,  under  the  more 
active  administration  of  its  affairs  by  our  present  able  and  distinguished 
President, — ^upon  whose  high  character  and  eminent  public  services,  had 
he  been  absent,  he  would  gladly  have  further  enlarged ;  but  out  of  delicacy 
to  his  Lordship,  who  now  occupied  the  Chair,  he  could  not  detain  them 
longer,  but  simply  move,  "  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to 
the  Right  Hon.  the  Elarl  of  Auckland,  the  President,  for  his  Lordship's 
obliging  and  assiduous  personal  attention  to  the  affairs  and  objects  of  this 
Institution,  and  the  warm  interest  he  has  displayed  in  promoting  their 


John  Goldib,  Esq.,  seconded  this  motion,  which  was  carried  unani- 
mously. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Pebsident  rose  to  acknowledge  the  vote  of 
thanks  passed  in  his  favour.  He  accepted  with  pleasure  this  mark  of  the 
Society's  approval ;  and  he  only  regretted  that  he  had  not  done  more  to 
deserve  it.  It  would  be  strange,  indeed,  if  he  did  not  feel  interest  in 
the  objects  of  the  Society.  His  impressions  of  India  were  too  recent, 
his  regard  for  that  country  was  too  warm,  and  he  had  too  many  grateful 
recollections  connected  with  it,  not  to  be  bound  to  it  by  affection,  as  he 
had  been  by  duty.  He  looked  upon  the  Society  as  founded  for  the  better 
knowledge  and  for  the  improvement  of  all  that  regarded  India ;  and  he 
could  not,  therefore,  but  wish  success  to  its  effort&  It  was  but  too 
true,  that  he  was  not  competent  materially  to  aid  those  efforts :  he  had 
not  those  acquirements  in  language  and  in  literature  which  distinguished 
many  of  his  friends  near  him :  but  there  were  branches  of  inquiry  to 
which  he  was  attached ;  and,  even  where  he  could  do  little  himself,  he 
might,  by  encouraging  and  directing  the  exertions  of  others,  be  not 
altogether  useless. 

The  Report,  which  they  had  heard  read,  was  so  fall  and  so  explicit 
that  it  did  not  require  many  observations  from  him ;  but  he  might  say 
of  it,  that  if  it  did  not  contain  throughout  matter  for  triumphant  con- 
gratulations, it  might,  at  least,  be  pronounced  as  satiB&ctory  upon  nearly 
every  important  point;  and  the  Society  may  be  regarded  as  standing 
well--as  promising  yet  further  to  advance,  and  carry  out  all  the  objects 
for  which  it  was  instituted.  Upon  all  these  occasions,  the  first  object  of 
anxiety  is  that  of  finance ;  and  here,  principally,  there  may  not  be  matter 
for  exultation;  for  assuredly  our  means  are  narrow,  and  all  must  feel 
that  with  extended  means  there  would  be  increased  power  of  doing 
good — of  enlaiging  and. exhibiting  our  collections— of  improving  our 


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Xvi  ANNUAL   REPORT   OF  THE  [Junk, 

pablications— and  of  encouraging  research.  Yet  it  had  in  many  former 
years  been  the  duty  of  the  President  to  announce  an  excess  of  expenditure 
over  income ;  and  it  was  at  least  satisfactory,  on  the  present  occasion,  to 
find  thaty  though  small  indeed,  there  had  been  in  the  year  last  past^  some 
excess  of  income  above  the  outlay  incurred  ;  and  he  was  glad  to  see  that 
there  was,  in  the  estimate  submitted  to  the  Auditors,  a  promise  of  a 
similar  excess  for  the  ensuing  year.  He  lamented  that  this  excess  was 
so  small ;  but  there  was  on  the  part  of  the  public  a  growing  interest  in  all 
that  regarded  India  and  the  East.  It  was  the  duty  of  the  Society,  by 
every  exertion,  to  meet  that  interest ;  and  he  trusted  that  there  would 
be  found,  in  return,  an  increased  support,  marked  by  additions  to  their 
numbers,  and  that  we  should  receive  in  the  end  that  asristanoe  and 
encouragement^^  to  which  the  Report  had  alluded,  from  the  Government, 
in  the  appropriation  of  a  building  to  the  Society. 

With  regard  to  their  prospects  of  receiving  this  support,  he  could, 
with  much  gratification,  assert  that  in  few  years  had  more  valuable 
papers  been  submitted  to  the  Society  than  in  that  year  which  was  under 
review.  He  would  not  do  more  than  allude  to  the  excellent  and  well- 
directed  labours  of  the  Translation  Committee,  for  those  labours  were 
detailed  in  the  Report;  but  he  would  rather  point  to  the  papers  which 
had  been  read  at  their  Meetings;  and  though  some  great  names  had  been 
taken  by  death  from  their  list,  and  have  been  gratefully  and  sadly 
recorded  in  the  Report,  the  Society  still  possessed  Professor  Wilson, 
Mr.  Feigusson,  Mr.  Bland,  and  many  others,  whose  invaluable  commu- 
nications upon  the  literature  and  antiquities  of  the  East  were  fresh  in 
their  recollections ;  whilst  in  the  more  practical  matters  which  regard 
the  commerce,  the  agriculture,  and  the  industry  of  Asia,  in  which  he 
himself,  from  being  more  conversant  with  them,  had  taken  the  more 
prominent  interest,  we  might  instance  the  interesting  communications 
received  fiK)m  Drs.  Royle  and  Falconer,  and  those  sent  by  the  Court  of 
Directors,  and  Board  of  Control. 

They  had  within  the  last  year  tried  the  experiment  of  Evening 
Meetings,  at  which  some  of  these  more  practical  matters  might  be 
treated.  The  experiment  had  been  eminently  sucoessfiil,  and  would  be 
renewed.  He  hoped  they  would  shortly  be  favoured  with  a  review  of 
the  fossil  remains  of  the  lower  range  of  the  Himalayas  from  Dr.  Fal- 
coner. He  had  received  a  report  on  the  Grains  and  Agriculture  of 
Western  India,  by  Dr.  Gibson ;  and,  he  believed,  that  a  gentleman 
highly  qualified  to  do  justice  to  the  subject,  was  preparing  a  paper  on 
the  Canals  which  had  been  constructed,  and  were  still  existing  or  pro- 
jected in  India,  and  on  their  application  to  irrigation  for  agricultural 
purposes.  And  he  had  no  doubt  that  by  these  and  similar  reports^ 
the  interest  of  these  Evening  Meetings  would  be  folly  kept  up.  He 
regretted  that  the  absence  of  Sir  Alexander  Johnston  deprived  them  of 
his  valuable  report  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Committee  of  Correspond- 
ence; but  that  department  had  not  been  idle;  and,  more  particularly. 


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1844.^  ROYAL  ASIATIC    SOCIETY.  xvii 

letters  had  been  written  to  the  new  authorities  in  China,  who  had 
eyinced  a  lively  interest  in  the  Society,  and  from  whom  he  trusted  that 
communications  of  much  value  and  interest  might  one  day  be  received. 
Application  had  been  made,  as  they  had  heard  from  the  Report  of  the 
Council,  to  the  Court  of  Directors,  for  procuring  drawings  of  the  ancient 
fresco  paintings  in  the  Caves  of  Ajunta;  and  although  no  official  reply 
had  yet  been  received  from  the  Court,  he  had  every  reason  to  believe 
that  the  subject  was  likely  to  receive  a  just  and  highly  &vorable  consi- 
deration. He  would  now  conclude  by  assuring  the  Meeting  that  his 
time  and  hb  best  exertions  were  at  their  command ;  and  that  he  had  the 
le«  merit  in  this,  inasmuch  as  what  he  felt  to  be  a  duty,  was  equally  his 
pleasure  and  enjoyment. 

The  Right  Hon.  Sir  Edward  Rtan  moved,  <<  That  the  thanks  of 
the  Meeting  be  given  to  the  Director,  the  Vice-Presidents,  and  the 
Council,  for  the  zeal  and  ability  with  which  they  have  discharged  their 
important  duties  in  directing  the  operations,  and  superintending  the 
affairs  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  during  the  past  year." 

Louis  Hates  Petit,  Esq.,  seconded  the  motion,  which  was  carried 
unanimously. 

Creneral  Brigos  moved, ''  That  the  thanks  of  the  Meeting  be  ren- 
dered to  the  Officers  of  the  Society,  the  Secretary,  Treasurer,  and 
Librarian,  for  the  attention  they  have  devoted  to  the  discharge  of  their 
several  duties  during  the  last  year." 

Thb  motion  was  duly  seconded;  and  carried  unanimously. 

Mr.  Clarke  rose  to  thank  the  Meeting  for  the  Vote  awarded  to  him. 
He  felt  that  fully  to  realise  the  benefits  which  this  Society  was  cal- 
culated to  produce,  and  which  had  been  so  eloquently  developed  by 
the  noble  President,  would  demand  higher  qualifications  and  greater 
leisure  than  he  could  command ;  but  he  assured  the  Meeting  that  while 
he  would  gladly  see  his  place  more  worthily  occupied,  yet,  so  long  as 
hb  humble  services  received  the  kind  acceptance  with  which  they  were 
honored  by  the  Council  and  by  the  Society,  they  should  be  most  cheer- 
fully rendered.  He  desired  again  to  express  his  high  sense  of  the  valu- 
able and  ever  ready  services  of  his  talented  and  zealous  coadjutor,  Mr. 
NoBBis,  the  Assistant  Secretary. 

Charles  Elliott,  Esq.,  in  returning  thanks,  said  he  wished  that  the 
Society's  receipts  would  augment  sufficiently  to  make  his  office  one  of 
much  greater  benefit ;  and  that  he  should  be  most  willing  to  undergo  the 
additional  labour  which  such  increase  would  entail  upon  him. 

John  Shasbspear,  Esq.,  returned  thanks. 
1844.]  0 


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XVlii  ANNUAL   REPORT. 

Colonel  SiTKES  said,  that  it  was  his  agreeable  duty  to  move  the  thanks 
of  the  Meeting  to  James  Alexander,  Esq.,  for  a  second  donation  of  100/. 
to  the  funds  of  this  Society.  He  was  happy  to  bear  his  testimony  to  the 
unremitting  anxiety  manifested  by  the  late  Treasurer  to  promote  the 
interests  of  the  Society,  and  to  the  remarkable  promptness  with  which 
that  feeling  was  acted  upon.  It  was  but  a  few  days  ago  that,  in  a  con- 
versation with  Mr.  Alexander,  he  had  casually  alluded  to  the  low  state 
of  the  Society's  finances,  and  he  had  no  doubt  on  his  mind  that  the 
observation  thus  made  had  produced  this  additional  donation.  Mr. 
Alexander  was  one  of  the  warmest  friends  of  this  Institution ;  and  he 
had  shewn  his  good  wishes  with  most  efficient  measures.  He  therefore 
moved,  <<  That  the  munificent  liberality  of  James  Alexander,  Esq.,  the 
late  Treasurer -of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  in  presenting  a  second 
donation  of  100/.  to  its  funds,  is  entitled  to  the  warmest  and  most 
grateful  acknowledgments  of  this  Meeting;  and  that  the  Council  be 
requested  to  convey  to  Mr.  Alexander,  on  behalf  of  the  Society,  the 
cordial  expression  of  their  thanks  for  his  generous  gift." 

This  motion  was  put  from  the  Chair,  and  carried  unanimously. 

John  Ctoldib,  Esq.,  and  Capt.  Wm.  J.  Eastwick  were  nominated 
Scrutineers ;  and  the  Meeting  proceeded  to  ballot  for  the  Officers  of  the 
Society,  and  New  Members  of  Council. 

At  the  close  of  the  ballot,  it  was  declared  that  the  Officers  of  the  past 
year  were  re-elected  ;  and  that  Colonel  R.  Bamewall;  the  Right  Hon. 
Holt  Mackenzie ;  James  Matlieson,  Esq.,  M.P. ;  G.  R.  Porter,  Esq. ; 
Henry  T.  Prinsep,  Esq.;  Professor  Forbes  Royle,  M.D.;  the  Right 
Hon.  Sir  E.  Ryan;  and  Lieut.-Colonel  W.  H.  Sykes,  were  elected  into 
the  Council,  in  the  place  of  the  following  Members  going  out  by 
rotation:— Samuel  Ball,  Esq.;  Major-General  J.  Caulfeild,  C.B.;  Sir 
Thomas  Edward  Colebrooke,  Bart.,  M.P. ;  Captain  Wm.  J.  Eastwick ; 
Jolm  Guillemard,  Esq. ;  Lieut.-Colonel  W.  Martin  Leake ;  the  Honor- 
able W.  Leslie  Melville ;  and  the  Very  Reverend  the  Dean  of  Salisbury. 


London;  Harrisox  and  Co.,  Pbintrha,  St.  Martin's  Lank. 


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LIST  OF  THE  MEMBERS 


THE   ROYAL   ASIATIC    SOCIETY 


,  GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND. 


CORRECTED  TO  THE  30rH  OF  JUNE, 
M.DCCC.XLIV. 


1844. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ROYAL  ASIATIC  SOCIETY. 


patron: 
HER  MOST  EXCELLENT  MAJESTY  THE  QUEEN. 

HIS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS  THE  PRINCE  ALBERT. 

HIS  MAJESTY  LEOPOLD  L,  KING  OF  THE  BELGIANS,  K.G. 

THE  PRESIDENT  OF  THE  BOARD  OF  COMMISSIONERS  FOR 

THE  AFFAIRS  OF  INDIA- 
THE  CHAIRMAN  OF  THE    COURT   OF  DIRECTORS  OF  THE 

HON.  THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY. 

CoimdI. 

THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  AUCKLAND,  G.C.R,  PreaidenL 
PROFESSOR  H.  H.  WILSON,  Director. 

THE  RIGHT  HON.  SIR  GORE  OUSELEY,  Bart.,  rtoe-Prendent. 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  SIR  ALEXANDER  JOHNSTON,  nce-Pretideni. 
THE  HON.  MOUNTSTUART  ELPHINSTONE,  Vice-Pretidmt. 
SIR  GEORGE  THOMAS  STAUNTON,  Bakt.,  M.P.,  ViethPrstidenk 

COLONEL  R.  BARNEWALL. 

RICHARD  CLARKE,  Esq.,  Seoretmry, 

CHARLES  ELLIOTT,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  Treoiurer. 

JAMES  EWING,  Esq. 

THE  MOST  HON.  THE  MARQUESS  OF  LANSDOWNE,  K.G. 

SIR  GEORGE  G.  i»s  H.  LARPENT,  Bart. 

MAJOR-GEN.  SIR  JAMES  L.  LUSHINGTON,  G.C.B. 

THE  RIGHT  HON.  HOLT  MACKENZIE. 

JAMES  MATHESON,  Esq.,  M.P. 

MAJOR  JAMES  OLIPHANT. 

JOSEPH  PHILLIMORE^  Esq.,  LL.D. 

GEORGE  RICHARDSON  PORTER,  Emq. 

HENRY  THOBY  PRINSEP,  Esq. 

PROFESSOR  JOHN  FORBES  ROYLE,  M.D.   P.R.S. 

THE  RIGHT  HON.  SIR  EDWARD  RYAN. 

JOHN  SHAKESPEAR,  Esq.,  Librarian, 

JOHN  SULLIVAN,  Esq. 

LIEUT.-COL.  WILLIAM  HENRY  SYKES,  F.R.S. 

MAJOR  SIR  HENRY  WILLOCK,  K.L.S. 

A  2 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


President: 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  AUCKLAND,  G.C.B. 

Director: 
PROFESSOR  HORACE  HAYMAN  WILSON. 

Vic^Freeidents : 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  SIR  GORE  OUSELEY,  Bart. 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  SIR  ALEXANDER  JOHNSTON,  Knt. 
THE  HONOURABLE  MOUNTSTUART  ELPHINSTONE. 
SIR  GEORGE  THOMAS  STAUNTON,  Bart.,  M.P. 

Tre^mirer : 
CHARLES  ELLIOTT,  Emq.,  F.R.S. 

Secretary : 
RICHARD  CLARKE,  Esq. 

Librarian : 
JOHN  SHAKESPEAR,  Esq. 

Assistant-Secretary: 
MR.  EDWIN  NORRIS. 


Committn  of  eownponttntt. 

Chairman : 

THE  RIGHT  HON.  SIR  ALEXANDER  JOHNSTON,  Knt., 

F.R.S.  F.S.A.  F.L.S. 

Deputy-Chairmen : 
SIR  GEORGE  THOMAS  STAUNTON,  Bart,,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
SIR  CHARLES  FORBES,  Bart. 

Committee : 
SAMUEL  BALL,  Esq. 
SIR  HERBERT  COMPTON. 
CHARLES  ELLIOTT,  Esq. 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  HENRY  ELLIS. 
THE  HON.  MOUNTSTUART  ELPHINSTONE. 
THE  RIGHT  HON.  HOLT  MACKENZIE. 
THE  HON.  W.  H.  LESLIE  MELVILLE. 
M.  S.  MOORE,  Esq.,  M.D. 
THOMAS  NEWNHAM,  Esq. 
WILLIAM  NEWNHAM,  Esq. 
THE  REV.  THOMAS  ROBINSON,  M.A. 
LIEUT.-COLONEL  W.  H.  SYKES,  F.R.S. 

Secretary: 
RICHARD  CLARKE,  Esq. 

Assistant-Secretary: 
MR.  EDWIN  NORRIS. 


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HIS  MAJESTY  LOUIS  PHILIPPE,  KING  OP  THE  FRENCH. 
HIS  MAJESTY  FRE^EKICK  WILUAM  THE  FOURTH,  KING 

OF  PRUSSIA. 
HIS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS  PRINCE  JOHN  OF  SAXONY. 
H^  MAJESTY  MOHAMMED  SHAH,  8HAHIN  SHAH,  KING 

OF  PERSIA. 
HIS  HIGHNESS  THE  RAJA  OF  SATARA. 
HIS  HIGHNESS  THE  PASHA  OF  EGYPT. 
HIS  HIGHNESS  THE  RAJA  OF  TRAVANCORE. 
HIS  HIGHNESS  THE  IMAM  OF  MUSCAT. 
HIS  HIGHNESS  NAWAB  IKBAL  UD  DOULAII  BAHADUR. 


RESIDENT  AND  NON-RESIDENT. 


N.B.— The  marks  prefixed  to  the  name  signify 
*    Non-resident  Members. 

•f*    Members  who  have  compounded  for  their  Subscriptions. 
II    Members  whose  subscriptions  are  in  abeyance  during  absence. 


tHIS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS  THE  FRINGE  ALBERT 
fHis  Majesty  Leopold  I.,  Kino  op  the  Belgians,  K.G. 

Aberdeen,  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of,  K.T.  F.R.S. 
*AoA  Mahomed  Rahim  Sherazeb 
•AoA  Mahomed  Jaffer 

Alexander,  Captain  Sir  James  Edward,  K.L.S. 
f  Alexander,  Henry,  Esq. 
t Alexander,  James,  Esq. 

Alexander,  Robert,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Alvbs,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Nathaniel 

Amherst,  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl 

Anderson,  Geoi^e  W.,  Esq. 


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U  LIST   OF   MEMBERS. 

tANNESLBY,  Sir  James  H.,  F.R.S. 
*Ardaseer  Cursetjeb,  Esq. 
*Ardasekr  Hormanjeb,  Esq. 
fARRowsMiTH,  John,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S. 
Auckland,  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of^  Prmdeni, 

fBABiNOTON,  Benjamin  Guy,  Esq.,  M.D.  F.R.S. 
1 1  Bacon,  Thomas,  Esq. 

Ball,  Samuel,  Esq. 

Baring,  Sir  Thomas,  Bart. 

Baring,  the  Honourable  William  Bingham,  M.P. 

Barnewall,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Robert 
*  Barnes,  Lieutenant-Geneial  Sir  Edward,  G.C.B. 

Baskbrville,  Henry,  Esq. 

Baxter,  H.  J.,  Esq. 

Batlet,  William  Butterworth,  Esq. 
tBsLFouR,  Francis  Cunningham,  Esq.,  M.A. 
f  Benson,  Robert,  Esq. 

Berrt,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Walter,  A.M. 
fBETHAM,  Sir  William,  F.S.A.  F.L.S. 

Bbxlet,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 

Birch,  Jonathan,  Esq. 
iJBiRD,  James,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S. 

Biscoe,  T.  p.  B.,  Esq. 

Blackburnb,  John,  Esq. 
fBLAND,  Nathaniel,  Esq. 
*Blane,  David,  Esq. 
*Blane,  Thomas  Law,  Esq. 
fBLANSHARD,  HcuTy,  Esq.,  M.R.S.L. 

^BOMANJEE  HORMANJBB,  Esq. 

BoRTHWiCK,  Lieutenant-Colonel  W. 
fBoTFiELD,  Beriah,  Esq.,  M.P.  F.R.S. 
*BowMAN,  John,  Esq. 
tBowRiNO,  John,  Esq.,  M.P.  LL.D.  F.L.S. 
^Bracken,  Thomas,  Esq. 
*Bradt,  John  Henry,  Esq. 

Bridgeman,  WillUm,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 
tBRioos,  Major-General  John,  F.R.S.  F.G.S.  F.Z.S.  F.S.S, 
||Broadfoot,  Major  Geoige 
II Brown,  Charles  Philip,  Esq. 

Brownlow,  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl,  F.R.S.  F.S.A.  F.G.S. 

Bryant,  Colonel  Sir  Jeremiah,  C.K 
*Burn,  David  Laing,  Esq. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


LIST   OF   MIBMBERS. 

fBuRNET,  the  Rev.  Charles  Parr,  D.D.  F.R.S. 
f|BuBNBY,  laentenant-Colonel  Henry 
IJBnRT,  Major  Thomas  Seymour,  F.R.S. 

tCABBBLL,  Benjamin  Bond,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 
^Calcttta,  the  Right  Rev.  Daniel  Lord  Bishop  of 
*Caldwbll,  Major  Hugh 
Calthorpb,  the  Right  Honourahle  Lord 
Calthorpe,  the  Honourable  Frederick  Gough 
Caulfbild,  Major-General  James,  C.B. 
Campbbll,  Sir  Robert,  Bart. 
Campbell,  Alexander  Duncan,  Esq. 
Campbbll,  the  Rev.  Archibald  Montgomery,  M.A. 
tCAMPBELL,  John  Deans,  Esq. 
tCAMPBBLL,  Colin,  Esq. 
Carnac,  Major  Sir  James  Rivett,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 
Cartwrioht,  Samuel,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
tCHASB,  Major  Morgan 
tCLARB,  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of 
Clarkb,  Richard,  Esq.,  Seeraary, 
Clivb,  die  Honourable  Robert  Henzy,  M.P. 
Closb,  Major  Robert  H. 
CocKBURN,  Thomas,  Esq. 
CoGAK,  Captain  Robert 
tCoLBORNB,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord 
tCoLBT,  Colonel  Thomas,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 
fCoLEBRooKB,  Sir  Thomas  Edward,  Bart.,  M.P. 
*CoLBBROOEBy  Sir  William  M.  G. 
CoLQUHouK,  Gideon,  Esq. 
CoLTiN,  J.  R.,  Esq. 
CoMPTON,  Sir  Herbert 

tCooPBR,  Charles  Purton,  Esq.,  A.M.  LL.D.  F.R.S. 
tCouBT,  Major  M.  H. 
Cotton,  John,  Esq. 
^Cruttenden,  Lieutenant  C.  J. 
*CuNLivFEy  Major-General  Sir  Robert  H.,  Bart.,  C.B. 
*CuRSBTJEB  Aroaseer,  Esq. 
*CnRSBTJEE  CowASJEE,  Esq. 
^CuRSBTJEE  Jamsbtjbb,  Esq. 

*CURSBTJEB  RUSTOMJEE,  Esq. 

Cubtbis,  John,  Esq. 
CuTHBBRT,  S.  T.,  Esq. 


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8  U8T   OF  MEMBERS. 

*Dadabhot  Pestonjbb,  Esq. 

D'Arcy,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Joseph,  K.L.S. 
II  Davis,  John  Francis,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
*Db  Havilland,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas  Fiott 
*Dhackjeb  Dadajbb,  Esq. 

Dickenson,  Colonel  Thomas 

DoNALD£>ON,  the  Rev.  John  William 

DouoLAS,  Lieut.-General  Sir  Howard,  Bart^  M.P.  C.B.  K.C.S.  F.R.S. 
fDoTLE,  Colonel  Charles  J. 
tDRANB,  Thomas,  Esq. 
^Drtsdale,  William  Castellan,  Esq. 

Dter,  Samuel,  Esq.,  M.D. 

1 1  Earl,  George  Windsor,  Esq. 

tEAST,  the  Right  Honourahle  Sir  Edward  Hyde,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 

Eastwick,  Captain  Wm.  J. 
*Eastwick,  Lieutenant  E.  B. 

EoERTON,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Francis,  M.P. 

Ellis,  the  Right  Honourahle  Henry,  F.R.S.  M.R.6.S. 
IIElliot,  Walter,  Esq. 

Elliott,  Charles,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  Treasurer. 

Elphinstone,  the  Right  Honourahle  Lord 

ELPHiNSTONE,the  Honourable  MouutstuartyM.R.G.S.,  Fice-PreHcknt. 
fELPHiNSTONB,  Johu  Fullartou,  Esq. 
fERSKiKB,  William,  Esq. 
tEvEREST,  Lieutenant-Colonel  George,  F.R.S. 

Ewer,  Walter,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

EwiNQ,  James,  Esq. 

Falconer,  Professor  Forbes,  A.M. 
fFARBBR,  James  William,  Esq. 

Febousson,  James,  Esq. 
•f  Fletcher,  Edward,  Esq. 

Forbes,  Sir  Charles,  Bart. 
||Forbbs,  Charles,  Esq. 

Forbes,  Professor  Duncan 
fFoRBBs,  Greorge,  Esq. 
fFoRBBS,  James  Stewart,  Esq. 

Forshall,  the  Rev.  Josiah,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 
IJFox,  Thomas,  Esq. 
*Framjee  Cowasjee,  Esq. 

Fbaser,  John,  Esq. 
f  Frederick,  Major-General  Edward,  C.B. 
♦Freer,  W.  E.,  Esq. 


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UST   OF   MEMBERS.  9 

FuLCHSR,  Captain  Robert  Page 
fFuLLABTON,  John,  Kaq. 

Galloway,  Geneial,  C.B. 

GoLDiBy  John,  Esq. 
tGoLDDTGHAif,  John,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

GoLDflMi])^  Sir  Isaac  Lyon,  Bart,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 

GooDFSLLOw,  M^or-Greneial  Samnel 

GoBOoir,  lieat-Gen.  Sir  J.  Willonghby,  Bt,  aCB.G.C.H.  F.R.S. 

Graht,  Charles,  Esq. 
tG&Bins,  Henry  S.,  Esq. 

Gbxbnough,  George  Bellas,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.G.S.  Y.P.R.G.S. 
*Gebgobt,  John,  Esq. 
tGuMsoH,  Samuel,  Esq. 
IIGrxt,  the  Right  Hononrable  Sir  Charles  E. 

GuNDLAT,  Ci^tam  Robert  Melville 
tGuiLLEMABD,  John  Lewis,  Esq.,  M.A.  F.R.S.  F.G.S.  F.L.S. 

tHALi^  Richard,  Esq. 

HAiQLTOir,  Alexander  Hamilton,  Esq. 
fHAMiLioir,  Archibald,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

HAMiLTOir,  William  Richard,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Hakdiko,  Benjamin,  Esq. 

Habdinoe,  Hb  Excellency  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Heniy,  G.C.B. 

Habbington,  Edward  John,  Esq. 
*Habt,  Captain  Septimus 
fHABYBT,  Henry,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
tHAUOHTOM,  Sir  Gnves  C,  M.A.  K.H.  F.R.S. 

Hauohton,  Richard,  Esq. 
tHsifiNO,  Dempster,  Esq. 

HBNDKBsoir,  James,  Esq. 
f  Hbbbvobd,  the  Right  Rev.  the  Lord  Bishop  of 

HisBBT,  the  Rot.  Frauds,  LL.D. 

Hobhousb,  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  John  Cam,  Bart,  M.P.  F4R.S. 
tHoBHOUSB,  Henry  William,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 
*  Hodgson,  Brian  Houghton,  Esq. 
fHoDCffiON,  Dayid,  Esq. 

Hodgson,  John,  Esq. 

HoGO,  James  Weir,  Esq.,  M.P. 
fHoPKuraoN,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Sir  Charles,  C.B. 

HoBSFiBLD^  Thomas,  Esq.,  M.D.  F.R.S.  F.G.S. 
tHuKB,  Joseph,  Esq.,  M.P.  F.R.S. 
tHuNTEB,  Sir  Richard,  M.D. 
tHuiiTSB,  Robert,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 

W^  B 


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10  LlffT   OF   MEMBERS. 
Htdb,  Charlesy  Esq. 

tlNGLiB,  Sir  Robert  Hany,  Bart.,  M.P.  LL.D.  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 
Ikoub,  David  D.,  Esq. 

11  Jaoob^  Captain  Geoige  le  Grand 
'^  Jamsbtjeb  Jebjeebhot,  Sir 

Jbnkius,  Sir  Richard,  G.C.B.  F.R.S. 

JsBTis,  Major  Thomas  B.,  F.R.S.  F.G.S. 

JocELTN,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Viscount,  M.P. 

Johnston,  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Alexr.,  F.R.S.,  Vioe-Preridwt. 

JoNBs,  Benjamin  S.,  Esq. 

JoNBS,  Heniy,  Esq. 

Jones,  the  Rev.  Richard 

Jones,  the  Rer.  C.  W.  Ireland 

*  JUGONATHJEB  SUNKBBSETT,  Esq. 

*EjnrNBOT,  Richard  Hartly,  MJ).  M.R.S.L. 

*Kbnnkdt,  Major^General  Vans 

fKiNG,  Captain  PhiUip  Parker,  R.N.  F.R.S. 

Lanbdowne,  the  Most  Noble  the  Marquess  of,  E.G.  F.R.S. 
fLABFENT,  Sir  G.  G.  de  H.,  Bart 
IILayib,  William,  Esq. 
tliAWVORD,  Edward,  Esq. 
fliAWFOBD,  Henry  S.,  Esq.,  MA. 

Leake,  lieutenant-Colonel  William  Martin,  F.R.S. 
fLsE,  the  Rey.  Samuel,  B J).  M JLSX. 
fLEioH,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord 
||Lewin,  Malcolm,  Esq. 
fLiNwooD,  the  Rey.  William 
tLiTTUiR,  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Hunter 

Loch,  Captain  Grranville 

Loch,  John,  Esq. 

LoEWE,  Dr.  L.,  M.S.A.  Par. 

LusHnroTON,  M^or-Greneral  Sir  James  Law,  G.C.B. 

Mackenzie,  the  lUght  Honourable  Holt 

M^Cabe,  Charles,  Esq. 

Mackillop,  James,  Esq. 
f  Mackoteosh,  Eneas,  Esq. 

Macsukw,  Andrew,  Esq. 

Mac£Eod,  John  Mac  Pherson,  Esq. 
•M'Nbill,  Sir  John,  G.C.B.  F.R&  M.R.IJI. 


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LIST   OF   MEMBERS.  11 

fMAcncABy  John^  Esq. 
fMACwHiRTERy  John,  Eaq.,  M.D. 
^Maddock,  Thomas  Herbert^  Esq. 
'Mahommsd  Ally  Rooat,  Eeq. 
*MoHAJfiiia>  Ibrahim  Muckba,  Esq. 

Mauln,  Solomon  Cssar,  Esq. 
fMALGouiy  Rear-Admirel  Sir  Charles 

MALOOLMSONy  Jamss,  Esq. 
*Manockjek  CuBSBTJBSy  Esq. 
flfABDOM,  Thomas  TodcC  Esq. 
tMATHBsoN,  James,  Esq.,  M J^. 
tMAUGHAN,  Captain  Philip 

fMAULBYEBSB,  W.,  Esq. 

Mblvill,  Philip,  Esq. 

Mklyiixk,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Viscount,  K.T.  F.R.S. 

Mklvillje,  John,  Esq. 

Mblvillb,  the  Honourable  William  Heniy  Leslie   • 

IfsTCALFE,  Sir  Charles  Theophilus,  Bart. 
*MiGirAN,  Captain  Robert 

MiLBs,  Colonel  WOliam 
tMiLL,  the  Rev.  William  H.,  D.D. 

Moor,  Major  Edward,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 

MooRB,  Edmund  F.,  Esq. 

MooRB,  Major  John  A. 

Moorb,  Matthew  Soott,  Esq.,  IID. 
IIMoRRis,  John  Camac,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
IJMniR,  John,  Esq. 
^MmfHOHUirDASs  Dayidass,  Esq. 

MussABnn,  Joseph,  Esq. 

*Nbwbold,  Lieut.  Thomas  John 
tNBWNHAM,  Henry,  Esq. 

Nbwnham,  Thomas^  Esq. 

Newmham,  William,  Esq. 
f  NowBLL,  Alexander,  Esq. 
*NowROJBB  Jamsktjbb,  Esq. 

IIOoiLYT,  Thomas,  Esq. 
Oliphant,  Major  James 
OuTXBy  William,  Esq. 
OusKLBT,  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Gore,  Bart,  GX.H.  EMS.  F.RJS. 

Vke-Preridetu. 
*OuTRAM,  laeuL-CoL  James,  CB. 

fOwBM,  Rear-Admiial  Sir  Edward  William  Campbell  Rich,  K.aB. 

B2 

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12  LIST   OF  MEMBERS. 

Parburt,  George,  Esq. 
*PATTONy  Major-General  Robert,  C.B. 

Frarson,  the  Very  Reverend  H.  N^  D.D.,  Dean  of  Salisbniy. 

Prtit,  Louis  Hayes,  Esq.,  MA.  F.R.S.  F.S.A.  F.G.S. 

Philumorb,  Joseph,  Esq.,  LL.D.  F.RJS. 

Philufs,  Sir  Thomas 

Phillifs,  Thomas,  Esq. 
*PiSAia,  Count  Alexander 
*PisAiri,  the  Chevalier  Etienne 
fPiTMAN,  Major-General  Robert,  C.B. 
tPLATT,  Thomas  Pell,  Esq.,  M.A.  F.S. A. 

Plowdrn,  William  Henry  Chichely,  Esq. 
tPoLUiroTOif,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Viscount 

Pollock,  David,  Esq.,  (^C.  F.R.S. 
fPoRCHRR,  Henry,  Esq. 

PoRTBR,  G.  R.,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.S. 
*Po8TAira,  Captain  Thomas 

Powis,  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of 

Prinbrp,  Henry  Thoby,  Esq. 
tPusBY,  Philip,  Esq.,  M.P.  F.R.S. 

•Ramsat,  Cspt.  H.  N. 
IIRapbr,  Major-General  Felix  Vincent 
tRAPHARL,  Alexander,  Esq.,  F.H.S.  F.Z.S. 
||Ravbn8CROft,  Arthur  Walpole,  Esq. 

Rawbor,  Thomas  Samuel,  Esq. 
IRrrvrs,  John,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.L.S. 
fRRNouARO,  the  Rev.  Geoi^e  Cecil,.  B.D. 

Rbynolds,  Rev.  James,  B.A. 

RiCB,  Sir  Ralph 
•f-RicKRTTS,  Mordaunt,  Esq. 
fRiTCHiR,  James,  Esq. 
tRoBRRTS,  Browne,  Esq. 

RoBBRTB,  Charles,  Esq. 

RoBRRTS,  Colonel  Charles  Morissy 

RoBBRTs,  Colonel  Henry  Tufhell,  C.B. 

R0BBRT8ON,  Alexander,  Esq. 

RoBBRTSON,  liajor-General  Archibald 

Robinson,  the  Reverend  Thomas,  M.A. 
tRooBRs,  Colin,  Esq.,  M.D. 

RoMER,  John,  Esq. 

RoTHRRT,  William,  Esq. 

RoTLR,  Professor  John  Forbes,  M.D.  V.P.R.S.  F.G.S. 
.Russell,  Charles,  Esq.,  M.P. 


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LIST   OF  MEMBERS. 


13 


RnssKLL,  George  Edward,  Eaq. 
Rtav,  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Edward 

Salomons,  Dayid,  Esq. 
*Samp80n,  Captain  Thomas  Edmund,  F.G.S. 
tSANDwiTH,  Major-General  William,  C.B. 

Scott,  John,  Esq.,  M.D. 
*SooTT,  Patrick,  Esq. 

Shakbspbab,  John  Esq.,  lAbrarian. 

Shbphbbd,  John«  Esq. 
fSieMOND,  Greoige  Gabriel,  Esq.,  M.D.  F.S.A. 
tSMiTB,  Alexander,  Esq.,  M.D. 
tSMiTH,  George,  Esq. 

Smith,  Edmund,  Esq. 

Smith,  Major  John 
tSMiTH,  Thomas  Charles,  Esq. 

SoLLT,  Richard  Horseman,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 

SoLLT,  Samuel  Reynolds,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.A. 

SoMBBSBT,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  K.G.  F.R.S. 
*SoTHSBT,  Major  Frederick  Samuel 
*Spiebs,  laeut-Colonel  Alexander 

St.  John,  J.  A.,  Esq. 
fSTAUKTON,  Sir  George  T.,  Bart,  M.P.  F.R.S.  F.S.A.,  Vtee-PreaideiU. 
tSTBUABT,  John  Robert,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

SioKBs,  Charles,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  F.S.A.  F.G.S. 

Stonb,  Henry,  Esq. 
*Stonb,  Major  William 

Stbachrt,  Greorge,  Esq. 

Stkachbt,  Sir  Henry,  Bart. 

Strachbt,  Richard,  Esq.. 

Stratton,  George,  Esq. 

Stboyeb,  Major-General  S.  R. 
fSruABT,  the  Honourable  Charles  Francis 

SuLUYAN,  John,  Esq. 

Stxes,  lieut-Colonel  W.  H.,  F.R.S.  V.P.S.S.  F.Z.S.  F.G.S. 

•KTatlob,  Richard,  Esq.,  F.S.A.  F.L.S. 

TEiGmfouTH,  the  Right  Honourable  Lord,  F.R.S. 
fTHOMFSoN,  Lieut.-Colonel  Thomas  Perronet,  F.R.S. 

Thouiton,  Thomas,  Esq. 

Todd,  James  RuddeU,  Esq. 

TooMB,  Francis  Hastings,  Esq. 
tTRAKT,  William  Henry,  Esq. 

Trevor,  Andrew,  Esq. 
*Trottxr,  John,  Esq. 


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14  LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 

*TBOTEBy  Captain  Anthony 

TucKBBy  Heniy  St.  Geoige,  Esq. 

TuRNBR,  Samuel,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
fTuBNBB,  Thomas,  Esq.,  M.D. 

Urmston,  Sir  James  Braha»ni|  Knt. 
fUBQUHAKT,  Dayid,  Esq. 

tVBRNBT,  Major  Sir  Hany,  Bart. 

tVTYTAK,  Sir  Richard  Rawlinson,  Bart«,  F.R.S. 

Waohobit,  lieutenant  Thomas,  R.N. 

Wallace,  Edward  J.,  Esq.,  M.A. 
*Wallich,  Nathaniel,  M J).  F.R.S. 

Warbubton,  M^jor  Gamett 

Wabden,  Francis,  Esq. 
'•'Wabb,  Samuel,  Esq.,  FJS.A. 
fWATTB,  William,  Eeq. 

Wbddjebbubn,  John,  Esq. 
tWEEDiiro,  Thomas,  Esq. 

Wellxnoton,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  K.6. 
tWHiTE,  (xeneral  Martin 
||Wilbbaham,  Major  Richard 

WiLKnisoir,  Henry,  Esq. 

WiLLUJfsoN,  Thomas,  Esq. 
fWiLLocK,  Major  Geoige,  K.L.S. 

WiLLOCK,  Major  Sir  Henry,  K.L.S. 
IIWiLSON,  Major-General  F.  W.,  C.B. 

fWiLsoN,  Professor  Horace  Hayman,  MA.,  F.R.S.,  Director. 
fWiLsoN,  the  Rev.  John,  D.D. 

Wood,  Colonel  Thomas,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 

Wtatt,  Major-General  E. 

Wtnn,  the  Right  Hon.  Charles  Watkin  Williams,  M.P. 

tYATEs,  W.  Holt,  Esq.,  M.D.  F.R.S. 
*YonNO,  the  Rev.  John,  D.D. 
*YouNG,  Colonel  James. 


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15 


dToreijpi  fiUnnhM. 


Prince  Estsrhazy. 

The  Marquis  db  Palmblla. 

Gbnbral  ConifT  Bjornstjbrna. 

Count  St.  Martin  D'Aolib. 

Count  Mandblsloh. 

Count  Moltkb. 

Baron  Bulow. 

Baron  Cbtto. 

The  Chbyalibr  Falck. 

The  Hon.  Louis  Mac  Lanb. 

The  Hon.  Martin  Van  Burbn. 

Professor  Adeluug,  St.  Petersburgh, 

The  Chevalier  Adrien  Balbi,  Vienna, 

The  Abate  Bellanti,  Keeper  qftJie  Royal  Library  at  Malta. 

Professor  Jacob  Bercrgren,  Stockhobn. 

Professor  George  Henry  Bernstein,  BresUsw. 

The  Chevalier  T.  X.  Bianchi,  Paris. 

Monsieur  Edouard  Biot,  Paris. 

Professor  Francis  Bopp,  Berlin. 

Monsieur  T.  R.  G.  Bourke,  late  Danish  CJuxrgi  d^ Affaires  in  London. 

Professor  Sugdne  Burnouf,  Secretary  to  the  SociStiAsiatique,  Paris. 

Baron  Van  der  Capellen,  late  Govemor-General  qf  Netherlands  India. 

Professor  F.  B.  Charmoy,  St.  Petersburgh. 

M.  Alexandre  de  Chodzko. 

8enhor  Joaquim  Jose  da  Costa  de  Macedo,  Lisbon. 

W.  J.  C.  Domis,  Ssq.,  Sourabaya,  Java, 

Professor  Bemhard  Dom,  St.  Petersburgh. 

Monsieur  D'Ohsson,  Brussels. 

The  Reverend  Abb6  Dubois,  Missions  Etrangeres,  Paris. 

Professor  J.  R.  van  Eerde,  Oroningen. 

Professor  Francis  Erdmann,  Kasan. 

Professor  Garcin  de  Tassy,  Paris. 

Professor  Gotthelf  Fischer  de  Waldheim,  Moscow. 

Professor  Charles  Martin  Fnehn,  St.  Petersburgh. 

Professor  William  Frey  tag,  Bonn. 


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16  FOREIGN   MEMBERS. 

The  Ch«valier  Jacob  Graberg  d'Hemso,  Florence. 

Professor  G.  F.  Grotefend,  Haruwer, 

Baron  Hammer-Purgstall,  Vienna. 

William  B.  Hodgson,  Esq.,  United  States, 

Baron  Alexander  von  Humbolt,  Berlin. 

Washington  Irving,  Esq.,  United  States, 

The  Chevalier  Am^^e  Jaubert,  Paris. 

Monsieur  £.  Jomard,  Paris. 

Professor  Stanislaus  Julien,  Membre  de  UnstiUU^  Paris. 

Mirza  Alexander  Kasem  Beg,  Kasan, 

Professor  J.  G.  L.  Kosegarten,  Gri^swald. 

Christian  Lassen,  Ph.  D.,  Bonn, 

Julius  Mohl,  Ph.  D.,  Paris. 

The  Chevalier  C6sar  Moreau,  Paris, 

Professor  Charles  Frederick  Neumann,  Munich. 

General  Prince  Paskevitch. 

Monsieur  Reinaud,  Paris. 

Professor  Reinward,  Leyden. 

Professor  Charles  Ritter,  Berlin. 

The  Chevalier  Benjamin  Schlick,  Copenhagen. 

Professor  Isaac  Jacob  Schmidt,  St,  Petersburgh, 

Professor  Gustavus  Seyffkrth,  Liepzig, 

Professor  Augustus  William  von  Schlegel,  Bonn. 

Monsieur  Jean  Th6ologue,  Paris. 

Professor  Thomas  Christian  Tychsen,  Gottingen. 

The  Hon.  Henry  W  beaten,  United  States, 

Professor  Frederick  Wilken,  Berlin. 


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17 


Cotrtitfpontfins  iflStmbnii. 


M.  le  Chevalier  E.  6.  Arbandre.    Paris. 

John  O.  Hall  Andrews,  Esq.,  qf  the  Ron,  E.  L  Ccmpcmy's  Medieai 

Service, 
Johannes  Avdall,  Esq.,  Calcutta. 
Captain  Balfour,  H.  M.  CormU,  Shinghai. 
Mons.  W.  Bojer,  Port  Louis,  Mauritius. 

The  Hon.  F.  W.  A.  Bruce,  Secretary  to  Government,  Hong  Kong. 
Archibald  Campbell,  Esq.,  M.D.    Nepal. 
John  Capper,  Esq.    Ceylon. 
The  Chevalier  Don  Lopez  de  Cordoba,  Spanieh  Minister  to  the 

Sublime  Ottoman  Porte. 
Simon  Casie  Cbitty,  Maniyagar  qfPutlam,  Ceylon. 
The  Rev.  Benjamin  Clough,  late  Weeleyan  Mimonary  in  the  Island 

qf  Ceylon, 
The  Chevalier  Clot-Bey,  M.  D.,  Director  qf  the  Medical  College  of 

Abu  Zabel,  near  Cairo. 
William  Coffin,  Esq.    Abyssinia. 

M.  Court.     Lahore. 

Monsieur  Dabadie,  Astronomer  to  the  Royal  College  of  Port  Louis, 
Mauritius. 

Monsieur  N.  D*Avezac    Paris. 

E.  J.  Dawkins,  Esq.,  late  H.BM.  Minister  Resident  in  Greece, 

J.  F.  van  Overmeer  Fisscher,  Esq.,  Java. 

Professor  Gustavus  Pliigel,  Meissen,  Saxony. 

The  Rev.  D.  J.  Gogerly,  Colombo,  Ceylon. 

The  Rev  Charles  Gutzlaff.     Canton. 

Mah&r^&  K&U  Krishna  Bah&dur.    CalcutU. 

T.Tradescant  Lay,  Esq.     China. 

Major  James  Low,  Madras  htfantry. 

C&velly  Venkata  R&ma8w4mi.    Madras. 

Lieut.  James  Mackenzie,  8M  Bengal  N.  C. 

F.  Mansbach,  Esq.    Cuttac. 

Signor  G.  Michelotti.    Turin. 

The  Rev.  P.  Parker,  M.D.    Canton. 


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18  COBBE8PONDINO   MEMBERS. 

Dionysius  Lambertus  Pereira.    Ceylon. 

Christian  A.  Rassam.    Mosul. 

Sir  Thomas  Read,  C.B.,  H.B.  Ma^eitys  ComuI,  Tunis. 

Captain  Michael  John  Rowlandson,  Persian  Interpreter  at  Head 

Quarters,  and  Secretary  to  the  College  qfFort  St.  George. 
B&bu  Radhakanta  D£va.     Calcutta. 
R&masw&mi  Mudeliar,  Janopacdra  CartOj  JdgMrdar  qf  the  Island 

qf  Sivasamudram* 
Major  Henry  Creswick  Rawlinson.    Bagdad. 
James  Pringle  Riach,  Esq.,  qf  the  Hon.  E.  /.  Company's  Medical 

Service. 
The  Rev.  Joseph  Roberts. 
Don  Juan  de  Silva,  Mohandiram  qf  the  Lascoryn  Corps  at  Galle, 

Ceylon. 
M.  Augustus  Sakakini,  Chi^  qf  the  Board  qf  Medical  Translators 

attached  to  the  College  qfAbu-Zabel. 
Mirza  Salih,  Editor  qfthe  Teheran  Gazette,  Persia. 
The  Rev.  Christopher  Frederick  Schlienz.     Malta. 
Lieut-Colonel  Justin  Shiel,  Secretary  qf  Legation  at  the  Court  qf 

Persia, 
D.  Thorn,  Esq.,  HM.  Consul,  Ningpo 

F.  A.  C.  Waitz,  M.D.,  Chi^  qfthe  Medical  Staff,  Samarang,  Java. 
Le  Chevalier  General  Ventura.    Lahore. 
The  Rev.  Nicholas  Wiseman,  D.D. 
Richard  Wood,  Esq.,  Consul  at  Damascus. 


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w 


<dricntal  Cranclation  Committee. 


Patron: 
HER  MOST  EXCELLENT  MAJESTY  THE  QUEEN. 

Vic»-Patbon: 
HIS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS  THE  PRINCE  ALBERT. 

Chairman, 
The  Right  Hcmoiinible  Sir  Gobb  Oubbley^  Bart,  Vice-Prasident  B.A.S. 

DepufyCMrmen, 

The  Bight  Honourable  Sir  Edward  Hydr  Eaot^  Bart. 

Sir  Grorgb  Thomas  Staunton,  Bart  M.P.,  Vice-President  R.A.S. 


Committee, 


The    Archbishop    of    the    Armenian 

COLLBGR  at  VjDncB. 
The  Bi^t  Hon.  Lord  Ashlby,  MP. 
Jambs  Atkinson,  Esq. 
Bbnjamin  Guy  Babinoton,  M.D. 
The  Ber.  J.  Bbighton. 
F.  C.  Bblfoub,  Esq.,  M.A.,  LL.D. 
I.  Bbntlby,  Esq.,  M.A 
F.  Bbrnar,  Esq. 
Jambs  Bird,  Esq.,  F.B.G.S. 
Kathanibl  Bland,  Esq. 
Bebiah  Botfibld,  Esq.,  MP.  F.B.S. 
Major-General  John  Brhsos. 
Samubl  Bbioos,  Esq. 
The  Ber.  A.  Brunton,  D.D. 
The  Rev.  John  Callaway. 
Major-General  J.  Caulpbxld,  C.B. 
The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Clarb. 
Rbthabd  Clarkb,  Esq. 
The  Bev.  Benjamin  Clough. 
Sir  Robert  Colquhoun,  Bart 
The  Bev.  W.  Curbton. 


John  Francis  Davis,  Esq.  F.R.Sw 

Lient-Colonel  C.  J.  Doyle. 

Charles  Elliott,  Esq.  F.R.S. 

The  Hon.  Mountbtuart  Elphinstonb. 

The  Right  Hon.  Henry  Ellis. 

WiLLUM  Erskinb,  Esq. 

J.  W.  Farrer,  Esq. 

The  Rot.  Josiah  Forshall,  M.A. 

The  Rot.  W.  French,  D.D. 

Captam  T.  B.  Gascoynb. 

Don  Pascual  de  Gayangok. 

The  Lord  Bishop  of  HERBroRD. 

Tbrrick  Hamilton,  Esq. 

Sir  Gravbs  C.  Haughton,  Knt  K.H. 

BiCHARD  Haughton,  Esq. 

E.  W.  A.  Drummond  Hay,  Esq. 

The  Ber.  Dr.  Henderson. 

The  Ber.  T.  Jarrett,  MA. 

Sir  Bichard  Jenkins,  G.C.B. 

Captain  George  Betso  Jervis. 

The  Bev.  Dr.  Hudson. 

The  Rev,  H.  G.  Kebnb,  MA. 


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20 


ORIENTAL   TRANSLATION   COMMITTEE. 


Hajor-G«nenl  Vans  Ksnnbdy. 
The  Rev.  W.  Knatchbull,  D.D. 
Edwaiid  William  Lanb,  Esq. 
The  Rev.  Samubl  Lbi,  B.D. 
The  Rev.  H.  D.  Lxbvss. 
Major  Jaios  Low. 
Sir  J.  L.  LusHiNOTON,  G.C.B. 
John  David  Macbridb,  D.C.L. 
Sir  John  M'Nxill,  G.C.B.  F.R.S. 
The  Rev.  J.  Marshman,  D.D. 
The  Rev.  W.  H.  Mxdhumt. 
Colonel  William  Milu. 

WiLLUM  MORLIT,  Esq. 

The  Rev.  William  H.  Mill,  D.D. 

MfwaA  IbEAHIM. 

Sir  Thoblas  Phillips,  Bart,  F.R.S. 
Thomas  Pbll  Platt,  Esq.,  M.A. 
The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Prudhob. 


Albxandkr  Raphael,  Esq. 

Sir  Thomas  Rsads. 

The  Rev.  G.  Cbcil  Rbnouard,  B.D. 

The  Rev.  Jambs  Rbynolds,  B.A. 

The  Rev.  T.  Robinson. 

Edward  Vbrnon  Schalch,  Eeq. 

John  Shakbbpbab,  Esq. 

The  Rev.  Gborgb  Skinnbr,  M.A. 

Dr.  A.  Sprkngbb,  M.D. 

The  Rev.  E.  Stallybrass. 

Sir  Grbnvillb  Tbmplb,  Bart 

Lieat.-CoI.  Robbbt  Taylor. 

William  C.  Taylor,  LL.D. 

Colonel  T.  P.  Thompson. 

The  Rev.  C.  H.  Thomsbn. 

David  Urquhart,  Esq. 

Bfajor  Sir  flBNRY  Willock,  K.L.S. 

Prof.  HoRACB  Hayman  Wilson. 


Treasurer: — Bbrlah  Botpibld,  Esq.,  M.P. 


Seeretarp :^The  Rev.  Jambs  Rbynolds,  B.A. 


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21 


LIST  OF  ANNUAL  SUBSCRIPTIONS 


TO 

THE  ORIENTAL  TRANSLATION  FUND 


OF 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND. 


Far  Rqyal  Paper  Copies  of  the  JForks  Published  liy  the  Fund. 

HER  MOST  EXCELLENT  MAJESTY  THE  QUEEN. 

His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Albert. 

His  Majesty  the  King  of  the  Netherlands. 

Hb  Majesty  the  King  of  the  Belgians. 

His  Majesty  the  King  of  the  French. 

His  Imperial  and  Royal  Highness  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany. 

His  Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  Cambridge. 

His  Grraoe  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Somerset. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Richmond. 

His  Griace  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch  and  Queensbury. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Devonshire. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Northumberland. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Wellington. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  of  Lansdowne. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  of  Bute. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  of  Northampton. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  of  Anglesey. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  of  Cholmondeley. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of  Clare. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of  Carlisle. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  Brownlow. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  Amherst 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of  Powis. 


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22  ORIENTAL   TRANSLATION   FUND. 

The  Right  Hanomiable  the  Earl  of  Ripon. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  Yisconnt  Mehrilfe. 

The  Right  Rev.  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Winchester. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  Pradhoe. 

The  Ri^t  Hononrable  Lord  Bexley, 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  LyndhnrsL 

The  Lady  Charlotte  Gnest. 

The  Honourable  Mountstuart  Elphinstone. 

The  Right  Honourable  Sir  Gore  Ouseley,  Bart.,  G.C.H.' 

The  Right  Honourable  Sir  G.  Warrender,  Bart.,  M.P. 

The  Right  Honourable  Sir  E.  H.  East,  Bart 

Sir  George  T.  Staunton,  Bart.,  M.P. 

Sir  Charles  T.  Metcalfe,  Bart 

The  Honourable  the  East  India  Company. 

The  Royal  Institution  of  Great  Britain. 

The  Athensum,  London. 

The  Wesleyan  Missionary  Society. 

The  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal. 

The  Bombay  Branch  of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society. 

The  President  and  Fellows  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford. 

The  Library  of  Exeter  College,  Oxford. 

The  Provost  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

The  Royal  Irish  Academy. 

The  Royal  Library,  Hanoyer. 

The  Royal  University,  Leyden. 

The  Royal  Library,  Munich. 

The  Royal  Library,  Berlin. 

The  Imperial  Library,  Vienna. 

The  Imperial  University  of  Easan. 

The  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences  of  St.  Petersburg. 

Nathaniel  Bland,  Esq. 

Beriah  Botfield,  Esq,  M.P. 

Major-Creneral  James  Caulfeild,  CJB, 

Charles  Purton  Cooper,  Esq. 

James  Ewing,  Esq. 

Major-General  Edward  Frederick,  C.B. 

Hudson  Gurney,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

Major-General  Vans  Kennedy. 

Louis  Hayes  Petit,  Esq. 

Alexander  Raphael,  Esq. 

Richard  Simmons,  Esq. 

A.  Spottiswoode,  Esq. 

John  Walker,  TSeq. 


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ORIENTAL   TBANSLATION   FUND.  23 


Far  Demff  Paper  Copies, 

The  Bight  Beyerend  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Calcutta. 

H.  J.  Baxter,  Esq. 

The  Honourable  B.  H.  Cliye^  M J^ 

Sir  G.  G.  de  H.  Laxpent,  Bart 

William  Morie^,  Esq. 

The  Bev.  G.  C.  Benouard,  M.A. 

Edward  £.  Salisbury,  Esq. 

James  Thomason,  Esq. 

M.  W.  Woollaston,Esq. 

The  Imperial  University,  Doipat. 

The  London  Institution. 


It  is  requested  that  those  Individuals  or  Institutions  who  are 
willing  to  subscribe  to  the  Oriental  Translation  Fund  will  send  their 
niunea,  addressed  to  ^The  Secretary  of  the  Oriental  Translation  Com- 
mittee, Boyal  Asiatic  Society's  House,  No.  14,  Grafton  Street^  Bond 
Street,  London  ;*'  and  inform  him  where  their  Subscriptions  will  be 
paid.  The  Amount  of  Subscription  is  Ten  Guineas  Annually,  for 
large  paper  copies;  and  Five  Guineas  for  small  paper  copies. 


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Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


25 


9iSomibas  3$rattc]^ 


THE    ROYAL   ASIATIC    SOCIETY 


Patrmi, 
The  Honourable  Si  a  GsoaGE  Arthur^  Baronet,  k.c.h. 

Vice  Patron. 
The  Honourable  Sir  Henry  Roper,  Knight. 

Honorary  Pretidents. 

Major-General  Vans  Kennedy* 
The  Rev.  J.  Wilson,  d.d. 

President. 
The  Hononrable  G.  W.  Anderson,  Esq. 

ViiCe  Presidents, 

The  Right  Rev.  Thomas  Carr,  d.d..  Lord  Bishop  of  Bombay. 

Colonel  Thomas  Dickinson. 

The  Honourable  J.  H.  Crawford,  Esq. 

Dr.  James  Burnes,  k.h.,  f.r.8. 


Mewhers, 


&  William  G.  Kier,  k.o.b. 
Stuart  Honcrief  Thripeland,  Esq. 
William  Dowdswell,  Esq. 
William  Erakine,  Esq. 
Major  Alexander  Haj. 
John  G.  Ravenshaw,  Esq ,  m.d. 
Sir  Geo.ThoB.  Staunton,  Bart.,  f.r.8. 
Gideon  Colquhoun,  Esq. 
Edward  Hawke  Looker,  Esq. 
William  Newnham,  Esq. 
David  Dias  Inglis,  Esq. 
Captain  F.  Irvine. 
John  Hine,  Esq. 

Hajor  General  Archibald  Robertson. 
Bev.  William  Canning. 
James  Inveraritjr,  Esq. 
1844. 


John  Wedderbum,  Esq. 

John  Henderson,  Esq. 

Major  General  Edward  Frederick,  cb. 

Captain  Charles  Taylor,  r.n. 

Major  General  John  Briggs,  r.R.8. 

James  Farish,  Esq. 

The  Hon.  Mountstuart  Elphinstone. 

Lieut.  Colonel  William  Franklin* 

William  Bailie,  Esq. 

Joseph  Von  Hammer,  of  Vienna. 

Thomas  Palmer,  Esq. 

Sir  Richard  Jenkins,  g.c  ji, 

Benjamin  Noton,  Esq. 

Major  Gen.  Lechmere  C.  Russell,  c.b. 

Thomas  Greorge  Gardner,  Esq. 

Captain  John  FowelL 

C 


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26 


BOMBAY  BRANCH  SOCIETY. 


John  Hide  Pelly,  Esq.,  senior. 

The  Venerable  Cfeorge  Barnes,  d.d. 

John  Crawford,  Esq. 

Edward  Charles  M'Nanghten,  Esq. 

Sir  James  Carnac.  Bart. 

William  Ashbumer,  Esq. 

James  Dennis  De  Vitre,  Esq. 

Edward  Eden  Elliott,  Esq. 

Major  Charles  Waddington. 

Captain  William  Tate. 

J.  F.  Harris,  Esq.,  of  Canton. 

Major  General  Vans  Kennedy. 

Charles  Knowles  Robinson,  Esq. 

James  Alexander  Maxwell,  Esq.,  h.d 

George  Andrew  Stewart,  Esq. 

Lieut.  Colonel  Robert  Taylor. 

Captain  John  Boag. 

Colonel  Hunter  Blair,  c.b. 

Lieut.  Col.  William  H.  Sykes,  f.r.s. 

Thomas  Coates,  Esq. 

Yero  Clarke  Kemball,  Esq. 

Lieut.  Colonel  Hamilton  Tennant. 

Robert  Walhice,  Esq. 

Captain  Philip  Maughan. 

Lieut.  Colonel  James  Jackson,  k.h. 

Maj.  Gen.  Sir  H.  Pottinger,  Bart,  g.c.b. 

Captain  Robert  Close. 

Captain  John  Grant. 

Major  General  E.  W.  Shuldham. 

John  Livingston,  Esq. 

Major  Thomas  Best  Jervis,  r.o.s. 

Richard  Mills,  Esq. 

William  Henry  Wathen,  Esq. 

Captain  Greorge  Franklin. 

Major  Robert  Thew. 

William  Nicoll,  Esq. 

Edward  Hume  Townsend,  Esq. 

John  Howison,  Esq. 

Charles  Fair,  Esq. 

Sir  Robert  Keith  Arbuthnot,  Bart. 

George  Noton,  Esq. 

James  Bumes,  k.h.,  ll.d. 

James  Piingle  Riach,  Esq. 

Lieut.  Colonel  H.  Dundas  Robertson. 

John  Caidecott,  Esq. 

Richard  Hartley  Kennedy,  Esq.,  ai.D. 

Captain  George  Yeadel. 

Major  General  S.  R.  Strover. 

John  Andrew  Shaw,  Esq. 

Lieut.  Colonel  G.  Ritso  Jervis. 

George  Smyttan,  Esq.,  m.d. 

Sir  Ralph  Rice,  Kuight. 

Captain  Arnold  Rawson  Wilson. 

Captain  Samuel  Hennell. 

John  Pollard  Willoughby,  Esq. 


R.  M.  Payne,  Esq. 

James  Bird,  Esq.,  F.a.s. 

John  Skinner,  Esq. 

James  Dyce  Nicol,  Esq. 

The  Chevalier  de  RienzL 

Sir  John  Phillipart. 

Richard  Thomas  Barra,  Esq. 

Colonel  Thomas  Dickinson. 

Robert  Lyall,  Esq. 

Major  Robert  Pouget. 

The  Right  Rev.  Thomas  CaiT,  d.d.. 

Bishop  of  Bombay. 
Edward  Cobb  Morgan,  Esq. 
John  McLennan,  Esq. 
John  MiU,  Esq. 
John  Patch,  Esq. 
The  Hon.  Sir  H.  Roper,  Knight. 
Charles  Lush,  Esq. 
Henry  William  Himter,  Esq. 
M.  Dennis  De  Vitre,  Esq. 
Sir  John  Peter  Grant,  Knight 
John  Romer,  Esq. 
Lieut.  Peter  M.  Melville. 
George  Gibeme,  Esq, 
Joseph  Henry  Jackson^  Esq. 
Robert  Pinkey,  Esq. 
Henry  Fawcett,  Esq. 
Hon.  G.  W.  Anderson,  Esq. 
Captain  C.  W.  Grant. 
Jeffery  A.  Sinclair^  Esq. 
W.  Dalgaims,  Esq. 
James  Alexander,  Esq. 
E.  P.  AUeyan,  Esq. 
Major  R.  £.  Burro  wes. 
Augustus  S.  Le  Messurier,  Esq. 
Major  John  Clunes. 
Colonel  Edmund  Hardy. 
Robert  Lindsay  Leckie,  Esq. 
Richard  Townsend  Webb,  Esq. 
Henry  W.  Morris,  Esq. 
Hon.  James  Henry  Crawford. 
Captain  J.  A.  Wilson,  Bengal  ArtilL 
John  Loyd  Phillips,  Esq. 
Major  William  Henderson. 
Lieut.  Col.  A.  Manson,  c.b. 
PliiUp  W.  Le  Geyt,  Esq. 
James  Patch,  Esq. 
Lieut.  Col.  J.  H.  Dunsterville. 
Captain  Joseph  Hale. 
Major  Henry  C.  Rawlinson. 
Wm.  Richard  Morris,  Efiq. 
Evan  Hamilton  Baillie,  Esq. 
J.  W.  Moffat,  Esq. 
James  Arthur  R.  Stevenson,  Esq.' 
.Walter  Elliot,  Esq. 


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BOMBAY  BRANCH  SOCIETY. 


27 


Captain  Robert  Mignan. 

The  Rev.  John  Wlbon,  d.d. 

James  Walker,  Esq. 

Major  General  David  Barr. 

The  Hon.  Lestock  Robert  Reid. 

The  Rev.  Frederick  Webber. 

Ashness  Remmington,  Esq. 

Thomas  Bernard,  Esq. 

Wm.  Edward  Frere,  Esq. 

Sir  J.  Wither  Awdry,  Knight. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Glare. 

Dandeson  C.  Bell,  Esq. 

John  A.  Dunlop,  Esq. 

The  Rev.  Joseph  Lawrie. 

Philip  Stewart,  Esq. 

TVm.  Grey,  Esq. 

Claude  8.  Stewart,  Esq. 

Captain  Robert  Shortrede. 

Ci4>tain  John  H.  Wilson. 

J.  Sutherland  Law,  Esq. 

Major  S.  Bonnamy. 

Major  Gen.  Sir  James  S.  Barnes,  kjc%b. 

^Wmam  Stubbs,  Esq. 

John  Beckwith,  Esq. 

David  Laing  Bums,  Esq. 

Alexander  Nesbet  Shaw,  Esq. 

Major  James  Holland. 

liieut.  Gen.  Sir  Colin  Halket,  k.c.b. 

Sir  Herbert  A.  D.  Compton,  Knight. 

Captain  Afichael  Houghton. 

Liieut.  CoL  A.  S.  H.  Mountain. 

Major  Thomas  Roe. 

Wm.  SoUery  Grey,  Esq. 

Major  Gen.  James  Salter,  c.b. 

Henry  Young,  Elsq. 

Robert  White,  Esq. 

Wm.  Edmund,  Esq. 

B.  W.  Crawford,  Esq. 
Major  Tliomas  Chase  Parr. 
Mansfield  Forbes,  Esq. 
Captain  Robert  Cogau. 
David  Kennedy,  Esq. 
John  Gibson,  Esq. 

A.  Israel  Montefiore,  Esq. 
Wm.  Spratt  Boyd,  Esq 
The  Rev.  George  Pigott. 
Hany  Barrodaile,  Esq. 
The  Rev.  C.  JaclaK>n. 
J.  W.  Ryan,  Esq. 
The  Rev.  J.  Stevenson,  d.d. 

C.  Collier,  Esq.,  f.r.s. 
T.  W.  Henderson,  Esq. 
Commissioner  T.  G.  Carlcss. 
John  Scott,  Esq. 

John  Kentish,  Esq. 


A.  B.  Orlebar,  Esq. 

Major  R.  Leech. 

Lieut  Joseph  Estridge. 

John  Harkness,  Esq. 

M.  F.  Brownrigg,  EJsq. 

Robert  Smith,  Esq. 

W.  Henderson,  Esq. 

John  Ross,  Esq. 

Lieut.  CoL  J.  Schuler. 

R.  Kirk,  Esq. 

J.  Bibby,  Esq. 

H.  Young,  Esq.,  jun. 

H.  Higginson,  Esq. 

Lieut.  Col.  C.  Davis. 

The  Rev.  E.  P.  Williams. 

Major  C.  Newport 

J.  Faulkner,  Esq. 

E.  L.  Jenkins,  Esq. 

James  Erskine,  Esq. 

Thomas  Cardwell,  Esq. 

R.  Brown,  Esq.,  m.d. 

G.  Hancock,  Esq. 

P.  Ewart,  Esq. 

J.  M.  Davies,  Esq. 

W.  Howard,  Esq. 

Captain  J.  PowelL 

G.  Coles,  Esq.,  c.s. 

Captain  W.  C.  Harris. 

James  Little,  Elsq. 

Captain  H.  Aston. 

D.  Davidson,  Esq. 

Francis  Harrison,  Esq. 

Joseph  Glen,  Esq. 

Captain  H.  B.  Turner. 

Lieut.  W.  Cormack. 

C.  Morehead,  Esq.,  m.d. 

Captain  Le  Grand  Jacob. 

W.  Montriou,  Esq. 

C.  Cracroft,  Esq. 

J.  W.  Winchester,  Esq.,  a.i 

Lieut.  Sidney  W.  Brown. 

Captain  S.  Horton. 

W.  Barlas,  Esq. 

Lieut  J.  S.  Aked. 

Captain  E.  Stanton. 

W.  Grahame,  Esq. 

Lieut  C.  W.  Montriou,  i.k. 

Lieut  CoL  T.  Leighton. 

Robert  Viscount  Jocelyo. 

Captain  J.  Burrows. 

Captain  J.  Holmes. 

R.  Burgass,  £sq» 

The  Rev.  J.  M.  Mitchell. 

Manackjee  Onrsetjee,  f^. 

S.  S.  Dickinson,  Esq. 


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28 


BOMBAY  BBANCH  SOCIETY. 


Major  Gen.  P.  De  la  Motte,  c.b. 

J.  W.  Langford,  Esq. 

G.  S.  King,  Esq, 

J.  C.  Stewart,  Esq. 

Major  Gen.  T.  Valiant,  k.h« 

Geoige  Biiist,  Esq.,  ll.d. 

H.  L.  Anderson,  Esq. 

George  Farie,  Esq. 

Captain  H.  N.  B.iunsay. 

H.  G.  Gordon,  Esq. 

L.  C.  C.  Rivett,  Esq. 

C.  J.  Erskine,  Esq. 

The  Rev.  W.  K.  Fletcher. 

Lieut.  J.  S.  Burke. 

B.  A.  R.  Nicholson,  Esq. 

D.  A.  Blane,  Esq. 
F.  Sheppee,  Esq. 
J.  R.  Hadow,  Esq. 
J.  Craig,  Esq. 

J.  Smith,  Esq. 
James  Boyd,  Esq. 
W.  J.  Tuiquand,  Esq. 


W.  H.  Harrison,  Esq. 

The  Rev.  G.  Cook,  a.  x. 

Lieut.  E.  B.  Eastwick. 

Lieut.  W.  £.  Evans. 

J.  Bell,  Esq. 

The  Hon.  Sir  Erskine  Perry,  Knight. 

J.  F.  Morier,  Esq. 

WnL  Escombe,  Esq. 

W.  W.  Cargill,  Esq. 

Aviett  Aganoor,  Esq. 

H.  B.  E.  Frere,  Esq. 

Wm.  Pumell,  Esq. 

H.  J.  Carter,  Esq. 

B.  P.  Rooke,  Esq. 

Lieut.  J.  S.  Grieve,  i.k. 

A.  Spens,  Esq. 

R.  K.  Pringle,  Esq. 

John  Gordon,  Esq. 

Captain  H.  B.  Lynch,  i.x.,  x.l.s. 

Lieut.  W.  B.  Selby,  i.k. 

H.  Cormack,  Esq. 

J.  Holland,  Esq. 


LONDON  : — ^HlREXtON  AND  00. ,  PBINTBBfl^  ST.   MAKTIN'S  LAIO. 


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CONTENTS  OF  N?  XV. 

Part  II. 


ORIGINAL  COMMUNICATIONS. 

PAOR 

Art.  VI. — On  the  Identification  of  the  Mastard  Tree  of  Scrip- 
ture. By  J.  Forbes  Royle,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  L.S.,  and  G.S., 
8cc.,  Professor  of  Materia  Medica  and  Therapeatics,  King's 
CoUege^  London  .113 

Art.  VII. — Sammary  of  the  Geology  of  Southern  India.  By 
Captain  Newbold,  F.R.S.,  &c.,  Assistant  Commissioner 
for  Kumool  .  .138 

Art.  VIII. — ^A   few  Observations  on  the  Temple  of  Somnath. 

By  Captain  Postans  .  .  .172 

Art.  IX. — Report  on  some  of  the  Rights,  Privileges,  and  Usages 
of  the  Hill  Population  in  Meywar.  By  Captain  W. 
Hunter,  of  the  Meywar  Bhil  Corps  176 

Art.  X. — On  the  Hyssop  of  Scripture.  By  J.  Forbes  Rotle, 
M.D.,  F.R.S.,  L.S.,  and  G.S.,  &c.,  Professor  of  Materia 
Medica  and  Therapeutics,  King's  College,  London.  .  193 


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113 


Art.  VI. — On  the  Identification  of  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scrip- 
ture; by  J.  Forbes  Roylb,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  L.S.  and  G.S., 
&c..  Professor  of  Materia  Medica  and  T/ievapeuticSy  Kinff's 
College^  London. 

[Read  March  \^,  1844.] 

Numerous  attempts  hare  at  different  times  been  made  by  a  rariety 
of  authors  to  identify  the  two  plants  which  in  the  aathorised  version 
of  the  Scriptures  are  translated  Mustard  Tree  and  Hyssop.  That 
these  attempts  have  not  been  so  satisfactory  to  others,  as  to  set  the 
questions  at  rest,  is  evident  from  fresh  plants  being  continually  ad- 
duced, even  in  recent  works,  as  possessed  of  the  requisite  charac- 
teristics. It  may  be  inferred  that  these  do  not  appear,  to  the  author  of 
this  paper,  to  have  been  more  successful  than  preceding  endeavours, 
from  his  making  a  fresh,  and  which  to  many  will  appear  a  pre- 
sumptuous attempt  to  determine  what  has  baffled  so  many  able  in- 
quirers. Few  fields,  however,  are  so  barren,  even  after  they  seem  to 
have  been  cleared  by  the  most  skilful  reapers,  as  not  to  yield  some 
grains  to  the  careful  gleaner.  So,  continued  attention  to  any  one  pur- 
suit, never  fails  to  throw  light,  not  only  on  itself,  but  also  on  other, 
and  what  at  first  appear  but  remotely  connected  subjects.  Thus  it 
has  been  in  the  study  of  ancient  for  the  purpose  of  elucidating  modem 
Materia  Medica,  and  of  both  in  connexion  with  the  Botany  of  the 
East,  that  the  author  has  been  led  to  conclusions,  which  seem  to  eluci- 
date some  of  the  disputed  points  in  Biblical  botany. 

As  this  may  require  explanation,  I  may  here  mention,  as  I  have 
already  related*,  that  my  attention  was  first  directed  to  the  identi- 
fication of  the  natural  products  mentioned  in  ancient  authors,  in  con- 
sequence of  having,  in  1825,  while  in  medical  charge  of  the  station 
of  Sahamnpore,  and  of  the  Honourable  Eajst  India  Company's  Botanic 
Garden  there,  been  requested  by  the  Medical  Board  of  Bengal  to 
investigate  the  medicinal  plants  and  drugs  of  India.  This  was  for 
the  purpose  of  ascertaining  how  far  the  public  service  might  be  sup- 
plied with  medicines  grown  in  India,  instead  of  their  being  nearly  all 
imported  from  foreign  countries.     In  endeavouring  to  effect  this  im- 

'  Prooeediogs  of  the  Royal  AaUtic  Society,  19th  Much,  183a 

VOL.   VIII.  I  nr^r^n\o 

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114  ON    THE    MUSTARD    TREE 

portant  object,  my  attention  was  in  the  first  place  directed  to  making 
myself  acquainted  with  the  different  drugs  which  the  natives  of  India 
are  themselyes  in  the  habit  of  employing  as  medicines.  For  this  pur- 
pose I  found  it  absolutely  necessary  to  examine  the  things  themselves, 
as  well  as  to  ascertain  the  names  by  which  they  were  commonly  known. 
I  soon  found  that  in  this  inquiry,  it  was  necessary  to  become 
acquainted  with  the  written  works  in  the  possession  of  the  natives 
of  India,  as  well  as  with  their  personal  and  traditional  information. 
I  therefore  caused  the  works  on  Materia  Medica  to  be  collated  by 
competent  Hakims  and  Moonshees,  among  whom  I  would  mention, 
as  my  principal  assistants,  Sheikh  Nam  Dar,  commonly  called  Nanoo, 
the  head  medical  ajssistant  in  the  Civil  Hospital  of  Saharunpore,  and 
Murdan  Aly,  the  chief  plant  collector,  and  keeper  of  the  Herbarium 
in  the  Saharunpore  Botanic  Garden.  By  them  the  arrangement  of 
these  works,  according  to  the  Arabic  alphabet,  was  persevered  in ;  but 
the  substances  mentioned  in  each  were  arranged  under  the  three  heads 
of  the  Animal,  the  Vegetable,  and  Mineral  Kingdoms.  The  works 
which  were  collated*  extend  from  a.d.  1392  to  1769,  the  first  having 
been  written  shortly  after  the  close  of  the  classic  age  of  the  School  of 
Bagdad,  the  authors  of  which  the  Persian  writers  constantly  follow. 
Al  Buetar  or  Ibn  Buetar,  frequently  quoted  by  Bochart  in  his  Geo- 
graphia  Sacra,  is  the  last  of  the  distinguished  Arabs.  He  died  in 
1248;  the  first  translations  into  Arabia  from  the  Greek  and  Sanskrit 
having  been  made  about  a.d.  748,  or  just  five  hundred  years  before 
the  death  of  Ibn  Buetar,  during  the  Kaliphat  of  Al-Mansur.  During 
this  period  lived  Haly  Abbas,  Mesne,  Serapion,  Rhazes,  and  Avicenna. 
These  were  themselves  indebted  for  much  of  their  information 
respecting  drugs,  to  Dioscorides.     But  to  his  description  the  Persians 

1  Ikhtiarat  Buddee,  who  completed  his  work  in  770  of  the  Hejira,  or  a«d. 
1392,     He  is  said  to  be  the  first  who  wrote  on  Medicine  in  the  Persian  language. 

Tohfet-al-Moomineen,  written  in  a.d.  1669,  by  Meer  Mohummud  Moomin; 
a  native  of  Tinkaboon,  in  Dailim,  near  the  southern  shores  of  the  Caspian  Sea. 

Ulfaz  Udwiyeh,  compiled  by  the  physician  of  the  Emperor  Shah  Jehan;  trans- 
lated into  English,  by  Mr.  Gladwin,  and  printed  in  1793.  This  is  useful,  as 
giving  the  synonymes  in  Arabic,  Persian,  and  Hindooee,  in  the  Persian  cha- 
racter. 

Mttkhzun-al-Udwiyeh,  or  Storehouse  of  Medicines^  written  A.n.  1769,  and 
printed  at  Hoogly,  in  1824. 

The  Taleef  Shereef,  translated  from  the  Persian  by  Superintending  Surgeon 
Playfair,  and  published  in  Calcutta  in  1833,  has  been  referred  to  in  a  few 
instances. 

Since  my  return  to  this  country  in  1832,  having  obtained  copies  of  the  Latin 
editions  of  Mesne,  Serapion,  Rhazes,  and  Avicenna,  I  have  in  many  instances 
collated  them  with  my  manuscript  catalogue. 


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OF    SCRIPTURE.  Il5 

have  fortunately  appended  the  Asiatic  synonymes,  and  have  given 
some  account  of  Indian  products  not  mentioned  in  the  works  of  the 
Arabs.  I  myself  made  a  catalogue  (still  in  manuscript)  of  the  whole^ 
in  which,  after  the  most  usually  received,  that  is,  the  Arabic  names,  I 
inserted  the  several  s3monymes  in  Persian  and  Hindee,  as  well  as  in 
metamorphosed  Greek.  I  obtained  the  articles,  and  traced  them  to 
the  countries  whence  they  were  said  to  be  derived,  as  well  as  to  the 
animals  and  plants  which  were  said  to  produce  them ;  and  made  notes 
of  any  remarkable  characteristics,  and  the  medical  uses  to  which  they 
were  applied. 

Being  without  any  suitable  library  for  such  investigations,  and 
able  only  to  obtain  a  small  copy  of  Dioscorides,  (12mo,  Parisiis,  1549,) 
I  was  in  most  cases  obliged  to  depend  upon  myself,  for  the  identi- 
fication of  the  several  substances.  The  results  of  many  of  these  inves- 
tigations are  briefly  recorded  in  the  observations  on  the  history  and 
uses  of  the  different  natural  families  of  plants  in  my  Illustrations  of 
the  Botany,  &c.,  of  the  Himalayan  Mountains.  I  also  made  use  of 
these  materials  in  my  Essay  on  the  Antiquity  of  Hindoo  Medicine,  in 
tracing  different  Indian  products  from  the  works  of  the  Arabs  into 
those  of  the  Greeks,  even  up  to  the  time  of  Hippocrates.  I  inferred 
that  tropical  products  could  only  travel  from  South  to  North ;  and 
that  the  Hindoos  must  have  ascertained  their  properties,  and  used 
them  as  medicines,  before  they  became  sufficiently  famous  to  be  ob- 
served and  recorded  by  the  Greeks.  Having  thus  traced  many  of 
these  Eastern  products  to  the  works  of  almost  contemporary  authors,  I 
was  led  to  conclude,  that  many  of  them  must  be  the  same  as  those 
mentioned  in  the  Bible,  especially  as  there  is  often  considerable  resem- 
blance between  the  Arabic  and  Hebrew  names;  as,  for  instance: — 


Heb. 

Arab. 

Abattachim 

Buteekh 

Melons  and  Water-Melon 

Adashim 

Adas 

Lentils 

Butzal 

Butzl 

Onions 

Botnim 

Butum 

Pistacio  Nut 

Gammun 

Kumoon 

Cumin 

Carcom  Kurkoom  Saffron 

Some,  again,  would  appear  to  have  an  Indian  origin;  as,  for  in- 
stance, Ahalim,  translated  Aloes  wood,  which  is,  with  very  little  doubt, 
the  same  as  the  Malayan  Agila,  or  Eagle  wood,  famed  in  ancient  as 
in  modem  times.  So  Kaipus,  occurring  in  Esther  i.  6.,  is  translated 
green  in  the  English  Bible ;  but  being  placed  between  the  words  which 
signify  the  colours  white  and  blue,  it  would  naturally  appear  to  be  the 

12, 


?y  Google 


116  ON    THE    MUSTARD    TREE 

thing  coloured,  which  was,  no  donbt,  cotton,  Karpas,  from  the  Sanskrit 
Karpasa,  now  in  Hindee  Karpas  and  Kapas.  And,  it  is  further 
said,  in  the  description  of  the  court  of  the  garden  of  the  King*8  palace 
at  Susa,  that  these  white  and  blue  hangings  were  fastened  with  cords 
of  fine  linen  and  purple  to  silver  rings  and  pillars  of  marble.  Of  this 
we  have  a  yivid  representation  in  what  may  every  day  be  seen  in 
India,  especially  in  the  Hall  of  Audience  at  Delhi,  where  huge  padded 
curtains,  called  Purdahs,  (and  usually  in  stripes  of  white  and  red, 
or  blue  and  white,)  may  be  seen  suspended  from  the  tops  of  slender 
pillars.  For  this  purpose,  indeed,  the  rows  of  pillars  in  front  of  the 
principal  ruins  of  Persepolis  appear  to  have  been  intended. 

While  residing  in,  and  becoming  acquainted  with  the  manners  of 
the  East,  I  have  often,  in  reading  the  Scriptures,  been  struck  with  the 
brevity  and  force  with  which  the  sacred  penmen,  in  describing  what 
was  then  before  them,  give  a  graphic  picture  of  the  living  manners 
of  the  day.  In  the  absence  of  medals,  monuments,  and  inscriptions, 
and  where  the  mouldered  ruins  of  mighty  cities  allow  us  with  difficulty 
to  trace  out  even  their  sites,  we  are  presented  with  the  astonishing 
spectacle,  that  manners,  which  in  Europe  are  fleeting  and  changeable 
as  the  wind,  in  the  East,  give  living  representations  of  those  which 
characterised  the  residents  of  the  very  same  regions,  more  than  three 
thousand  years  ago.  So  conspicuously  is  this  the  case,  that  works 
have  been  written  describing  the  manners,  customs,  and  other  cha^ 
racteristics  of  the  East,  for  the  express  purpose  of  elucidating  obscure 
passages  in  the  Scriptures,  as  Roberts'  Oriental  Illustrations  of  the 
sacred  Scriptures.  Some  again,  as  Dr.  Taylor,  in  his  Illustrar 
tions  of  the  Bible  from  the  Monuments  of  Egypt,  and  Athen»um, 
Nos.  507,  508,  and  509,  have  had  recourse  to  the  works  of  Rosselini, 
ChampoUion,  Wilkinson,  and  others,  on  Egyptian  antiquities,  as 
revealing  most  minute  particulars  of  the  public  and  private  life  of 
the  Eg3rptians,  and  thus  affording  ''important  because  undesigned 
confirmations  of  the  historical  veracity  of  the  Old  Testament.*' 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  mention  how  the  geography  of  Palestine, 
and  the  other  countries  which  were  the  scenes  of  the  transactions 
described  in  Scripture,  has  in  like  manner,  and  from  the  earliest  times, 
been  minutely  examined  for  the  purpose  of  illustrating  the  Scriptures. 
And  yet  even  in  this  department,  from  the  more  careful  researches, 
assisted  by  the  knowledge  of  Arabic,  of  Mr.  Eli  Smith,  unexpected 
discoveries  have  been  made  by  Messrs.  Bobinson  and  Smith,  in  their 
most  interesting  and  instructive  travels.  On  this  subject,  these  travel- 
lers observe,  ''There  is  in  Palestine  another  kind  of  tradition,  with 
which  the  monasteries  have  had  nothing  to  do,  and  of  which  they  have 


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OF    SCRIPTURE.  117 

apparently  in  erery  age^  known  little  or  nothing :  I  mean,  the  preser- 
Tation  of  the  ancient  names  of  places  among  the  common  people.  The 
Hebrew  names  of  places  continued  current  in  their  Aramaean  form 
long  after  the  times  of  the  New  Testament;  and  maintained  them- 
selyes  in  the  mouths  of  the  common  people  in  spite  of  the  efforts  made 
by  Greeks  and  Romans  to  supplant  them  by  others  derived  from  their 
own  tongues.  After  the  Muhammedan  Conquest,  when  the  Arameean 
language  gradually  gave  place  to  the  kindred  Arabic,  the  proper 
names  of  places,  which  the  Greeks  could  never  bend  to  their  ortho- 
graphy, found  here  a  ready  entrance,  and  have  thus  lived  on,  upon  the 
lips  of  the  Arabs,  whether  Christian  or  Muslim,  townsmen  or  Bedouins, 
even  unto  our  own  day,  almost  in  the  same  form  in  which  they  have 
also  been  transmitted  to  us  in  the  Hebrew  Scriptures.'*  Travels,  i., 
p.  375. 

I  myself  have  long  been  of  opinion  that  if  similar  pains  were 
bestowed  on  the  material  substances  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  and  equal 
trouble  taken  to  ascertain  the  natural  history  of  the  countries  where 
the  several  events  are  described  as  having  taken  place,  or  with  which 
there  was  commercial  communication,  much  light  would  be  thrown 
npon  the  sacred  writings.  For  the  products  of  nature,  whether  mine- 
rals, plants,  or  animals,  are  similar  in  nature  and  properties  to  what 
they  were  when  man  first  made  use  of,  or  became  acquainted  with 
them.  As  those  only  which  were  most  remarkable  in  appearances 
or  properties  would  usually  be  cited,  so  many  of  those  named  in  the 
Bible  might  be  successfully  ascertained,  and  afford  most  convincing 
proofs  of  books  having  been  written  at  the  times,  and  in  the  places  to 
which  they  are  usually  ascribed.  In  this  inquiiy,  as  in  that  of  the 
names  of  places,  we  have  not  only  the  traditional  names  of  animals, 
plants,  and  minerals  to  assist  us,  but  also  those  which  are  registered  in 
the  Arabic  works  on  Materia  Medica;  as  in  these  most  of  the  useful 
subetances  of  antiquity  are  described.  Thus  the  cedar  continues  to  be 
called  Erez;  leniih^Adui;  the  broom,  translated  juniper,  is  still  known 
by  the  name  Retham:  and  many  others  might  be  adduced. 

Considerable  success  has  no  doubt  attended  several  of  the  attempts 
of  naturalists  to  identify  the  natural  history  of  the  Bible.  Confining 
our  attention  on  the  present  occasion  to  plants  only,  we  have  Olaus 
Celsius,  a  friend  of  Linnaeus,  who  did  for  the  plants  of  the  Bible  what 
Bochart  had  done  for  the  animals,  and  quite  as  well.  He  gave  the 
labour  of  fifty  years  to  the  elucidation  of  the  plants  of  the  Bible;  and 
seems  to  have  exhausted  the  learning  of  the  subject,  as  far  as  illustra- 
tions  from  Greek  and  Roman  writers,  as  well  as  from  the  works  of  the 
Jews,  and  of  many  Arabic  authors  are  concerned.     He  also  travelled 


118  ON    THE    MUSTARD    TREE 

in  the  East^  and  being  acquainted  with  botany,  first  gave  precLsion  to 
our  knowledge.  Hence  many  of  his  determinations  of  the  plants  of 
the  Bible  remain  undisputed.  Other  plants  have  been  determined  by 
the  few  naturalists  who  have  visited  the  Holy  Land  for  the  purpose  of 
identifying  those  of  the  Bible.  Belon,  who  travelled  in  the  East  for 
three  years  (1546 — 1549).  has  given  considerable  attention  to  the 
plants  and  animals  of  the  Bible,  in  his  "  Observations  sur  Plusieurs 
Singularites  et  Choses  Memorables  trouv6es  en  Gr^e,  Asie,  Judee, 
Egypte,  Arabic,  et  autres  Pays  Strangers:  Paris,  1588.**  Rauwolf, 
in  the  same  century  (1576 — 1579),  travelled  in  Palestine,  Syria,  and 
Mesopotamia ;  and  made  it  his  especial  business  to  make  himself  ac- 
quainted with  the  plants  of  those  regions.  His  travels  were  translated 
into  English  under  the  auspices  of  Bay,  and  thus  frequently  escape  notice, 
as  the  two  volumes  are  usually  called  Ray's  Travels.  These  have  the 
advantage  of  valuable  catalogues  prepared  by  Bay,  of  the  plants  found 
in  the  East  by  Belon,  Rauwolf,  and  others.  Rauwolf 's  own  plants 
were  published  in  the  Flora  Orientalis  of  Gronovius ;  Leyden,  1755. 
Hasselquist,  an  enthusiastic  pupil  of  Linneeus,  travelled  in  the  Holy 
Land  for  the  express  purpose  of  examining  the  plants  of  the  Bible. 
He  died  at  Smyrna  in  1752.  His  papers  were  published  by  LinnsBus 
himself,  and  a  translation  into  English  in  1766,  and  the  Flora  Pales- 
tina  in  LinnaBi  Opuscula.  Besides  these,  Labillardidre,  Bov6,  Aucher- 
Eloy,  and  other  travellers,  have  made  us  acquainted  with  many  of  the 
plants  of  Palestine.  But  we  are  still  without  a  complete  Flora  of 
the  Holy  Land.  Russel  has  given  a  list  of  the  plants  of  Aleppo; 
and  Forskal,  Delisle,  and  others,  of  many  of  those  of  Egypt  and 
Arabia. 

Notwfihstanding  the  exertions  of  these  several  naturalists,  many 
of  the  plants  of  the  Bible  still  remain  undetermined,  and  by  some  com- 
mentators, nothing  is  considered  so  uncertain,  as  the  determinations 
which  have  already  been  arrived  at.  Though  each  of  the  above  au- 
thors has  ascertained  some  plants,  or  confirmed  the  determinations  of 
others,  the  success  has  yet  not  been  so  complete,  as  might  have  been 
expected  from  the  exertions  which  have  been  made.  I  am  not  aware 
of  any  modem  botanist  having  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  the 
Flora  of  Palestine,  for  the  purpose  of  elucidating  the  natural  history 
of  the  Bible. 

The  difficulties  of  identifjring  objects  known  to  the  ancients  are  no 
doubt  considerable,  as  a  knowledge  is  required,  not  only  of  Natural 
History,  but  also  of  some  of  the  vernacular  languages,  to  hold 
converse  in,  with  the  natives,  and  consult  the  works  in  which  the 
useful    plants    or    products    may  be    described.      We    are  besides 

^.yitized  by  VjOOQ  .  ^ 


OF    SCRIPTURE.  119 

without  the  proper  means  for  making  satisfactory  investigations. 
We  do  not  yet  possess  a  detailed  Flora  of  Palestine^  with  the  native 
names,  properties,  and  uses  of  the  several  plants,  and  the  situa- 
tions in  which  they  are  found.  With  a  simple  Flora  only,  we  should 
he  at  a  loss  among  some  thousand  plants,  to  determine  upon  the 
hundred  or  so  which  are  mentioned  in  the  Bihle.  The  properties 
which  any  particular  plants  possess,  or  the  uses  to  which  they  are 
applied,  necessarily  restrict  the  attention  to  a  smaller  number,  while 
the  present  native  name  might  in  some  cases,  from  its  similarity  to  the 
Hebrew,  lead  us  to  an  identification,  which  we  should  have  been  at  a 
loss  for,  without  this  assistance.  But  even  this  is  not  sufficient,  for  we 
shall  find  that  though  some  of  the  vernacular  names  are  somewhat 
similar  to  the  ancient  Hebrew,  yet  this  is  not  the  cajse  with  many 
others.  Yet  ihese  plants  may  have  names  in  some  of  the  cognate  lan- 
guages, which  are  so  similar  to  the  Hebrew,  as  to  leave  no  reasonable 
doubt  of  their  original  identity.  Even  some  of  the  Greek  and  Latin 
names  are  not  so  dissimilar,  but  that  we  may  often  suspect  that  they 
indicate  the  same  thing.  Many  however  of  the  substances  mentioned 
in  the  Bible  were  the  produce  of  commerce,  and  obtained  from  distant 
countries.  For  these,  a  knowledge  of  the  natural  history  and  lan- 
guages of  Syria  and  Palestine  are  without  value.  We  must  follow 
the  routes  of  commerce,  and  trace  them  to  the  countries  whence  they 
are  said  to  have  been  obtained.  We  shall  find  in  many  instances  that 
similar  substances  continue  to  be  produced  in  those  countries,  are  still 
objects  of  commerce,  and  continue  to  be  used  for  the  same  purposes, 
and  in  some  cases,  present  us  even  with  so  great  a  similarity  in  name, 
as  to  give  us  every  reasonable  assurance,  that  we  clearly  identify  in 
the  present  product,  the  ancient  article  of  commerce. 

It  was  in  identifying  some  of  these  articles  of  ancient  commerce, 
said  to  be  the  products  of  India,  that  my  attention  was  first  directed 
to  the  subject.  In  following  Indian  products  with  Indian  names,  from 
India  to  Greece,  as  mentioned  and  described  in  the  works  of  the 
Greeks,  I  inferred,  as  I  have  already  stated,  that  their  properties  must 
have  been  investigated,  and  the  substances  made  use  of  by  the  natives 
of  India,  before  they  could  become  known  to  distant  nations,  and 
become  articles  of  foreign  commerce.  Hence  I  conceived  myself  enti- 
tled to  infer  the  antiquity  to  a  certain  degree,  of  medicine  among  the 
Hindoos  (v.  Essay  on  the  Antiquity  of  Hindoo  Medicine).  In  the 
course  of  these  inquiries  I  perceived  that  the  same  course  of  inves- 
tigation could  be  usefully  pursued,  for  ascertaining  some  of  the  sub- 
stances mentioned  in  the  Bible ;  in  fact,  many  of  them  appeared  to  be 
the  very  same  substances  as  those  mentioned  by  the  Greeks. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


120  ON    THE    MUSTARD    TREE 

The  works  of  nature  througb  all  ages  retain  uniformity  of  structure 
and  of  properties.  Those  most  conspicuous  for  such  as  were  useful  or 
agreeable,  would  be  the  first  to  be  employed  in  early  times.  By  these 
properties,  and  by  the  names  in  the  vernacular  languages,  which 
also  retain  a  surprising  degree  of  uniformity  to  their  ancient  forms, 
we  are  led  to  considerable  certainty  in  our  results.  We  must,  how- 
ever, examine  the  history  of  the  several  substances  in  the  only  works 
which  contain  any  detailed  or  special  notice  respecting  them,  that  is, 
in  those  of  Materia  Medica^  or  the  Accounts  of  Drugs.  Among  these 
in  ancient  times,  as  in  the  present  day  among  Oriental  nations,  we 
shall  find,  that  almost  everything  is  mentioned  which  ha£  any  pro- 
perty either  useful  or  agreeable.  With  this  study  we  must  conjoin  a 
knowledge  of  the  Natural  History,  or  the  Mineralogy,  Botany,  and 
Zoology  of  the  countries  whence  the  substances  were  obtained.  We 
shall  thus  attain  a  degree  of  certainty  in  our  results,  which  to  many 
will  appear  surprising,  and  which  will  give  a  degree  of  precision  and 
correctness  in  our  inferences  and  conclusions,  respecting  the  commerce 
and  intercourse  among  ancient  nations,  of  which  the  subject,  from  its 
remoteness  and  dearth  of  facts,  did  not  seem  to  be  susceptible. 

In  prosecuting  such  researches,  it  is,  I  conceive,  in  the  first  place, 
necessary  to  determine  the  principles  upon  which  they  should  be 
conducted,  and  also,  what  kind  of  evidence  we  should  consider  satis- 
factory, as  determining  that  any  particular  points  had  been  made  out. 
Some  of  these  points  may  appear  too  obvious  to  require  being  insisted 
on;  nevertheless  they  have  been  entirely  neglected  in  some  investi- 
gations on  these  and  similar  subjects. 

Confining  ourselves  at  present  to  Biblical  plants  only,  it  is  essential 
Utat  any  plant  adduced,  should  correspond  in  properties,  with  that,  it  is 
supposed  to  be.  Ist.  It  ought  to  be  found  in  the  countries  where 
it  is  described,  or  to  which  allusion  is  made.  2ndly.  It  should  possess 
the  properties,  or  3rield  the  products  ascribed  to  it  by  the  sacred 
penmen,  or  we  ought  to  be  able  to  show  that  such  opinions  were,  or  are 
still  entertained  respecting  its  properties  and  products,  drdly.  As  the 
above  would  only  amount  to  probability,  in  consequence  of  the  numbers 
of  plants  growing  in  the  same  situation,  and  often  useful  for  the  same 
purposes,  the  plant  ought  to  have  a  name  in  some  of  the  cognate  lan- 
guages, either  ancient  or  modem,  or  better  if  in  both,  which  has  some 
similarity  to  the  Hebrew  name.  In  the  same  way  with  an  article  of 
commerce,  we  ought  to  be  able  to  prove  that  it  is,  or  was,  obtained 
from  the  direction,  or  the  countries  named  or  pointed  out,  and  that  it 
has  the  properties  which  are  ascribed  to  the  ancient  drug.  We  ought 
also,  if  possible,  to  show  that  it  has  a  name  in  some  of  the  languages 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF    SCRIPTURE.  121 

of  ancient  or  modem  commeroe,  which  is  similar  to  that  employed  in 
the  Hebrew  or  Greek  languages,  or  one  of  which  that  employed  in 
these  languages,  seems  to  be  only  a  translation. 

Taking  these  principles  as  my  guide,  I  shall  endeavour  to  keep 
them  closely  in  yiew  in  determining  the  plant  which  is  translated 
MufiTTABD  Tree;  and  subsequently,  I  shall  treat  of  Hyssop  in  a 
similar  manner. 

The  Mustard  Tree  of  the  New  Testament  has  frequently  engaged 
the  attention  of  commentators.  It  still  continues  undetermined, 
because  the  common  mustard  plant  is  considered  not  to  possess  all  the 
requisites;  and  it  is  difficult  to  find  a  plant  in  which  are  combined  all 
the  peculiarities  of  that  alluded  to  in  Scripture;  that  is,  one  producing 
a  small  seed;  being  sown  in  a  garden ;  growing  into  a  herb,  and  then 
into  a  large  tree,  which  afforded  shade  and  shelter  among  its  bougha 
to  the  fowls  of  the  air.  In  order  to  ascertain  whether  we  can  find  any 
such  plant,  it  is  necessary  to  examine  the  passages  in  which  the 
mustard  tree  is  mentioned,  that  we  may  know  the  oharactenstics  by 
which  it  was,  and  should  in  the  present  day,  be  found  to  be  distin- 
guished. 

The  mustard  tree  is  first  mentioned  in  one  of  the  parables  spoken 
by  our  Saviour  at  the  sea-side;  Matthew  xiii.  31,  ''The  kingdom  of 
heaven  is  like  to  a  grain  of  mustard  seed,  which  a  man  took,  and  sowed 
in  his  field:*'  (32,)  "Which  indeed  is  the  least  of  all  seeds;  but  when 
it  is  grown  it  is  the  greatest  among  herbs,  and  becometh  a  tree,  so  that 
the  birds  of  the  air  come  and  lodge  in  the  branches  thereof."  The 
same  parable  is  mentioned  in  Mark  iv.  31 ;  and  the  tree  is  recorded  as 
shooting  out  great  branches,  ''so  that  the  fowls  of  the  air  may  lodge 
under  the  shadow  of  it."  And  in  Luke  xiii.  19,  The  kingdom  of  God 
'^  is  like  a  grain  of  mustard  seed,  which  a  man  took,  and  cast  into  his 
garden;  and  it  grew,  and  waxed  a  great  tree;  and  the  fowls  of  the 
air  lodged'*  (Karta-iajpmriVy  built  nests,  Matthew  and  Mark,  icaratnaivovrf 
make  their  abode)  "in  the  branches  of  it."  The  mustard  tree  is 
also  mentioned  by  our  Saviour  in  Matthew  xvii.  20,  "If  ye  have 
£Bith  as  a  grain  of  mustard  seed,"  off  kokkov  o-cMnrcttr ;  an  expression 
used  metaphorically  among  the  Jews,  and  meaning  the  smallest  part : 
and  nearly  in  the  same  words  in  Luke  xvii.  6.  In  the  original,  the 
grain  of  mustard  seed  is  called  "kokk^  o-iyairco»r,"  and  described  as  the 
smallest  of  seeds,  " fwcportpoif  fnev  tart,  ircarrnv  r&v  airtpftarmv/'  which 
grows  into  adcvdpoy,  or  tree;  St.  Luke  says  that  it  becomes  a  groat 
tree,  ht^por  firya. 

Considerable  difficulty  ha£  been  experienced  in  elucidating  these 
passages,  in  consequence  of  the  term  Xax<voy,  usually  denoting  garden 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


122  ON    THB    MUSTARD    TREE 

herbs  in  opposition  to  wild  plants,  being  employed  to  designate  the 
plant  which  was  produced  from  the  xoiucov  <rw€m€m,  the  grain  of 
mustard  seed.  Though  distinguished  as  the  smallest  of  seeds  sown 
in  a  Ktjfirosy  garden  or  plantation^  this  grew  also  not  only  into  a  devbpopy 
tree,  but  into  a  b€pdpov  fuya^  great  tree. 

Making  all  due  allowance  for  the  figurative  and  the  Oriental  form 
of  expression,  it  does  seem  evident  that  the  plant  here  indicated  was 
arboreotui  in  habit;  though  it  certainly  may  appear  contrary  to 
nature  that  a  herb  of  the  garden  should  ever  grow  into  a  tree,  in  the 
great  branches  of  which  birds  would  build  their  nests.  Indeed,  if  we 
were  to  take  this  term  literally,  most  herbaceous  plants  would  be 
excluded,  as  few  are  fit  for  such  a  purpose,  at  the  season  when  birds 
build  their  nests.  On  this  it  might  be  observed,  that  both  in  Syria 
and  Egypt,  the  crops  being  sown  in  autumn  and  reaped  in  spring,  the 
plants  might  be  sufficiently  grown  for  the  purpose.  But  here  again 
we  may  reply,  that  their  instinct  would  lead  them  to  select  a  more 
secure  locality,  than  a  crop  which  was  constantly  disturbed  by  the 
cultivator  and  watchmen,  and  liable  to  be  cut  down.  It  is  however 
quite  possible  to  have  a  tree,  cultivated  almost  like  a  herb,  as  may  bo 
seen  in  the  Mulberry  cultivation  of  Bengal,  where  the  object  is  to  have 
soft  and  herbaceous  leaves,  as  food  for  the  delicate  silk-worm. 

Commentators  have  usually  taken  it  for  granted  that  the  common 
mustard  plant,  or  some  nearly  allied  species,  is  the  plant;  and  have 
attempted  various  modes  of  explaining  what  appears  to  them  the 
several  discrepancies  in  the  parable  of  the  Mustard  Tree.  Sir  Thomas 
Browne  says,  "If  we  recollect  that  the  mustard  seed,  though  it  be  not 
simply  and  in  itself  the  smallest  of  seeds,  yet  may  very  well  be 
believed  to  be  the  smallest  of  such  as  are  apt  to  grow  into  a  ligneous 
substance,  and  become  a  kind  of  tree."  This  is  probably  the  proper 
view  to  take  of  the  subject,  especially  as  we  are  informed  by  Buxtorf, 
as  quoted  by  Rosenmiiller  (Botany  of  the  Bible,  p.  104),  that  the  later 
Hebrews  used  proverbially  to  compare  to  a  mustard  seed,  any  thing 
very  small  and  insignificant;  and  he  refers  for  the  proverbial  use  of 
the  expression  Garghir  hackardal,  to  Buxtorfs  Lex.  Chald.  Talmud, 
p.  822.  On  this,  Rosenmiiller  remarks  that,  "  In  a  proverbial  simile, 
no  literal  accuracy  or  strictness  is  to  be  expected,  and  we  ought 
therefore  not  to  be  surprised  that  the  mustard  seed  is  spoken  of  as 
being  '  smaller  than  all  other  seeds,*  although  it  is  well  known  that 
smaller  seeds  are  to  be  found."' 

Most  have  adopted  the  idea,  that  the  parable  of  the  common 
Mustard  Seed  producing  a  large  tree  may  be  best  explained  by 
supposing  that  this  is  caused  by  luxuriant  growth  in  a  richer  soil  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF    SCRIPTURE.  123 

warmer  climate.  Dr.  Clarke,  for  instance,  observes,  ''Some  soils  being 
more  luxuriant  than  others,  and  the  climate  much  warmer,  raise  the 
same  plant  to  a  size  and  perfection  far  beyond  what  a  poorer  soil,  or  a 
colder  climate,  can  possibly  do."  On  this  I  may  observe,  that  it  does 
not  by  any  means  follow  that  plants  which  are  at  home  and  flourish 
in  the  soil  and  climate  of  Europe,  will,  when  cultivated  in  a  warmer 
and  at  the  same  time  drier  climate  grow  more  luxuriantly.  The 
majority  of  them  will,  on  the  contrary,  wither  away  or  be  dwarfed. 

In  conformity  to  the  foregoing  view,  Scheuchzer  has  described  and 
figured  (Physica  Sacra,  Tom.  viii.,  p.  59,  Tab.  dclxxxiii)  a  mustard 
plant  which  grows  several  feet  high,  with  tapering  stalk;  and  which 
spreads  into  many  branches.  The  Sinapis  erucoides  of  LinnsBus,  is 
also  adduced  as  a  species  attaining  considerable  size,  and  having  a 
wood-like  structure.  Captains  Irby  and  Mangles,  in  their  journey 
from  Bysan  to  Adjeloun,  met  with  the  mustard  plant  growing  wild,  as 
high  as  their  horses'  heads. 

Mr.  Frost,  a  few  years  since,  published  a  small  pamphlet  which 
obtained  considerable  attention  among  literary  men,  in  which  he 
attempted  to  prove  that  Phytolacca  dodecandra  was  the  dcydpoy  fxeya  of 
the  Scripture,  and  its  seed  the  kokkov  awa7rtw£.  He  asserts  that  the 
above  plant  grows  abundantly  in  Palestine;  that  it  has  the  smallest 
seed  of  any  tree ;  and  attains  as  great,  or  even  greater  altitude  than 
any  other  in  that  country,  of  which  it  is  a  native.  As  the  only 
attempt  at  anything  like  a.  proof  is,  that  the  North  Americans  call 
P.  decandra,  poke  weed,  or  wild  mustard,  this  opinion  has  never 
received  the  support  of  scientific  men,  because  it  is  not  known 
that  the  plant  adduced  has  ever  been  found  in  Palestine,  or  even  in 
Asia. 

Before  proceeding  further,  it  is  necessary  to  determine  what  are 
the  characteristics  of  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  and  what  we 
must  look  for,  in  any  plant  supposed  to  be  it. 

In  the  first  place,  it  appears  to  me  that  it  must  be  what  is  strictly 
called  a  tree,  perennial  in  nature,  and  woody  in  texture;  and  growing 
to  some  considerable  size.  It  ought,  moreover,  among  the  trees  of  the 
forest,  to  have  a  small  seed,  for  it  does  not  appear  necessary  that  its 
seed  should  be  the  smallest  of  all  seeds.  Nor  indeed  is  it  probable 
that  the  smallest  seed  of  any  tree,  or  indeed  of  any  garden  herb,  is 
the  smallest  of  all  seeds.  2ndly.  The  Sinapis  or  Mustard  Plant  of 
Scripture,  if  not  what  is  now  commonly  understood  as  the  mustard 
plant,  or  some  analogous  species  of  Sinapis,  ought  to  be  a  tree  having 
similar  properties.  For  we  shall  find  that  the  ancients  often 
grouped  together  plants  and  drugs,  not  so  much  from  resemblance  in 


124  ON    THB    MUSTARD   TREE 

external  appearance  as  from  the  possession  of  similar  properties. 
Thus  the  black  and  white  Hellebore,  the  black  and  white  Bryony,  the 
greater  and  lesser  Centaury,  were  produced  by  plants  having  no  ex- 
ternal resemblance  to  each  other;  but  the  drugs  which  they  yield 
have  similar  medical  properties,  drdly.  The  plant  ought  to  have  a 
name  in  the  language  of  the  country  similar  to  that,  by  which  the 
common  mustard  plant  is  itself  distinguished. 

None  of  the  plants  hitherto  adduced  appear  to  me  satisfactorily 
to  meet  the  difficulties  of  the  subject.  Much  more  to  the  purpose, 
though  little  taken  notice  of,  are  the  quotations  from  Talmudical  wri- 
tings, which  are^  however,  disparaged  by  Rosenmiiller  and  others, 
because  they  seem  to  suppose  that  the  passages  alluded  to,  apply  only 
to  the  common  mustard  plant.  Thus  the  Babylon  Talmud  says,  there 
was  left  to  a  man  in  Schechem,  by  his  father,  a  mustard  tree  having 
three  boughs  of  chardal,  and  one  of  the  number  being  taken  was  found 
to  afford  nine  cabs  of  mustard;  and  its  wood  was  sufficient  to  cover 
the  shed  of  a  potter.  So  in  the  Jerusalem  Talmud,  R.  Simeon  Ben 
Chalogta  says,  "A  chardal  tree  was  in  my  field,  which  I  was  wont  to 
climb,  as  men  climb  into  a  fig  tree."  Instead  of  animadverting  on 
these,  passages,  as  if  they  were  exaggerated  statements  respecting  the 
common  mustard  plant,  it  would  have  been  more  philosophical  to  have 
inquired  whether  there  was  any  tree  of  Palestine  to  which  the  above 
description  and  name  could  apply :  and  also,  what  was  likely  to  have 
been  the  name  by  which  our  Saviour  spoke  of  the  mustard  tree,  when 
addressing  in  parables  the  people  of  Syria  in  the  language  of  their 
country. 

The  language  in  which  our  Saviour  addressed  his  parables  was  no 
doubt  the  Hebrew  or  one  of  the  cognate  dialects,  as  the  Syriac 
or  Western  Aramaic,  which  formed  the  common  language  of  Pales- 
tine at  that  time;  and  both  are  so  closely  allied  to  the  Arabic,  that 
many  words  are  identical  in  all  three.  Thus  the  above  chardal,  in 
the  Hebrew  signifying  mustard,  is  no  doubt  the  same  word  as  the 
Arabic  J J*^  khardcd,  signifying  mustard,  and  mustard  seed,  through- 
out the  East.  But  the  New  Testament  having  been  written  in  Greek, 
we  have  only  the  Greek  Hnapis,  where  the  Arabic  chardal  may  have 
been  spoken.  Though  this  word  chardal  is  not  found  in  the  Old  Tes- 
tament, a  word  very  similar  to  it  (t^^IPT  charvly)  occurs  in  no  less  than 
three  passages,  in  all  of  which  it  is  translated  nettles  in  the  authorised 
version.  Thus  in  Proverbs  xxiv.  30,  31,  "I  went  by  the  field  of  the 
slothful,  &c.^  and,  lo,  it  was  all  grown  over  with  thorns,  and  nettles 
(charullim)  had  covered  the  face  thereof."  Again,  in  Job  xxx.  7,  it 
is  said,  ''Among  the  bushes  they  brayed:  under  the  nettles  (charullim) 


OP    SCRIPTURB.  125 

they  were  gathered  together."  And,  thirdly,  in  Zephaniah,  ii,  8. 
As  translators  and  commentators  have  no  means  of  determining  what 
plant  is  intended,  different  ones,  chiefly  of  a  thorny  nature,  have  been 
fixed  upon  by  different  authors.  Nettles  have  however  had  the 
greatest  number  of  suffrages:  but  we  have  no  proof  that  chand 
means  a  nettle,  neither  does  it  appear  needful  that  it  should ;  or  that  a 
thorny  or  prickly  plant  is  necessaiy  to  complete  the  sense  of  the  pas- 
sage. For  in  the  first  passage,  it  only  appears  that  fields  which  are 
uncultivated  or  neglected  become  covered  with  weeds;  and  in  the 
passage  of  Job,  such  as,  idlers  may  take  shelter  in,  or  take  refuge 
among.  The  Arabic  khardal,  being  evidently  the  same  as  the  Hebrew 
ehardaly  and  this  being  very  similar  to  c^and^  I  feel  disposed  to  think 
that  it  may  have  the  same  meaning,  or  be  applicable  to  one  of  the 
kinds  of  khardal  or  mustard;  and  we  know  that  nothing  so  readily 
springs  up  in  neglected  corn-fields  as  the  eharloek,  chadloek,  or  kedlock, 
as  it  is  called  in  different  parts  of  this  country,  and  which  is  the 
tinapig  arvenii*  of  botanists.  (Art.  Chartd,  Cyclop.  Bibl.  Literature.) 

Before  proceeding  to  shew  to  what  plant  the  term  khardal  appears 
to  be  applied  in  the  present  day,  I  may  first  mention  how  my  own 
attention  was  directed  to  the  subject.  This  was  in  consequence  of 
being  asked,  some  time  last  year,  by  the  Right  Rev.  the  Bishop  of 
Lichfield,  then  Principal  of  Kings  College,  London,  whether  I  was 
acquainted  with  what  was  supposed  to  be  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scrip- 
ture. I  replied  that  I  was  not,  as  I  had  paid  attention  chiefly  to  those 
substances  which  had  formed  objects  of  ancient  commerce,  rather  than 
to  the  natural  products  of  Palestine;  but  that  I  had  no  doubt  that 
some  plant  indigenous  in  that  country  would  be  found  possessed  of 
the  requisite  qualities.  His  Lordship  then  informed  me  that  Mr. 
Ameuny,  a  native  of  Syria,  and  student  of  the  College,  then  attending 
the  theological  class,  had  said,  that  he  was  perfectly  well  acquainted 
with  it.  Dr.  Lonsdale  added,  and  that  his  description  of  the  tree 
seemed  to  correspond  with  everything  that  was  required.  On  seeing 
Mr.  Ameuny,  and  asking  him  whether  he  knew  any  tree  which 
answered  to  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  he  replied,  that  he  was 
perfectly  well  acquainted  with  one ;  had  often  seen  it,  as  it  was 
common  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jerusalem;  and  that  it  was  large 
enough  for  a  man  to  stand  under  on  horseback.  I  asked  him  what  it 
was  called ;  he  replied,  that  it  was  everywhere  known  by  the  name  of 
kkardal.  I  observed,  that  that  is  the  common  Arabic  name  for  mus« 
tard.  He  said,  ''So  it  is ;  and  it  is  also  applied  to  the  seeds  of  this  tree, 
which  are  universally  employed  throughout  Syria  as  a  substitute  for 
mustard,   of  which  they  have    exactly  the    taste    and  properties.*' 

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126  ON    THE    MUSTARD    TREE 

Mr.  Aiiieany  was  unable  to  give  me  any  farther  information  respect- 
ing it. 

Previously  to  this,  but  without  paying  any  particular  attention  to 
the  subject,  I  had  conceived  that  Vitex  Agnus  Castus  might  be  the 
Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  as  it  grows  to  the  size  of  a  good-sized 
shrub,  with  woody  stem,  and  its  seeds  have  sometimes  been  called 
piper  agrette,  I  also  thought  that  it  might  be  one  of  the  larger  Cap- 
paridesB,  which  grow  to  a  considerable  size,  have  berried  fruit  contain- 
ing numerous  small  seeds,  and  one  of  which  is  described  by  Belon  as 
^'Capparis  Arabica  fructu  ovi  magnitudine,  semine  piperis  instar  acre." 
The  flower-buds  and  seeds  of  the  caper  of  Mount  Sinai,  capparis 
nnaiea,  are  pickled ;  and  the  latter  are  called  Jtl/U-i-jthbtU,  mountain 
pepper.  But  as  there  did  not  appear  any  proof  in  favour  of  any  of 
these,  the  investigation  was  not  pursued. 

Having  ascertained  that  the  name  khardal  was  in  the  present  day 
applied  to  a  tree  in  Palestine,  the  next  point  was  to  ascertain  its  name 
and  nature,  so  that  it  might  be  seen  whether  it  was  in  all  points 
answerable  to  what  was  required.  In  referring  to  the  ordinary  Arabic 
dictionaries,  and  lists  of  drugs  in  the  Latin  editions  of  Avicenna^ 
Serapion,  and  Rhazes,  chardal  and  cardel  are  given  as  S3monymes  of 
sinapis  only^  In  the  Ulfaz  Udwiyeh,  translated  by  Mr.  Gladwin, 
three  kinds  of  ^^ysL  are  mentioned :  Irt,  No.  844,  khirdid;  Hindee, 
reiy,  mustard.  2nd,  No.  784,  where  khhrdtd  biree  and  junglee-riey 
translated  wild  mustard,  are  given  as  synonymes  of  hirasha  roomee; 
and  the  Zrd  kind.  No.  853,  is  khirdul  far^ee.  In  my  own  catalogue 
of  Asiatic  Materia  Medica,  Jj^  khardal,  is  given  as  the  synonym 
of  raee^  that  is,  mustard.  Sinapis  juncea,  Sec,  (Decand.  Prod.  ii.  612.) 
is  the  khurdal  of  Forskal,  according  to  Delisle;  and  this  is  clearly 
allied  to  sinapis  integrifolia,  &c.  (Decand.  ii.  612.)  2.  cf  w  ^^j^ 
khardal  burree,  or  junglee  niee,  wild  mustard,  is  the  second,  though  it 
is  difficult  to  say  what  plant  is  intended.  3.  Khardal  roomee,  Persian^ 
hircuha  roomee,  translated  in  Hindee  junglee  rose,  or  wild  mustard,  of 
which  the  seeds,  like  those  of  the  former  kinds,  are  described  as  being 
stimulant.  But  neither  in  this  list  nor  in  the  previous  quoted  Ulfaz 
Udwiyeh,  was  I  able  to  obtain  any  information  respecting  the  nature 
of  the  plant.  But  the  term  roomee  is  by  Asiatics  usually  used  in 
reference  to  Constantinople,  or  to  the  Turkish  empire;  and  I  may 
observe  that,  the  kind  called  hiraeha  farsee,  or  Persian  mustard,  in  the 
U1£eiz  Udwiyeh,  is  called  khardal  roomee,  or  Turkish  mustard,  in  my 
notes. 

Finding  by  this  investigation  that  several  kinds  of  khardal,  or 


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OF    SCRIPTURK.  127 

mustard,  were  known  to  Asiatics,  and  that  this  name  was  applied  to  a 
tree  of  Syria,  it  was  extremely  desirable  to  obtain,  if  possible,  its 
name  in  scientific  works,  so  that  we  might  ascertain  whether  it 
possessed  all  the  characteristics  of  the  mustard  tree.  For  this  purpose, 
among  other  places,  I  referred  to  the  index  of  my  Illustrations  of 
Himalayan  Botany,  where  several  Arabic  names  are  mentioned, 
together  with*  the  names  of  the  plants  to  which  they  are  applicable. 
In  this  I  did  not  find  kharckU,  but  a  word  so  similar  to  it,  that  I  was 
induced  to  refer  to  it,  in  the  body  of  the  work ;  and  was  surprised  to 
find  that  it  referred  to  a  tree  which,  not  only  in  name  but  in  pro- 
perties, corresponded  very  closely  with  what  is  required  for  the  mustard 
tree.  For  instance,  under  the  natural  family  of  ChenopodesB  it  is 
mentioned  that,  "  Salradora,  which  is  placed  in  this  order  by  Jussieu, 
but  by  Bartling  in  MyrsinesB,  is  a  genus  common  to  India,  Persia, 
and  Arabia;  and  the  same  species,  S.  jpersica,  occurs  in  the  Circars, 
north  of  India,  and  the  Persian  Gulf.  Along  with  this  another  species 
is  found  on  the  banks  of  the  Jumna,  and  from  Delhi  to  Saharunpore. 
This  is  S,  indica,  nob,jdl  of  the  Hindus,  Irak  hindee  of  Persian  authors, 
who  also  give  this  tree  the  name  of  Mtstoaky  or  tooth-brush  tree^ 
S,  persica  is  called  Khurjdl  in  North  India,  arak  and  irak  in  works  on 
Materia  Medica.  The  bark  of  the  root  is  acrid,  and  raises  blisters. 
(Roxb.)  A  decoction  of  the  bark  of  the  stem  is  considered  tonic,  and  the 
red  berries  are  said  to  be  edible."  Royle,  lUust.  Hot.  Him.  Mountains, 
p.  319. 

On  referring  to  the  work  of  Dr.  Roxburgh  mentioned  above,  the 
Flora  Indica,  vol.  i.,  p.  389,  it  may  be  seen  that  a  figure  is  given  of 
the  tree  in  his  Coromandel  Plants,  vol.  i.,  pi.  26,  of  which  the 
Telungu  name  is  Pedda-warag(hwenki,  He  describes  it  as  a  middle- 
sized  tree,  a  native  of  most  part  of  the  Circars,  though  by  no  means 
common;  it  seems  to  grow  equally  well  in  every  soil;  produces  flowers 
and  ripe  fruit  all  the  year  round.  This  fruit  consist  of  '^  berries  very 
minute,  much  smaller  than  a  grain  of  black  pepper;  smooth,  red 
juicy,  seed  one." 

Of  the  properties  of  the  plant  Dr.  Roxburgh  continues  to  say : 
"The  berries  have  a  strong  aromatic  smell,  and  taste  much  like 
garden  cresses.  The  bark  of  the  root  is  remarkably  acrid,  bruised  and 
applied  to  the  skin,  soon  raises  blisters,  for  which  purpose  the  natives 
often  use  it;  as  a  stimulant,  it  promises  to  be  a  medicine  possessed  of 
very  considerable  powers."    Roxb.,  1.  c,  p.  390. 

'  Can  this  be  the  pUmt  to  which  Burekhardt  alludes  as  the  tree  of  which  the 
Affghans  make  tooth-bmahes  on  their  pilgrimage  to  Mecca  ? 


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128  ON   THE   MUSTARD   TREE 

This  plant  was  described  in  1780  by  Retz,  in  Obs.  Bot.  iv.,  p.  24, 
under  the  name  of  Emhdia  gronularxa,  who  stated  that  he  obtained 
it  from  Kdnig,  from  Tranquebar.  His  description  agrees  in  all 
respects  with  that  of  Roxburgh.  Colonel  Sjkes  found  it  in  the  Dekhan ; 
and  it  is  mentioned  in  his  Manuscript  Catalogue,  p.  250,  as  known  to 
the  natives  by  the  name  of  meru.  In  the  catalogue  of  the  plants 
growing  in  Bombay  and  its  vicinity,  Salwtdora  persica  is  mentioned  as 
growing  near  the  sea  in  both  Concans. 

The  late  Sir  A.  Bumes,  in  his  voyage  up  the  Indus,  mentions  Sal- 
vadora  persica  (Travels,  vol.  iii.,  p.  122)  under  the  namepeeloo,  as  met 
with  near  Mooltan,  and  in  all  the  tracts  of  saline  soil  that  border  on 
the  Indus  and  Punjab  rivers;  and  especially  in  the  Delta  of  the  Indus, 
and  lower  parts  of  Sindej  and  states  that  its  seeds  in  taste  resemble 
water-cresses,  and  that  he  found  the  fruit  exposed  for  sale  in  the 
bazars  of  Mooltan.  He  supposes  it  to  be  the  plant  alluded  to  in 
Arrian's  Indian  History,  as  having  leaves  resembling  those  of  the 
laurel,  and  growing  in  places  within  the  influence  of  the  sea.  But 
there  does  not  appear  to  me  any  proof  of  this  identity.  Lieutenant 
Welsted  also  mentions  it  as  occurring  on  the  southern  coast  of 
Arabia. 

Before  proceeding  further  in  attempting  to  identify  this  tree  with 
the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  it  is  desirable  to  refer  to  the  original 
description  of  this  plant,  which  we  find  in  the.  Philosophical  Trans- 
actions, for  1749,  p.  491,  in  a  paper  written  in  French,  by  Laurence 
Garcin,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  of  Neufchatel  in  Switzerland,  but  translated  by 
Dr.  Stack. 

This  plant  is  woody.  It  grows  sometimes  into  a  tree,  sometimes 
into  a  shrub,  and  sometimes  into  a  bush.  Its  native  countries  are  the 
parts  adjacent  to  the  Persic  Gulf,  the  North  of  Arabia,  and  the  South 
of  Persia  \  It  is  most  commonly  found  along  high  roads,  and  in  dry 
and  low  places,  delighting  in  the  hottest  and  driest  places,  more  so 
even  than  palm  trees.  Dr.  G.  had  not  met  with  it  in  Surat  or  Bengal, 
where  there  are  regular  rainy  seasons  every  year.  The  inhabitants  of 
the  Gulf  call  this  shrub  by  the  name  of  Tchtieh,  It  varies  consider- 
ably in  size;  is  usually  a  larger  sort  of  shrub.  It  produces  a  number 
of  boughs  without  order,  and  very  tufted  branches,  which  most  com- 
monly hang  down  to  the  ground.  Its  bark  is  moderately  thick, 
sometimes  smooth,  sometimes  full  of  cracks,  of  an  ash  colour,  both 
in  the  trunk  and  branches,  but  green  on  the  tender  shoots.  The  wood 
is  everywhere  brittle,  and  nearly  of  a  straw  colour. 

*  Mr.  Bennett  inibrms  me  that  there  are  q»eeimeD8  in  the  British  Museum 
from  Muacat,  oolleeted  by  Aucher-Eloy. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


OF    SCRIPTURE.  129 

The  leares  in  shape  nearly  resemble  those  of  the  sea  pnrslain^ 
and  sometimes  those  of  the  misletoe  of  the  apple  tree.  They  are 
often  ooyered  with  excrescences  of  different  sizes  and  shapes — around, 
ovaJ,  and  sometimes  very  large.  They  are  the  work  of  the  flying 
inseets  which  abound  in  those  parts. 

The  flowers  are  disposed  in  clusters  on  the  tops  of  the  shoots. 
These  bunches  of  flowers  entirely  resemble  those  of  the  vine 
blossom. 

The  pistil  or  embryo  of  the  fruit  'afterwards  swells  in  all  dimen- 
sionSy  and  grows  into  a  beny,  in  the  shape  and  size  of  a  gooseberry 
(currant))  of  three  or  four  lines  in  diameter;  at  first  it  is  of  a  pale 
green,  then  a  bright  purple,  and  in  its  maturity,  ot  a  dark  red.  Each 
berry  is  supported  on  a  strong  thick  pedicle,  attached  to  a  small 
branch.  Its  substance  is  white  transparent  flesh,  full  of  juice,  much 
resembling  jelly,  which  surrounds  a  single  round  grain,  marbled  with 
black  or  brown  spots,  as  in  the  tortoise-shell,  when  ripe.  This  grain 
is  as  laige  as  a  grain  of  hempnseed,  that  is,  about  two  lines  in  dia- 
meter; but  sometimes  less.  It  is  properly  a  kernel,  or  a  shell  that 
has  a  cavity,  which  incloses  a  sort  of  little  round  almond  of  a  straw 
eolenr,  yellowish  on  its  outward  surface,  and  pale  in  its  inward  sub« 
stance,  which  is  pretty  firm.  All  the  parts  of  our  plant  have  an  acid, 
pungent  taste  and  smell,  vastly  like  our  garden  cresses,  but  more 
biting.  The  fruit  is  the  most  pungent  part  of  the  whole.  The  smell 
of  the  plant  is  perceptible  at  seven  or  eight  paces  distance,  when  a 
person  is  to  leeward. 

The  natives  of  the  country  use  it  against  the  bite  of  the  scorpion, 
by  rubbing  the  wounded  part  with  its  bruised  leaves.  They  also 
employ  its  warm  infusion  to  wash  the  bodies  of  their  children,  in  order 
to  keep  them  healthy;  and  they  feed  camels  with  it,  who  love  it 
naturally. 

Dr.  Garcin  finding  that  this  plant  did  not  correspond  in  characters 
with  any  previously  described  plant,  established  a  new  genus,  and 
applied  to  it  the  name  Salvadora,  in  honour  of  M.  Salvador,  of  Bar* 
eelon%  a  very  skilful  botanist,  of  whom  M.  Toumefort  makes  men- 
tion in  the  Introduction  to  his  Institutiones  Rei  Herbare»,  where  he 
styles  him  the  Phoenix  of  his  nation,  because  he  was  really  the  richest 
naturalist,  and  the  most  expert  botanical  traveller  that  Spain  ever 
produced.  Dr.  Garcin  also  herborized  with  him  before  the  siege  in 
1713  and  1714;  and  says,  ''I  thought  it  incumbent  on  me  to  do 
bonour  to  his  memory,  by  giving  his  name  to  this  plant,  and  T  have 
done  it  with  the  greater  justice,  because  it  is  certain  that  had  be  lived> 
he  would  have  given  a  history  of  the  plants  of  Spain,  which  by 
roil.  VIII.  K 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


130  ON    THE    MUSTARD   TREE 

its  accuracy  would  have  afforded  much  pleasure  to  the  botanists  of 
Europe." 

This  plant  is  also  described  by  Forskal,  in  his  Flora  ^gyptiaco- 
Arabicay  published  by  Niebuhr  in  1775,  under  the  name  of  Cistw 
arbarea,  which  he  found  at  seyeral  places,  as  he  mentions  that  at 
Surdud  it  is  by  the  Arabs  called  tJb*^,  redif;  at  Dabhi,  ^\j  rdk\' 
at  Hashad  (Kdhsad),  the  tree  is  called  Sa  orky  and  the  fruit 
cA\jS  kebdth.  He  also  states  that  it  is  held  in  high  esteem  by  the 
Arabs;  that  the  fruit  is  edible,  when  ripe;  the  leaves  when  bruised 
applied  upon  the  tumours  called  hamiy  &c. ;  that  it  is  also  so  famed  as 
an  antidote  against  poisons,  as  to  be  celebrated  in  a  song  by  some 
Arab  poet : — 

j^y^  CAjJ  ^XLj  CrbJJI  sJ\j\ 

He  describes  it  as  a  shrub  with  smooth  stem,  opposite  drooping 
branches,  with  the  flowers  arranged  in  terminal  branches,  which  are 
afterwards  followed  by  berries  about  the  size  of  a  pea,  and  containing 
a  single  seed. 

Mr.  Bennett  informs  me  that  the  Salvadora  persica  was  found  in 
Egypt  by  Sir  G.  Wilkinson.  Delisle  gives  us  the  locality  "in  Monte 
Gharab  Egypti  superioris."  Endlioher,  in  his  Genera  Plantarum,  gives 
as  the  geographical  distribution  of  Salvadora  persica,  "per  Asiam 
mediam,  ab  India  superiore  ad  mare  Mediterraneum,  per  Africam 
borealem  a  Nile  ad  Sen^gambiam*." 

1  In  Indian  writers  we  see  that  ^  )  iroifc,  is  applied  to  the  Sftme  tree. 

'  Mr.  JohnBon,  in  his  recently  published  and  interesting  work,  intitled.  Travels 
in  Southern  Abyssinia,  says,  '^  The  Moomen^  or  tooth-brush  tree  (Salvadora  per- 
sica) abounded  at  Sakeitaban.  Seyeral  of  the  Hy  Soumaulee  brought  me  a  hand- 
fhl  of  the  berries  to  eat;  but  I  was  soon  obliged  to  call  out,  ^Hold,  enough!*  so 
warmly  aromatic  was  their  flavour.  This  singular  fmit  grows  in  drooping  clusters 
of  flesh-coloured,  mucilaginous  berries,  the  size  of  our  common  red  ounrants,  each 
containing  a  single  round  seed,  about  as  large  as  a  pepper-corn.  The  taste  at  first 
is  sweet,  and  not  unpleasant,  and  by  some,  I  think,  would  be  considered  very 
agreeable  indeed.  After  some  little  time,  if  mauy  are  eaten,  the  warmth  in  the 
palate  increases  considerably,  and  reminded  me  of  the  effect  of  pepper,  or  of  very 
hot  cress.  As  we  approached  the  river  Hawash,  I  found  these  trees  growing  more 
abundantly^ 

"  The  moomen  forms  a  dense  bush,  some  yards  in  circuit,  and  as  their 
sleek,  velvety,  round  leaves,  of  a  bright  green  colour,  afford  an  excellent  shade, 
they  form  the  favorite  lairs,  both  of  savage  man  and  of  wild  beasts.  Beposing 
upon  the  ground,  near  the  roots,  free  from  underwood  and  thorns,  whoever,  or 

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OP    SGRIPTURE.  131 

Having  traced  this  tree,  which  so  singularly  coincides  in  name  and 
in  properties  with  what  is  required  for  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture, 
from  the  extremity  and  coasts  of  the  Peninsula  to  the  North- Western 
provinces  of  India,  and  from  that  to  the  Persian  and  Arabian  Gulfs,  it 
is  necessary  for  our  purpose  to  ascertain  that  it  is  also  found  in  Pales- 
tine. But  in  this  I  was  long  unsuccessful,  as  I  was  unable  to  find  any 
notice  in  systematic  botanical  works,  or  in  local  Floras,  of  the  pre- 
valence of  Salvadara  pernca,  to  the  north  of  the  situations  in  which 
Forskal  had  found  it.  I  therefore  had  recourse  to  the  works  of  tra- 
vellers, especially  of  those  who  had  paid  some  attention  to  natural 
history;  but  I  was  still  unable  to  find  any  notice  of  such  a  plant  in 
any  of  the  lists  of  the  Flora  of  Palestine.  I  then  referred  to  the  excel- 
lent digest  of  the  information  on  Natural  History  subjects  contained 
in  books  of  travels  in  Palestine,  in  Mr.  Kitto's  Physical  Gfeography 
and  Natural  History  of  the  Holy  Land,  where  at  p.  ccLiii,  with  other 
unknown  plants,  I  found  an  extract  which  is  directly  applicable  to  our 
subject: — 

"Advancing  towards  Kerek,  from  the  Southern  extremity  of  the 
Dead  Sea,  Captains  Irby  and  Mangles  soon,  on  leaving  the  borders  of 
Uiat  sea,  entered  into  a  very  prettily  wooded  country,  with  high 
rushes  and  marshes.  Leaving  this,  the  variety  of  bushes  and  wild 
plants  became  very  great :  some  of  the  latter  were  rare,  and  of  remark- 
able appearance.  'Occasionally  we  met  with  specimens  such  as  none 
of  our  party  had  seen  before ;  a  botanist  would  have  had  a  fine  treat 
in  this  delightful  spot.  Amongst  the  trees  which  we  knew,  were 
various  species  of  acacia,  and  in  some  instances  we  met  with  the 
dwarf  mimosa:  we  saw  also  the  doom};  and  the  plant  which  we  saw 
in  Nubia,  and  which  Norden  calls  the  oschar  (A9eUpiai  proeera). 
There  was  one  curious  tree  which  we  observed  in  great  plenty,  and 
which  bore  fruit  in  bunches,  resembling  in  appearance  the  currant, 
with  the  colour  of  the  plum.  It  has  a  pleasant  although  strongly 
aromatic  taste,  exactly  resembling  mustard;  and,  if  taken  in  any 
quantity,  produces  a  similar  irritability  of  the  nose  and  eyes  to  that 
which  is  caused  by  taking  mustard.  The  leaves  of  the  tree  have  the 
same  pungent  flavour  as  the  fruit,  although  not  so  strong.  We  think 
it  probable  that  this  is  the  tree  our  Saviour  alluded  to  in  the  parable 

vhfttever  lies  thefe  is  entirely^covered  from  sight;  and  not  nnfrequently  a  leopard 
or  a  hynna  skulks  out  of,  or  a  startled  antelope  bounds  from  the  very  bush  that 
the  tired  Bedouin  has  selected  for  his  own  retreat  from  the  son.'*  Travels,  vol*  i, 
p.  424. 

Moomen  is  also  the  name  of  pepper,  Mr.  Johnson  informs  me. 

1  Not  the  Doom  Palm  of  Egypt  (Cue^era  thebmca). 

Digitized  by  "LjOOQIC 


132  ON    THE    MUSTARD   TREE 

of  the  Mustard  Seed,  and  not  the  mustard  plant  which  we  have  in  the 
North ;  for  although  in  our  journey  from  Byssora  to  Adjeloun  we  met 
with  the  mustard  plant  growing  wild,  as  high  as  our  horses'  heads, 
still,  being  an  annual,  it  did  not  deserve  the  appellation  of  "  a  tree,'' 
whereas  the  other  is  really  such,  and  birds  might  easily,  and  actually 
do,  take  shelter  under  its  shadow/"  Travels,  p.  363;  and  p.  107  of 
Mr.  Murray's  edition,  forming  a  volume  of  the  Colonial  Library. 

From  this  it  is,  I  think,  quite  evident  that  Captains  Irby  and 
Mangles  fell  in  with  the  very  tree,  of  which  we  are  in  search  and  have 
traced  to  Arabia;  and  which  they  were  therefore  the  first  to  recognise  as 
the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  though  their  discovery  has  not  attracted 
the  degree  of  attention  which  it  deserved.     Their  description  is  brief 
and  imperfect,  yet  it  contains  enough  to  have  convinced  me,  on  first 
reading  it,  that  the  tree  was  the  Salvadora  persica.     The  properties 
being  the  same  would  not  prove  the  point,  for  many  plants  have  warm 
and  spicy  seeds,  though  we  may  not  have  succeeded  in  tracing  them 
into  Palestine.     But  when  in  conjunction  with  these  properties  we 
have  it  mentioned  as  a  tree,  having  its  fruit  in  bunches,  something 
like  the  currant  (whence  no  doubt  Retz's  name  of  GrosnUaria),  we 
have  a  combination  which  is  not  usual  among  the  trees  of  Europe,  nor 
aB  far  as  I  am  aware,  among  those  of  Syria  and  Palestine.     It  is  more 
tiian  probable,  that  it  is  to  this  tree  that  the  name  chardal  is  applied 
by  Talmudical  writers;  who  state  that  it  was  large  enough  to  be 
dimbed  Tke  a  fig-tree;  that  its  branches  spread  over  like  a  tent. 
These  statements  have  been  considered  unworthy  of  notice   by  Dr. 
Harris,  Rosenmiiller,  and  others.     But  it  is  without  doubt  to  the  same 
tree  that  Mr.  Ameuny  applies  the  name  khardal,  and  the  seed  of  which 
he  informs  me  is  usually  employed  in  Palestine  for  the  purposes  of 
mustard.  • 

On  further  inquiry  of  Mr.  Ameuny,  (now  attending  my  own  class 
at  King's  College,)  where  this  khardal  tree  was  found,  he  informed  me 
that  he  had  seen  it  aU  along  the  banks  of  the  Jordan,  and  very  abun- 
dant in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Lake  of  Tiberias,  and  near  Da- 
raa^cus.  He  also  stated  that  it  was  so  generally  recognised  in  Syria  as 
the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  that  the  Reverend  Storey  Hebard  had 
carried  specimens  of  the  plant  from  the  shores  of  the  above  Lake  to 
Jerusalem,  not  as  a  rarity,  because  the  khardal  tree  is  abo  found 
there,  but  as  specimens  to  send  to  America,  from  the  very  locality 
where  our  Saviour  had  spoken  the  parable  of  the  Mustard  Tree. 

As  specimens  of  the  plant,  or  accurate  descriptions  of  it  by  a  qua- 
lified botanist,  would  alone  satisfy  others  of  the  existence  of  this  plant 
in  the  above  localities,  und  knowing  that  my  friend  Dr.  Lindley  had 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


OP    SCRIPTURE.  133 

seen  the  oolleotions  of  Bot^^  and  those  made  in  the  expedition  of  Co- 
lonel Cheenej,  I  wrote  to  him  to  inquire  whether  among  these  plants 
he  had  seen  any  specimens  of  Salvadora  persica;  and  he  informed  me 
in  reply,  that  S.  persica  was  found  on  Mount  Sinai  by  M.  Bove,  but 
that  he  did  not  see  it  among  the  plants  collected  in  Colonel  Chesney's 
expedition.  This  is  however  an  interesting  locality,  as  it  thus  con- 
nects the  Arabian  localities  with  those  in  which  it  had  been  found  by 
Captains  Irby  and  Mangles. 

Haying  proceeded  thus  far,  that  is,  haying  found  in  India  a  tree 
called  khatjaly  which  has  the  same  properties  as  the  kkardal  of  Syria, 
and  then  ascertained  that  Salvadora  persica  (the  kharjal  of  Northern 
India)  is  found  along  the  Persian  Gulf  and  the  coast  of  Arabia,  even 
up  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Mount  Sinai,  I  thought  that  I  had  been  the 
first  to  infer  from  their  description  that  this  was  identical  with  the 
tree  found  by  Captains  Irby  and  Mangles,  on  the  southern  coast  of 
the  Dead  Sea.  But  I  was  surprised  in  looking,  with  a  totally  different 
object,  at  Dr.  Lindley's  Flora  Medica,  to  find  the  Salvadora  persica 
there  mentioned,  aa  the  tree  supposed  to  be  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scrip- 
ture. Having  only  recently  obtained  this  information,  I  have  been 
unable  to  ascertain  the  grounds  upon  which  this  supposition  was  enter- 
tained, as  npon  inquiry  of  Dr.  Lindley  he  was  unable  to  refer  me 
exactly  to  the  place  where  the  speculation  had  been  entertained  either 
by  Mr.  Lambert  or  Mr.  Don.  But  as  my  own  conclusions  had  been 
arrived  at  by  an  independent  course  of  investigation,  to  which  I  had 
been  led  by  the  Asiatic  synonymes  of  the  plant  which  is  supposed  in 
Syria  to  be  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  I  conceive  them  worthy. 
of  presentation  to  the  Society  as  tending  to  confirm  those  of  other 
inquirers. 

On  mentioning  this  subject  casually  to  Mr.  Bennett,  of  the  British 
Museum,  and  Secretary  to  the  Linnsan  Society,  he  was  good  enough 
immediately  to  seek  out  the  information,  and  favor  me  with  the  accom- 
panying remarks,  which  were  read  at  the  Meeting  of  the  Asiatic 
Society,  on  the  20th  of  April : — 

"  I  find  that  both  Don  and  Lambert  have  published  notes  on  the 
Mustard  Tree,  suggested  by  the  communications  of  Captains  Irby  and 
Mangles;  but  that  both  (instead  of  adopting)  object  to  the  inference  of 
those  travellers,  that  the  tree  observed  by  them  was  the  Mustard  Tree 
of  Scripture,  at  the  same  time  that  they  positively  identify  the  Cap- 
tains' tree  with  Salvadora  persicay  L. 

''Dons  observations  are  in  Jamesons  Edinburgh  New  Philoso- 
phical Journal,  vol.  ii.,  p.  306.  After  quoting  the  passage  from  Irby 
and  Mangles,  he  says,  'On  reading  this  passage,  both  Mr.  Lambert 

.,t  zed  by  Google 


134  ON    THE    MUSTARD    TREE 

and  myself  felt  interested  in  ascertaining  what  tlie  tree  might  be^  and 
at  first  we  were  inclined  to  suppose  it  was  a  species  of  Phytolacca,  with 
which  genos  the  habit  of  the  plant,  as  far  as  could  be  learnt  from  the 
aboye  description,  pretty  well  accords;  but  the  examination  of  an 
authentic  sample  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Bankes  [Mr.  William 
Bankes,  who  was  in  Palestine  at  the  same  time  with  Irby  and  Man- 
gles], has  proved  the  supposition  was  unfounded,  and  that  the  tree  is 
Salvadora  pertica  of  Linnaeus,  the  Bmbelia  grotndaria  of  Retzins, 
and  the  Cisnu  arhorea  of  Forskal.'  Don  then  quotes  Roxburgh's 
description  of  Salvadora  for  the  sake  of  comparison,  and  speaks  of  it 
as  '  found  in  Arabia^  Syria,  Persia,  and  India,  between  the  parallels  of 
18°  and  dl''  N.  latitude.'  He  goes  on  to  say,  'I  am  far  from  as- 
suming this  tree  to  be  identical  with  the  apocryphal  Mustard  Plant 
of  the  sacred  Scriptures :  indeed,  the  whole  passage  in  the  Gospel  by 
St.  Matthew  appears  to  militate  against  such  an  opinion,  and  it 
would  appear  that  some  conmion  agricultural  herb  of  large  growth 
had  been  intended  by  our  Saviour  in  the  parable;  but  whether  the 
plant  belongs  to  the  same  family  with  Sinapit  of  Linnseus,  and  for 
what  purposes  it  was  cultivated,  are  questions  rendered  quite  problema- 
tical at  this  distant  date.  We  are  pretty  certain,  however,  that  it 
cannot  be  a  Phytolacca;  for  it  does  not  appear  that  any  real  species  of 
that  genus  has  been  observed  in  Palestine.*  He  believes  Phytolacca 
Asiatica  of  LinnsBUS,  in  the  list  of  Hasselquist's  plants,  forming  the 
'  Flora  Palasstina^*  Q Phytolacca  foliu  ierratW  of  the  first  edition  of  the 
'Species  Plantarum,)  to  be  probably  intended  for  Salvadora  pernca, 
'with  which  Linnaeus  does  not  appear  to  have  been  ever  well  ac- 
quainted.' 

"Lambert's  'Note  on  the  Mustard  Plant  of  the  Scriptures,'  is  in 
Linnsean  Transactions,  vol.  xvii.,  p.  449.  He  believes  the  plant  to  be 
literally  Sinapis  nigra;  and  relies  for  confirmation  of  this  on  the  state- 
ment of  Captain  Irby  and  Mangles  of  the  large  size  to  which  that 
plant  sometimes  attains  in  the  Holy  Land.  The  following  is  hid 
reference  to  Salvadora :  '  What  Mr.  Frost  says  about  Phytolacca  he 
took  from  some  conversation  he  heard  in  my  library,  not  relating  to 
the  mustard  seed  of  Scripture,  but  to  a  plant  mentioned  by  Captains 
Irby  and  Mangles,  of  which  they  brought  me  a  specimen,  and  which 
proved  to  be  Salvadora  persica,  found  by  them  growing  in  a  hot  valley 
of  the  Holy  Land.'" 

Mr.  Bennett  also  called  my  attention  to  Lady  Calcott,  having  in 
her  work,  entitled  Scripture  Herbal,  referred  to  the  above  information 
obtained  from  Captains  Irby  and  Mangles.  This  I  had  overlooked, 
from  Sinapis  nigra,  or  the  common  black  mustard,  being  the  plant 
elected  for  illustration  by  her  Ladyship.  ^  j 

Digitized  by  VaOOQlC 


OF    SCRIPTURE.  135 

It  has  therefore  been  ascertained  beyond  doubt  that  the  Salvadora 
persica  is  found  in  Palestine^  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Dead  Sea; 
and  I  thinks  considering  the  wide  distribution  of  the  plant,  we  may  be 
allowed  to  conclude  that  the  same  plant  is  found  on  the  shores  of  the 
Lake  of  Tiberias,  and  that  it  is  there  called  khardcU,  or  mustard.  To 
some,  the  evidence  by  which  it  has  been  concluded  that  this  is  the  tree 
alluded  to  in  the  parable  of  the  Mustard  Tree  may  not  appear  satis- 
£Eu;toiy;  and  they  may  think,  aa  Mr.  Lambert,  that  the  common 
mustard  plant  is  suitable  to  all  that  is  required,  especially  as  it  is  her- 
baceous as  stated  in  the  first  part  of  the  parable ;  has  a  small  seed, 
and  was  probably  cultivated  in  gardens.  But  this  mustard  seed  is  far 
from  being  the  smallest  of  seeds,  for  even  in  Syria  we  have  trees,  as 
the  poplar  and  willow,  with  small  seeds ;  but  still,  speaking  generally, 
mustard  seed  is  small,' as  is  also  that  of  the  kkardal,  or  Salvadora 
pernea,  for  anything  that  grows  into  a  tree,  and  that,  the  parable 
seems  to  me  to  require.  Mr.  Don,  though  not  satisfied  with  this,  is  as 
little  so,  with  the  conmion  mustard;  and  fEuicies  that  some  unknown 
agricultural  plant  of  large  growth  was  intended,  but  which  it  would 
now  be  difficult  to  discover.  But  to  me  there  appears  nothing  impro- 
bable in  the  Salvadora  pernca  itself  having  been  so  cultivated,  and  its 
herbaceous  parts  employed,  as  well  as  its  seed,  as  a  condiment.  In 
fact,  we  might  infer  that  it  was  so,  for  Rosenmiiller  mentions  that  a 
plant  which  he  supposes  was  the  common  mustard,  was  at  least  by  the 
later  Hebrews  cultivated  as  a  garden  plant.  This  is  evident  from  the 
fact,  that  in  the  Talmud  (Massroth,  cap.  it.,  §  6,)  its  buds  are  men- 
tioned amongst  things  which  are  subject  to  tithe.  From  this  he  infers 
that  it  was  cultivated,  because  according  to  the  general  rule  esta- 
blished in  the  Talmud  (Massroth,  cap.  i.,  §  1)  everything  eatable,  and 
which  is  taken  care  of,  cultivated,  and  nursed  (in  gardens,  or  in 
ploughed  fields),  and  which  has  its  growth  from  the  earth,  is  subject  to 
tithe.  If  we  were  to  take  the  foregoing  passage  literally,  it  would  of 
itself  be  sufficient  to  prove,  that  the  common  mustard  plant  was  not 
that  alluded  to,  because  herbaceous  plants  are  without  regular  buds; 
and  they  are  moreover  not  grown  to  a  great  size  at  the  season  when 
birds  build  their  nests. 

We  may  briefly,  therefore,  sum  up  the  result  of  our  inquiries. 
Our  Saviour  in  the  parable  adduces  a  plant  having  a  small  seed, 
which  being  sown  we  may  suppose  in  a  suitable  soil,  grows  up  into  a 
tree,  or,  as  the  Apostle  Luke  says,  a  great  tree,  in  the  branches  of 
which  the  fowls  of  the  air  take  shelter  or  build  their  nests.  This  tree 
is  mentioned  in  the  New  Testament  by  the  Greek  name  Sinape,  or 
mustard,  and  we  may  infer  that  it  was  spoken  of  by  the  Hebrew  or 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


136  ON    THE    MUSTARD   TREE 

Sjnac  name  of  mustard,  which,  as  in  the  Arabic,  is  ehardul,  or  lAar- 
dalK  Whateyer  the  plant  may  be,  we  are  justified  in  conclading  liiat 
it  possessed  the  properties  of  mustard,  from  the  same  name  being 
applied  to  it.  The  Arabs,  we  have  seen,  enumerate  several  kinds  of 
Idiardal  or  mustard;  that  is,  the  common,  the  wild,  and  the  Persian 
kinds;  and  it  has  been  shown  that  the  ancients  were  in  the  habit  of 
grouping  things  together,  rather  by  their  intrinsic  properties  than  their 
external  characters. 

Haying  learnt  that  the  tree  which  in  Palestine  is  at  the  present 
day  recognised  as  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture  is  there  called  khar" 
daly  I  was  led  to  conclude  that  this  was  Salvadara  pernea  before  eyen 
I  could  proye  that  this  tree  had  ever  been  found  in  Syria.  It  is  a 
curious  and  interesting  fact,  and  one  which  we  cannot  consider  acci- 
dental, that  in  so  remote  a  countiy  as  the  North- West  of  India,  the 
name  kharjal  should  be  applied  to  the  same  tree  as  khardal  is  in  Syria. 
This  proves  the  impossibility  of  collusion,  or  the  recent  application  of 
the  latter  name  to  a  plant  of  Palestine,  merely  to  meet  the  exigencies 
of  the  case,  as  has  been  done  in  some  cases  by  unscrupulous  monks, 
who  usually  calculate  on  the  credulity  of  their  hearers  being  in  pro- 
portion to  their  own  ignorance.  Subsequently  I  leamt  that  Captains 
Irby  and  Mangles  had  found  a  tree  near  the  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea» 
which  I  concluded  from  their  short  description  must  be  Salvadora  per- 
siea.  This  I  afterwards  ascertained  had  already  been  determined  by 
Messrs.  Don  and  Lambert,  from  examination  of  specimens  brought 
from  the  very  locality  by  Mr.  W.  Bankes,  and  we  find  that  it  is  a  tree 
known  both  in  Persia  and  Arabia,  in  India  and  Abyssinia,  for  its 
gratefuUy  aromatic  and  pungent  seeds,  which  we  find  employed  at  the 
present  day  in  Syria  for  the  ordinaiy  purposes  of  mustard,  and  which 
we  are  therefore  justified  in  concluding  is  the  chardal  tree  alluded  to 
by  Talmudical  writers. 

In  conclusion,  it  appears  to  me,  that  taking  eyeiything  into  consi- 
deration, Salyadora  persica  appears  better  calculated  than  any  other 
tree  that  has  yet  been  adduced  to  answer  to  eyerything  that  is 
required,  especially  if  we  take  into  account  its  name  and  the  opinions 
held  respecting  it  in  Syria.  We  have  in  it  a  small  seed,  which,  sown 
in  cultivated  ground,  grows  up  and  abounds  in  foliage.     This  being 

'  Mr.  Norris,  ABUstont  Seeretary  of  the  Royal  Aaiatio  Society,  has  iavoured 
me  with  the  following  note:— *'I  have  looked  at  the  old  Syriao  Tenion  of  Uw 

paaeages  where  the  mostard  tree  is  named,  and  find  the  word  P>fM  khardalj, 

also  to  lue  the  nme  woi 
ant." 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


The  same  is  in  the  Chaldee.    The  modem  Jews  appear  also  to  use  the  same  word, 
tor  I  find  it  in  the  Hebrew  yersion  of  the  New  Testament.** 


OF   SCRIPTURE.  137 

pungent^  may,  like  the  seeds,  hare  been  used  as  a  condiment,  as  mus- 
tard and  cress  is  with  us.  The  nature  of  the  plant,  however,  is  to 
become  arboreous,  and  thus  it  will  form  a  large  shrub,  or  a  tree^ 
twenty-five  feet  high,  under  which  a  horseman  may  stand,  when  the 
soil  and  climate  are  favourable.  It  produces  numerous  branches  and 
leaves,  among  which  birds  may  and  do  take  shelter,  as  weU  as  build 
their  nests.  It  has  a  name  in  Syria  which  may  be  considered  as 
traditional  from  the  earliest  times,  of  which  the  Greek  is  a  correct 
translation.  Its  seeds  have  the  pungent  taste,  and  are  used  for  the 
same  purposes,  as  mustard.  And  in  a  country  where  trees  are  not 
plentiful,  that  is,  the  shores  of  the  Lake  of  Tiberias,  this  tree  is  said  to 
abound,  that  is,  in  the  very  locality  where  the  parable  was  spoken. 
If  we  consider,  moreover,  the  wide  distribution  of  this  plant,  from 
Damascus  to  Cape  Comorin,  and  from  the  Persian  Gulf  to  Sene- 
gambia,  we  still  find  that  it  is  well  suited  to  illustrate  the  typical  com- 
parison of  the  doctrines  of  the  Grospel,  which  though  at  first  gaining 
only  a  few  adherents,  would  in  the  end  spread  far  and  wide. 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


138 


Art.  VII. — Summary  of  the  Geology  of  Southern  India.  By 
Captain  Newbold,  F.R.S.,  &c.,  Assistant  Commissioner  for 
Kurnool, 

[Read  June  15,  1844.J 


PRELIMINARY  PHYSICAL  SKETCH. 

A.REA  AND  Geographical  Position. 

The  area,  the  geological  features  of  which  it  is  purposed  to  attempt 
a  description  of,  so  far  as  known,  comprises  peninsular  India  from 
Bombay  on  the  west,  and  Granjam  on  the  east  coast,  to  Cape  Comorin^ 
lying  between  the  8th  and  20th  degrees  of  north  latitude.  Its 
northern  limit  is  skirted  by  the  Sub-Vindhyan  ranges,  and  the  plains 
of  Central  India ;  while  the  remaining  sides  are  washed  by  the  ocean, 
and  lie  within  the  72nd  and  86th  degrees  of  east  longitude. 

General  Physical  Features. 

The  prominent  physical  features  of  this  extensive  tract  have  origi- 
nated in  the  elevation  of  two  mountainous  ranges,  marking  irregularly 
the  coast  lines,  and  termed  the  Eastern  and  Western  Ghauts ;  which 
support  on  their  Atlantean  shoulders,  and  inclose  as  in  a  massive 
framework,  the  intermediate  table  lands,  at  an  altitude  varying  from 
500  to  3000  feet  above  the  sea's  level. 

From  the  basis  of  both  these  chains  tracts  of  low  land,  with  irregu- 
lar and  offcen  abrupt  elevations,  varying  from  a  mile  to  seventy  in 
breadth,  extend  to  the  sea,  and  have  been  expressively  styled  by 
Mahommedan  writers  Payeen  Ghaut,  or  land  at  the  feet  of  the  Ghauts, 
in  contradistinction  to  the  table  lands,  which  they  name  Bala  Ghaut, 
or  land  above  the  Ghauts. 

Western  Ghauts. 

The  elevation  of  the  Western  Ghauts  commences  in  Khandesh, 
where  it  meets  that  of  the  Vindhya  beyond  the  limits  of  the  area 
under  description ;  thence,  pursuing  a  nearly  south-by-east  direction, 
interrupted  by  the  singular  gap  of  Paulghautcherry,  it  terminates  a 
little  above  Cape  Comorin,  near  the  Amboli  Pass,  in  a  bluff  granite 
peak  about  2000  feet  high.     A  low  broken  range  extends  from  its 


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GEOLOGY   OF   80UTHVRN    INDIA.  139 

base  to  the  southern  extreme  of  the  peninsula.  The  extreme  ascer- 
tained elevation  of  the  Western  Ghauts  ahove  the  sea  occurs  in  the 
Nilgherrys, — a  little  above  the  gap  of  Paulghautcherry, — 8760  feet. 
Towards  the  north  they  rise,  in  the  Mahabuleshwar  hills,  to  the  alti- 
tude of  about  5000  feet.  The  most  striking  feature  in  this  great  dis- 
location is  the  comparatively  precipitous  fa9ade  presented  by  its  sea, 
or  western  side.  To  the  east,  or  inland,  it  usually  slopes  away  grar 
dually,  to  the  general  level  of  the  table  lands. 

Along  part  of  the  base  of  the  western  flank  gushes  a  line  of  thermal 
springs,  which  have  been  traced  from  the  north  of  Bombay  southerly 
to  Rajapore,  and  probably  extend  still  further  south,  concealed  in  the 
forests  that  clothe  the  feet  of  the  mountains.  I  have  found  springs  of 
a  thermal  character  at  the  western  base  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  with  a 
temperature  from  88°  to  89°  Fahrenheit. 

Eastern  Ghauts. 

The  Eastern  Ghauts  are  supposed  to  rise  in  the  vicinity  of  Balasorc, 
in  lat.  21°  SO'  N. ;  and,  passing  a  little  to  the  west  of  Granjam,  pursue 
a  southerly  course  to  Naggery,  where  they  appear  to  terminate  in  the 
bluff  height  called  Naggery  Nose,  about  fifty-six  miles  north-west 
from  Madras.  Their  course  is  here  broken  apparently  by  another 
line  of  elevation,  which,  sweeping  irregularly  inland,  crosses  the 
peninsula  in  a  south-westerly  direction  by  Ghittoor,  Sautghur,  and 
Salem,  and  joins  the  Western  Ghauts  north  of  the  gap  of  Paulghaut- 
cherry. The  southerly  direction  of  the  first-mentioned  elevation  line 
is  marked  at  intervals  along  the  Coromandel  coast  by  outliers  and 
detached  hills,  and  reappears  in  the  almost  contiguous  island  of  Ceylon 
88  a  continuous  mountain  range.  There  is  little  doubt  from  this  and 
other  geological  reasons,  that  Ceylon  was  raised  above  the  ocean  by 
forces  similar  to,  and  contemporaneous  with,  those  that  elevated  the 
peninsnla. 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  that,  while  the  steeper  declivities  of  the 
Western  Ghauts  face  generally  towards  the  sea,  those  of  this  cross 
range,  or  rather  break  in  the  continuity  of  the  elevation,  have  usually 
a  southerly  aspect. 

Below,  or  south  of  this  great  break,  which  I  shall  call  that  of 
Salem,  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  as  just  stated,  lose  the  character  of  a  chain, 
and  reappear  at  intervals  in  detached  hills,  groups,  and  clusters,  while 
the  general  level  of  the  peninsula  ceases  to  be  sustained  as  a  continu- 
ous table  land.  Some  of  these  clusters  rises  to  a  considerable  altitude : 
the  Pulney  Hills  attain  an  elevation  above  the  sea's  surface  of  between 
6000  and  7000  feet;  isolated  patches  of  table  land  not  unfrequently 

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140  SUMMARY    OF    THE    GEOLOGY 

occur  on  their  summits.  The  average  elevation  of  the  Western 
Ghauts  may  he  roughly  stated  at  4000  feet,  and  that  of  the  Eastern  at 
1500  feet. 

Geographically  speaking,  these  great  chains  are  separate  and  dis- 
tinct; but,  in  a  geological  point  of  view,  after  a  careful  and  extended 
examination  of  the  intervening  table  lands,  I  am  inclined,  until  further 
evidence  be  adduced,  to  regard  the  Western  Ghauts  south  of  Malwan, 
the  Eastern  Ghauts  and  their  table  lands,  as  part  of  one  magnificent 
elevation  of  plutonic  rocks,  by  a  succession  of  efforts,  during  a  period 
which  may  be  termed  plutonic,  breaking  up  the  hypogene  schists; 
and,  in  some  instances,  uplifting  aqueous  beds  of  a  more  recent  origin. 

The  true  general  direction  of  this  elevation  is  nearly  N.  5®  W- 
though  the  apparent  directions  of  the  lateral  chains  on  its  flanks  are^ 
SU9  we  have  noticed,  to  the  east  and  west  of  north  respectively. 

Physical  Aspect  op  Table  Lands  op  Southern  India. 

The  surface  of  the  table  lands  between  these  chains,  extending 
from  the  Salem  break  on  the  south,  and  comprising  the  elevated  plains 
of  Mysore,  the  Ceded  Districts,  the  South  Mahratta  and  Hydrabad 
countries,  and  the  Dekhan,  ably  described  by  Colonel  Sykes,  though 
usually  presenting  vast  plains,  which  to  the  eye  often  appear  perfectly 
horizontal,  has  a  general  inclination  easterly  by  south  towards  the 
Bay  of  Bengal,  into  which  the  principal  rivers  empty  'themselves. 
This  gentle  inclination,  often  assbted  by  cross  lines  of  elevation, 
determines  the  great  drainage  lines  of  the  country,  throughout  our 
area,  eajst  of  the  Western  Ghauts,  and  beyond  it  to  the  northerly 
slopes  of  the  Vindhya,  whence  another  system  of  elevation  and  drain- 
age commences.  Every  traveller,  who  has  ascended  the  Ghauts,  is 
struck  by  the  singular  appearance,  in  plutonic  areas,  of  detached  hills, 
and  clusters  of  hills,  starting  up  abruptly  from  the  surface  of  the  flat 
plains  spread  before  him,  with  little  or  no  tali,  presenting  a  coup  cTceil 
which  has  caused  the  not  inapt  comparison  of  a  table  with  tearcups 
here  and  there  reversed  on  its  surface.  These  hills  are  usually  naked 
masses  of  gneiss  or  granite,  and  seldom  rise  above  500  feet  from  the 
level  of  the  plain.  Some  few  exceed  1200,  and  the  highest  not  1800 
feet;  many  have  been  selected  by  the  natives  as  the  sites  of  the 
Droogs  or  hill-forts  so  celebrated  in  the  annals  of  Southern  India. 

The  mean  elevation  of  the  table  land  around  Bangalore  and  Nnn-^ 
didroog  above  the  sea  is  3000  feet.  Northerly  towards  Hydrabad  it 
sinks  to  1800  feet;  and  a  little  south  of  Bangalore  it  falls,  by  rather 
abrupt  steps,  to  the  level  of  the  plains  of  Salem  and  Coimbatore,  (viz. 
1400  feet,)  whence,  to  Cape  Comorin,  the  mean  height  of  the  country 

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OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  141 

is  about  400  feet.  The  ayerage  height  of  the  low  country  between  the 
Ghauts  and  the  sea^  on  both  the  coasts  of  Coromandel  and  Malabar, 
may  be  roughly  estimated  at  200  feet,  rising  at  the  base  of  the  moun- 
tains to  800  feet.  Nothing  can  be  more  contrasted  than  the  aspect  of 
these  coast  tracts:  while  the  former  presents  an  open  and  compa- 
ratively bare,  sandy  plain,  gently  rising  towards  the  interior,  the  mo- 
notony of  which  is  diversified  by  a  few  detached  hilly  clusters,  palm, 
cocoa-nut  trees^  and  topes,  planted  by  the  hands  of  man ;  the  latter 
is  broken  ap  by  a  succession  of  low  irregular  hilly  spurs,  separated  by 
narrow  marshy  flats,  covered  with  eternal  forest,  and  often  descending 
to  the  sea  in  precipitous  cliffs. 

Through  these  flats  and  ravines  a  number  of  mountain  torrents 
stream,  in  the  monsoon,  from  the  Ghauts'  steep  sides;  and,  after  a 
short  but  rapid  course,  rarely  exceeding  fifty  miles,  fall  into  the  sea. 
North  of  Malwan,  owing  to  the  different  geological  character  of  the 
eounj^iy,  the  physical  aspect  of  the  Western  Coast  undergoes  a  con- 
siderable change,  being  less  clothed  with  forest,  and  its  lowlands 
generally  not  so  much  elevated  above  the  sea.  According  to  Colonel 
Sykes*  this  part  of  the  coast  to  Bombay,  which  is  usually  called  the 
Konkan,  presents  a  long  strip  of  land  from  thirty  to  fifty  miles  in 
breadth  lying  between  the  Ghauts  and  the  sea ;  the  mean  elevation  of 
this  strip  is  less  than  100  feet;  but  it  is  bristled  with  isolated  hills,  or 
short  ranges,  some  of  which  attain  an  elevation  equalling  that  of  the 
Ghauts.  Numerous  shoulders  or  salient  angles  are  thrown  out  from 
the  Ghauts  on  the  Western  or  Konkan  side,  and  by  means  of  these 
the  ascent  to  Dekhan  is  effected;  with  what  difficulty,  will  be  under- 
stood when  1  state  that  the  military  road  of  communication  between 
Bombay  and  Poena  up  the  Bou  ghat  rises  nearly  600  feet  in  a  mile. 

RrvERS. 

The  large  rivers  of  Southern  India  within  our  area,  viz.,  the  Goda- 
very,  Kistna,  Toombuddra,  Cauvery,  and  Pennaur,  flow  from  the  eastern 
dopes  of  the  Western  Ghauts,  and,  crossing  the  peninsula  in  an  east- 
by-southerly  direction,  escape  through  singular  fissures  in  the  Eastern 
Ghauts  to  the  plains  of  Coromandel,  and  the  Bay  of  Bengal.  The 
Oodavery  passes  through  the  break  of  Papcondah;  the  Kistna  and 
Toombuddra  through  that  of  Beywarah,  and  the  Pennaur  through 
those  of  Ganjicotta  and  Sidhout.  The  Cauvery  alone,  having  de- 
scended from  the  table  land  southerly  by  the  Salem  break,   turns 

1  Geology  of  the  Dekhan,  TransactioDB  Geological  Society,  Second  Series^ 
vol.  ir.,  pp.  409—432. 


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142  SUMMARY    OP   THE    GEOLOGY 

easterly  and  falls  into  the  sea  below  the  soathern  tennination  of  the 
Eastern  Ghauts  as  a  continuons  chain.  The  Paniani^  and  the  moun- 
tain streams  that  rise  west  of  the  anticlinal  ridge,  or  watershed  of  the 
Western  Grhauts,  run  westerly  into  the  Indian  Ocean.  These  fissures, 
and  cross  valleys,  run  nearly  at  right  angles  with  the  elevation  line, 
and  offer  striking  illustrations  of  the  correctness  of  Mr.  Hopkins's 
theory  of  the  origin  of  the  cross  valleys  of  the  Weald,  a  district,  part 
of  which  I  had  recent  opportunities  of  observing,  during  a  brief  visit 
to  Europe.  The  great  Himalaya  chain  appears  to  present  similar 
phenomena  on  a  scale  of  greater  magnitude. 

The  gap  of  Paulghautcheriy,  previously  mentioned,  is  evidently  a 
continuation  of  the  Salem  and  Nilgherry  break,  near  the  southern 
base  of  whose  lofty  precipices  it  opens  an  easy  commercial  road  of 
communication  between  the  interior  and  the  sea.  It  would  almost 
seem,  that  the  strata  of  crystalline  schists  had  been  here  broken 
asunder,  across  their  direction,  and  to  their  very  foundations,  by  the 
unusual  energy  evinced  by  the  upheaving  forces  in  the  neighbouring 
elevation  of  the  highest  peaks  of  the  Western  Ghaut  chain,  viz.,  those 
of  the  Nilgherries  and  Koondahs,  and  that  the  shattered  sides  of 
this  great  rift  had  been  swept  away,  and  its  aspect  modified,  by  the 
current  of  the  retiring  ocean,  above  whose  waves  the  granitic  and 
h3rpogene  summits  of  the  Ghauts  then  first  emerged. 

The  gap  is  from  sixteen  to  twenty  miles  broad,  narrowing  towards 
its  eastern  extremity,  the  surface  tolerably  flat ;  and  the  descent  froDi 
the  plains  of  Ooimbatore  and  Salem  to  the  Malabar  Coast,  so  gradual 
as  to  be  almost  imperceptible.  Its  height  about  the  centre,  roughly 
approximated  by  means  of  the  boiling  point  of  water,  I  found  to  be 
about  970  feet  above  the  sea's  level.  It  is  covered  with  a  reddish 
soil,  mostly  sandy,  imbedding  angular,  or  slightly  worn  fragments  of 
the  granitic  and  hypogene  rocks,  from  the  detritus  of  which  the  soil 
itself  is  evidently  the  result.  Bare  bosses  of  these  rocks,  in  many 
places,  protrude  from  the  soil.  The  rocks  on  both  sides  are  preci- 
pitous, greatly  modified  in  external  form  by  that  process  of  exfoliation 
and  splitting  into  cuboids,  to  which  granitic  rocks,  and  frequently  the 
crystalline  schists  in  contact,  are  subject. 

It  has  been  stated  as  a  well  known  fact  *,  that  ships  navigating  the 
Malabar  Coast  during  the  N.E.  monsoon  commonly  experience  a 
stronger  gale  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Paniani  (a  town  on  the  coast 
nearly  opposite  the  western  embouchure  of  the  pass)  than  elsewhere ; 
and  this  break  in  the  Ghauts  appears  to  be  the  cause  of  this  effect. 

^  Madna  Ahnanac,  1840. 

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OP   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  143 

During  the  S.W.  monsoon  it  exerts  a  considerable  influence  on  the 
climate  of  Coimbatore;  particularly  on  that  of  places  immediately 
east  of  it,  or  in  a  line  with  its  longitudinal  axis,  by  admitting,  as 
through  a  funnel,  and  concentrating  the  full  force  of  the  strong 
westerly  winds  on  the  tracts  within  its  focus.  Its  influence  on  climate 
in  this  respect  is  felt  even  farther  east  than  Trichinopoly.  At  places 
situate  centrically  like  Bellary  between  the  Ghauts,  the  force  of  the 
monsoons  is  bat  slightly  felt,  from  the  protection  afforded  by  these 
great  natural  barriers. 

The  influence  exerted  by  the  geological  features  of  the  regions  of 
India  not  only  over  the  climate,  but  over  the  commerce,  government,  the 
moral,  social,  and  physical  character  of  its  singular  and  widely  varying 
population,  is  in  itself  a  study  fraught  with  the  deepest  interest,  and 
affords  an  ample  and  rich  field,  hitherto  almost  untrodden,  to  the 
research  of  the  philosopher,  and  man  of  inquiry. 

It  may  not  be  irrelevant  to  remark,  in  order  to  show  more  clearly 
the  relative  geographical  position  (in  a  physical  sense)  of  the  tract 
under  description,  that  the  whole  of  the  vast  continent  of  India,  em- 
braced by  the  Ganges,  the  Indus,  and  the  Ocean,  may  be  classed  under 
four  great  physical  divisions,  independent  of  the  climatic  zones  of  alti- 
tude peculiar  to  each. 

The  first  is  that  of  Himdlaya,  and  its  subordinate  chains,  cha- 
racterized by  a  general  line  of  elevation  running  nearly  W.  26°  N., 
and  a  drainage  flowing  southerly  and  easterly  into  the  Bay  of  Bengal. 

The  second,  that  of  Yindhya,  or  Central  India,  with  its  low  plains 
traversed  by  the  Palamow  and  Vindhyan  ranges,  whose  general  direc- 
tion is  W.  5°  S.,  with  a  drainage  running  in  a  similar  direction  to  the 
Indian  Ocean.  This  system  of  elevation  serves  to  determine  the 
drainage  of  the  Himalaya  to  the  east,  and  that  of  the  plains  inter- 
vening between  its  own  constituent  ranges  to  the  west,  from  their 
otherwise  natural  southerly  course. 

The  third  is  that  of  the  Ghavis,  or  Southern  India,  already  described, 
with  a  line  of  elevation  N.  5°  W.,  and  a  drainage  running  easterly 
and  southerly  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal. 

The  fourth  and  last  is  that  of  the  Indus,  flanking  those  of  ffimd- 
laya  and  Vindhya;  the  great  lines  of  drainage  run  S.  by  W.  into 
the  Indian  Ocean,  from  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Hindoo  Kosh, 
whose  coune  appears  to  be  westerly  \ 

1  A  fifth  might  be  added,  viz.,  that  of  MMya,  or  Ultra-Gangetic  India,  com- 
priaiiig  the  Malacca  peninsula,  part  of  Siam,  and  Birma.  This  immense  line  of 
eleration,  extending  from  the  foot  of  the  Himalaya  syBiem  to  the  verge  of  the 
Equator,  has  a  direction  almost  parallel  to  that  of  Southern  India,  with  which  it 


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144  SUMMARY    OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

The  above  classification  is  susceptible  of  a  number  of  subdi- 
visions; many  exceptions  exist,  chiefly  arising  from  local  physical 
causes,  but  i^e  limits  of  this  paper  will  not  admit  of  my  noticing 
them  here. 

I  shall  now  proceed  to  attempt  a  sketch  of  the  geology  of  Southern 
India,  as  fisur  as  hitherto  known,  commencing  with  the  inferior  stra- 
tified, or  hypogene  rocks,  following  the  ascending  order.  The  plutonio 
and  trappean  rocks  I  have  found  it  convenient  to  describe  in  the 
concluding  portion  of  this  paper. 


SUMMARY.     PART   I. 


The  geology  of  Southern  India  will  probably  have  little  interest  to 
the  mere  studier  of  organic  remains,  from  the  extremely  limited  extent 
of  its  known  fossiliferous  strata;  yet  the  bare  extensive  surfaces  of  the 
granitic,  trappean,  and  hypogene  rocks,  afford,  on  a  grand  scale, 
exposes,  not  to  be  surpassed  in  any  other  portion  of  the  globe,  of  the 
protean  aspects  under  which  these  rocks  present  themselves.  The 
very  absence  of  those  fossiliferous  beds  which  so  thickly  encrust 
the  surface  of  a  great  portion  of  Europe,  and  many  other  parts  of  the 
world,  is  in  itself  a  subject  of  interesting  research ;  and  the  geological 
anatomist  of  the  earth's  skeleton  may,  in  the  peninsula  of  India, 
advantageously  study  a  huge  and  disjointed  mass  of  the  nether-formed 
rocks  which  constitute  the  framework  of  our  planet,  and  which  here 
present  themselves  almost  divestedof  integument,  weathering  under  the 
alternations  of  a  vertical  sun,  and  the  deluging  rains  of  the  tropics. 
Commencing  with  these  rocks,  I  shall  ascend  to  those  more  recently 
formed,  in  regular  succession. 

may  possibly  be  found  identical  (in  epoch.)  On  its  northern  portions  the  drainage 
is  determined  sontherly  by  the  great  westerly  elevation  of  the  Himdlaya;  and 
entering  the  longitudinal  valleys  of  the  MaUya  system  passes  southerly  along 
their  course  to  Uie  Indian  Ocean*  The  anticlinal  ridge  of  the  chain  that  runs 
down  the  interior  of  the  Malayan  peninsula  throws  off  its  drainage  to  the  east 
and  west  into  the  seas  of  China,  India,  and  the  Straits  of  Malacca.  The 
granitic  rocks  that  constitute  a  great  portion  of  this  ridge  are  remaricably  distin- 
guished, mineialogically,  from  those  of  Southern  India  by  their  highly  stanniferoua 
character. 


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Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


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OF    SOUTHBUN    INDIA.  145 


Hypoobne  Sbries. 


Extent. — Hjpogene  schists^  penetrated  and  broken  up  by  pro- 
digious outbursts  of  plutonic  and  trappean  rocks,  occupy  by  far  the 
greater  portion  of  the  superficies  of  Southern  India.  They  constitute 
the  great  bulk  of.  the  Western  Ghauts,  from  between  the  latitudes  of 
16^  and  17^  N.  to  Cape  Comorin;  and  from  the  base  of  the  Eajstem 
Ghauts,  from  beyond  the  north  limit  of  our  area^  to  their  deflection  at 
^s^ggeij)  Lftt.  N.  18^  20'.  They  are  partially  capped  and  fringed, 
in  the  Western  Ghauts,  by  laterite;  and  in  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  by 
sandstone,  limestone,. and  laterite. 

From  Naggery  to  Cape  Comorin,  they  form,  with  a  few  excep- 
tions to  be  adyerted  to  in  due  order,  the  basis  of  the  plains  of  the 
Camatic,  Arcot,  the  Valley  of  Seringapatam,  Salem,  Trichinopoly, 
Coimbatore,  Tanjore,  Madura,  Tinnevelly,  and  Travancorej  and, 
intimately  associated  with  granite,  the  principal  hills  and  ranges  on 
the  low  lands  south  of  the  Salem  break  and  valley  of  the  Cauvery, 
North  of  this  valley,  and  above  the  break,  they  form  the  basis  of  the 
table  lands  of  Mysore,  the  Baramahal,  Bellary  district,  part  of  Hy- 
drabad,  and  the  Southern  Mahratta  country;  and  present  a  ground- 
work on  which  will  be  sketched  out,  as  accurately  as  the  present 
imperfect  state  of  information  will  permit,  the  circumscribed  areas 
occupied  by  more  recent  aqueous  strata.  Toward  the  north-west  flank 
of  our  area,  almost  in  a  line  drawn  diagonally  across  the  peninsula 
from  Nagpore  by  Bijapore  to  the  western  coast,  the  hypogene  and 
plutonic  rocks  disappear,  emerging  only  occasionally,  under  one  of 
the  largest  continuous  sheets  of  trap  in  the  world,  and  which  extends 
far  beyond  our  limits  to  Central  India. 

Physical  aspect  of  Hypogeftie  area, — The  inequalities  and  undu- 
lations olfeerved  in  the  table  lands  and  plains  of  Southern  India, 
ihongh  originating  in  the  dislocations  and  flexures  of  the  metamorphic 
strata  at  the  periods  of  their  upheaval,  have  been  evidently  modified 
by  aqueous  erosion  and  by  the  faster  weathering  of  the  softer  mem- 
bers of  the  series, — such  as  mica  and  talcose  schists, — ^the  softer 
clay  slates  and  shales;  which  crumbling  and  washed  away,  have 
left  their  harder  brethren  standing  out  in  relief  on  the  face  of  the 
country. 

Where  we  see  gneiss,  hornblende  schist,  and  quartzite,  rising  in 
parallel  ridges  separated  by  valleys,  we  generally  find  the  valleys 
occupied  by  the  softer  members  of  the  series,  often  deeply  covered  with 
debris  from  the  ridges. 

VOL.  VIII.  .  L 

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146  SUMMARY    OF  ,THE    GEOLOGY 

The  following  section  was  taken  from  some  low  ridges  on  the 
table  land  of  Mysore  near  Chinrajrapatam. 


Hornblende  Gn^'.-c*. 


iifirlzitp, 


Where  gneiss  rises  above  the  general  level  of  the  surrounding  plain, 
its  elevations  may  be  distinguished  from  those  of  granite,  which  the 
hills  of  thick-bedded  varieties  of  gneiss  sometimes  assimilate,  by  their 
greater  continuity  and  uniformity  of  altitude;  their  tendency  to  a 
smooth  dome-shaped  outline,  and  greater  freedom  from  precipices  and 
disrupted  masses.  Near  lines  of  plutonic  disturbance,  however,  these 
distinguishing  marks  are  less  perceptible. 

Elevations  of  mica  and  talcose  schists  obtain,  generally,  a  less  alti- 
tude than  those  of  hornblende  or  gneiss;  and  have  a  more  round- 
backed  and  smoother  contour  on  the  whole;  yet  the  outline  in  detail 
is  jagged,  owing  partly  to  these  rocks  weathering  in  larger,  more 
angular,  or  less  concentric  fragments ;  often  leaving  abrupt  steps,  and 
small  precipices.  Hornblende  and  gneiss  are  seen  rising  in  the 
Western  Ghauts,  in  the  Nilgherries,  to  the  height  of  8000  feet  above 
the  sea's  level.  The  former  is  recognised  by  its  bold  sharp  ridges, 
often  precipitous,  but  rarely  presenting  conical  peaks. 

Hills  composed  entirely  of  actinolite,  or  chlorite,  schist  are  seldom 
met  with :  those  of  ^uartzite  have  long  crest-like  outlines,  often  run- 
ning smoothly  for  some  distance,  but  almost  invariably  breaking  up 
into  large,  angular  masses,  sometimes  cuboidal :  the  sides  of  the  crests 
are  usually  precipitous.  Hills  of  clay  slate  are  distinguished  by  a 
smooth,  wavy,  outline,  separated  by  gently  sloping  valleys.  Outliers, 
or  detached  hills,  of  this  rock  are  usually  mammiform.  But,  as  before 
remarked,  all  these  normal  crystalline  rocks,  when  near  lines  or  foci 
of  plutonic  disturbance,  frequently  undergo  great  changes  in  physio- 
gnomical aspect ;  and  in  lieu  of  the  smoothly  reunded  hills  of  clay 
slate,  and  its  gently  sloping  vales  smiling  with  fertility,  we  behold  it 
cleaved  into  sterile,  rugged  ravines,  and  rocky  precipices. 

Order  of  Stratificaii(m,^—QTLeiaB  is  usually  found  lowest  in  the 
series:  next  to  it  mica  and  hornblende  schist,  actinolite,  chlorite, 
talcose  and  argillaceous  schist,  and  crystalline  limestone,  in  due  suc- 

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OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  147 

ceesion;  bat  to  this  rale  there  are  numerous  exceptions  I  have 
observed  all  these  rocks,  except  crystalline  limestone,  resting  on 
granite  without  the  usually  intervening  gneiss.  Why  these  beds, 
termed  metamorphic  from  the  supposition  of  their  having  been  deposited 
horn  water,  and  crystallized  by  the  influence  of  plutonic  heat,  should 
not  have  all  been  similarly  altered  is  difficult  to  explain,  unless  it  is 
supposed  that  their  mineral  composition  differed  originally,  and  that 
various  degrees  and  durations  of  heat  will  produce  different  effects 
upon  the  crystallization  and  mineral  arrangement  of  the  mass  acted 
upon. 

Dip  and  Direction, — The  strata  are  often  violently  contorted,  or 
bent  in  waving  flexures,  particularly  in  the  vicinity  of  plutonic  rocks ; 
and  much  irregularity  occurs  in  the  amount  and  direction  of  dip 
throughout  the  hypogene  area.  In  the  Western  Ghauts  it  is  usually 
easterly,  and  at  angles  varying  from  10^  to  90°.  In  the  Udigherry 
portion  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts  and  in  the  plain  at  their  eastern 
base  I  found  the  dip  often  westerly,  and  varying  as  above  from 
10**  to  90*^. 

The  dip  in  the  plains  south  of  the  Salem  dislocation,  and  in  the 
gap  of  Paulghautcherry,  is  for  the  most  part  to  the  S.S.E.  at  angles 
from  30°  to  80°.  In  the  low  lands  at  the  west  base  of  the  Western 
Ghauts  at  Honawer,  it  was  easterly  at  an  angle  of  30°;  a  little 
further,  S.S.W.  At  the  summit  of  the  Ghauts  near  the  falls  of  Grair- 
sippa,  the  gneiss  dipped  at  an  angle  of  S5^  to  the  N.E. 

On  the  table  lands  the  dip  also  varies  much  in  intensity  and  direc- 
tion: among  the  Kupputgode  hiUs,  in  the  South  Mahratta  country, 
it  was  in  one  situation  quaquaversal ;  and  Benza  observed  the  horn- 
blende schists  at  the  east  and  west  bases  of  the  Nilgherries  dipping 
anticlinally  from  the  axis  of  elevation ;  but  they  do  not  always  dip 
from  the  plutonic  rocks — in  many  instances  the  dip  is  towards  them : 
a  fact)  indicating  that  the  strata  have  been  disturbed  at  some  previous 
period,  or  that  they  may  have  suffered  inversion ;  which  is  known  to 
be  the  case  in  beds  of  more  recent  origin.  While  the  dip  of  the  two 
great  lines  of  elevation,  viz.,  the  East  and  West  Ghauts,  is  gene- 
rally westerly,  and  easterly,  or  at  right  angles  with  the  direction  of 
the  strata,  that  of  the  minor  cross  ranges  is  usually  southerly.  Nu- 
merous irregularities  and  exceptions,  however,  to  this  general  rule 
occur,  particularly  near  the  northerly  and  southerly  great  synclinal 
line  of  dip  on  the  table  lands  between  the  Ea«tarn  and  Western  Ghauts, 
and  near  localities  where  it  is  traversed  by  the  cross  lines  of  elevation. 
The  intrusion  of  trap  dykes  has  also  caused  much  diversity  in  the 
dip.     These  irregularities  will  always  prove  obstacles  in  tracing  out 

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148 


SUMMARY   OF   TH£    GEOLOGY 


with  accuracy  the  synclinal  dip  line  between  the  Ea^Btern  and  Wesrtern 
Ghauts. 

Jomta  and  Cleavage. — The  jointed  structure  is  most  observable  in  the 
thick-bedded  variety  of  gneiss,  the  hornblende  schist,  andquartzite;  in 
the  two  latter  it  is  often  so  strong  as  to  deceive  some  observers,  who 
have  taken  the  joint  planes  for  the  lines  of  stratification,  which  they 
cross  usually  at  right  angles,  or  nearly  so.  The  planes  of  cleavage  are 
most  distinct  In  the  chlorite  and  clay  slates;  they  are  sometimes 
parallel  with  the  joints,  but  more  frequently  with  the  lines  of  strati- 
fication, which  are  often  remarkably  indistinct  in  the  clay  slates. 

Lithologic  Character, — Gneiss  and  hornblende  schist  are  by  far  the 
most  prevalent  rocks  of  the  series :  to  gneiss  the  other  members  may 
be  termed  subordinate.  Near  its  contact  with  the  granite  it  com- 
monly assumes  the  character  of,  what  has  been  styled  by  Bou6,  gra- 
nitoidal  gneiss,  losing  its  stratified  appearance,  and  not  to  be  distin- 
guished in  hand  specimens  from  granite.  Spherical  and  oval  masses 
of  granite,  resembling  boulders,  are  sometimes  observed  impacted  in , 
the  gneiss. 

The  following  is  a  sketch  of  one  of  these  bodies  imbedded  in  the 
gneiss  of  the  Western  Ghants,  in  the  Paulghautcherry  Pass  near^ 
Vaniencolam. 


These  have  certainly  more  the  appearance  of  imbedded  boulders  of 
granite,  than  the  concretions  we  see  in  the  sandstones  of  Europe: 
while  otheiH  again  assimilate  the  globular  forms  produced  by  heat  in 
regularly  sheeted  trap  rocks.  Veins  of  reddish  compact  felspar, 
felspar  .coloured  green  with  actinolite,  epidote  or  chlorite,  with,  and 
without,  quartz;  also  of  milky  quartz  with  nests  of  iron  ore,  mica 
and  hornblende,  are  very  common  in  gneiss:  also  dykes  and  veins  of, 
granite.  All  these  veins  are  of  older  date  than  the  intrusion  of  the 
greenstone  dykes  which  invariably  sever  them.  Particular  varieties 
of  gneiss  prevail  in  different  districts.  Protogenic  gneiss,  viz.,  gneiss 
where  tiie  mica  is  replaced  by  talc,  is  found  in  the  western  parts  of 

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OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  149 

Mysore j  albitio  gneiss,  in  tlie  Eastern  Ghauts  above  Beswiu^  Oar- 
nets  are  oniversally  distributed :  but  in  the  greatest  abundance  in  the 
gneiss  of.  the  Eastern  Ghauts.  The  gneiss  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts  is 
also  lithologicallj  distinguished  from  that  of  the  Western  Ghauts  by 
jts  less  auriferous  and  more  cupriferous  ch&racter,  and  by  its  assuming, 
}n  many  places  north  of  the  Kistna  to  Ghuijam,  so  arenaceous  a 
texture  and  colour  as  hardly  to  be  distinguished  from  sandstone  in 
hand  specimens;  and  where  capped  by  true  sandstone,  it  is  difficult 
to  say  where  the  gneiss  ends  or  the  sandstone  begins.  The  mica 
and  felspar  are  replaced  by  quartz  and  minute  garnets,  coloured  and 
loosely  agglutinated  by  peroxide  of  iron.  The  felspar  is  often  aggre- 
gated in  veins,  decomposing  into  a  white  clay.  It  is  a  fact  worth 
remarking,  that  the  gneiss  in  contact  with  granite  almost  invariably 
assimilates  the  latter  in  mineral  character. .  The  grand  characteristic 
of  these  rocks,  however,  on  the  Indian  peninsula  is  their  highly  ferri* 
ferous  nature,  which  remarkably  distinguishes  them  from  the  stanni- 
ferous hypogenic  and  granite  rocks  of  the  sister  peninsula  of  Malacca^ 
which  has  an  almost  parallel  direction  and  is  separated  only  by  the 
Bay  of  Bengal.  In  Southern  India  these  rocks  not  only  abound  in 
pests  and  veins  of  rich  magnetic  and  oxidulated  iron  ore,  but  in  thick 
interstratified  beds  and  mountain  masses  of  these  minerals,  while  not  a 
^rain  of  tin  ore  has  hitherto  been  discovered. . 

Mica  Schist. — Mica  schist  is  found  sparingly  distributed  over  the 
whole  of  the  hypogene  area  in  thin  beds.  It  is  found  in  the  greatest 
abundance  and  purity  in  the  western  parts  of  Mysore.  I  do  not 
remember  ever* having  seen  in  it  a  vein  of  granite,  though  abounding 
in  those  of  quartz.  Talcose,  chloritic,  and  actinolitic  schists  are  still 
more  sparingly  distributed :  the  first  is  seen  in  the  western  parts  of 
Mysore;  near  Salem,  in  the  valley  of  Gauvery;  and  in  the  Eastern 
Ghauts,  in  beds  of  some  thickness ;  as  also  chlorite  slate.  Fine  varieties 
of  actinolitic  schist  occur  in  the  Western  Ghauts  at  the  falls  of 
Pairsippa;  pear  Palliconda,  and  Suntghur  in  the  Gamatic;  and  it  is 
pretty  generally  distributed  in  thin  beds  over  the  Bellary  districts, 
Mysore,  and  in  the  western  and  southern  portions  of  the  Nizam's 
territories. 

Hornblende  Schist  ranks  next  to  gneiss  in  extent  and  thickness  of 
beds,  and  is  seen  washed  by  the  sea  at  the  bajses  of  the  Eastern  and 
Western  Ghauts,  forming  some  of  the  loftiest  peaks  of  the  latter,  and 
supporting  large  level  tracts  of  table  land.  This  rock  varies  from  the 
compact  structure  of  basalt  to  the  crystalline  texture  of  granite,  and 
to  that  of  porphyry,  and  may  be  seen  from  laminss  of  a  few  lines  in 
thickness,  passing  into  beds  forming  mountain  masses.     The  principal 


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150  •  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

eoiistitnent  minerals  of  this  roaik,  for  which  so  many  difieFBDt  names 
have  been  applied  by  geologists  according  to  the  preponderance  of  one 
4)r  the  other,  its  laminar,  or  thick-bedded  structure,  degree  of  crys^ 
tallization,  &e.,  are  hornblende  and  felspar.  Quartz,  garnet,  and 
mica  are  frequently  mixed.  Near  the  junction  with  granite  I  have 
observed,  m  some  situations,  the  hornblende  rock  appear  to  pass,  like 
gneiss,  into  granite  by  insensible  gradations:  the  change  in  this 
instance  is  the  more  striking,  as  the  hornblende  rock  not  only  loses 
its  bedded  structure,  but,  on  account  of  its  darker  colour,  the  change 
in  its  mineral  arrangement  is  more  perceptible  than  in  the  gneiss :  the 
hornblende  and  felspar  gradually  separating,  assume  the  granular  and 
crystalline  structure  of  granite,  the  resemblance  still  increased  by 
the  appearance  of  a  few  scales  of  mica.  The  granite,  in  its  turn, 
often  becomes  homblendic.  It  must  not  be  forgotten,  however,  that, 
in  most  instances,  when  these  rocks  come  in  contact,  the  line  of  de- 
marcation is  tolerably  distinct.  The  occasional  passage  of  this  rock 
into  granite  will  serve  to  distinguish  it  from  the  greenstone  of 
the  dykes  in  granite,  and  in  the  hypogene  strata,  with  which  it 
has  been  confounded;  the  latter  rock,  though  sometimes  slightly 
blended  at  the  contact,  I  have  never  witnessed  passing  insensibly  one 
into  the  other.  The  needle-striped  crystals  of  augite  observable  in 
the  basaltic  greenstone  of  the  dykes,  its  generally  more  compact  and 
homogeneous  structure,  and  greater  freedom  from  quartz  and  felspar 
in  a  separate  state,  may  serve  as  empiric  distinctions  between 
the  two. 

Large  beds  of  compact  felspar,  generally  of  a  pinkish  hue,  with  a 
little  quartz,  and  a  few  scales  of  mica,  quartzite, — the  Arkose  of 
Brongniart, — and  milk  quartz,  having  a  similar  direction  to  that  of 
gneiss,  &c.,  occur  forming  low  ranges  of  hills.  Interstratified  garnet 
rock  is  met  with  at  the  base  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  in  the  Nil- 
gherries,  and  at  Senklidroog  in  Salem. 

Hypogene  limestone  (marble)  is  of  such  rare  occurrence  as  to  have 
entirely  escaped  the  notice  of  most  geologists  who  have  written  on 
this  part  of  India.  Captain  Macpherson^  mentions  a  ''primary  lime- 
stone" laminated  by  argiUaceous  matter  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Nundigamah  near  Bezwarah,  in  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  but  was  unable  to 
ascertain  its  exact  situs.  Calder'  states  its  occurrence  in  the  Tinne- 
velly  district  near  Courtallum;  and  I  have  seen  it,  in  extremely  thin 
layers,  in  the  hornblende  schist  of  Dummul,  of  the  South  Mahratta 

1  Afiiatic  Researches,  Vol.  XVIII.,  Part  II.,  page  18. 
^  Ibid.,  Fart  II.,  page  8. 


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OF    SOUTHBRN    INDIA.  151 

oountiy,  and  in  that  of  the  Copper  Mountain  range  at  BeUary^  and 
a]ao  in  the  gamitic  gneiss  of  Senklidroog  and  Karpur  (Salem  district). 
The  deficiency  of  this  member  of  the  metamorphic  series,  so  largely 
dereloped  in  the  Alps,  is  almost  equally  remarkable  in  the  hypogene 
rocks  of  the  Grampians,  and  in  those  of  Norway  and  Sweden.  It 
exists,  doubtless,  in  Southern  India  in  more  localities  than  those  just 
specified,  but  in  such  paucity  as  forcibly  to  exemplify  the  truth  of 
Mr.  LyelFs  remark,  yiz.,  "  that  the  quantity  of  calcareous  matter  in 
metamorphic  strata,  or,  indeed,  in  the  hypogene  formations  generally, 
is  far  less  than  in  fossiliferous  deposits."  Why  this  should  be  so  has 
been  attempted  to  be  explained  by  the  theory  of  the  non-existence  of 
those  mollusca  and  zoophytes  by  which  shells  and  corals  are  secreted, 
at  the  period  when  the  hypogene  rocks  were  deposited.  Others, 
again,  are  of  opinion,  that  when  these  strata  were  broken  up  by  the 
grand  outbreak  of  plutonic  rocks,  the  same  heat  which  imparted  to 
them  their  present  highly  crystalline  texture,  expelled  from  them  the 
lime  and  carbonic  acid.  Neither  of  these  theories,  taken  indiyidually, 
appears  to  be  satisfactory.  It  seems  more  reasonable  to  suppose  that, 
during  the  earliest  phases  of  the  history  of  our  planet,  when  the 
hypogene  rooks  were  deposited,  lime  was  far  less  abundant  on  its 
suriaoe  than  at  present  j  for  although  it  has  not  been  proved  that 
lime^ecreting  molluscs  and  zoophytes  did  not  exist  in  the  ancient 
waters  from  which  the  metamorphic  schists  were  deposited,  yet  it 
seems  proved,  from  their  scarcity  in  the  lower  rocks,  that  they  must 
have  existed  in  fiur  less  numbers  than  at  subsequent  periods. 

The  other,  and  principal  source  from  which  the  lime  on  the  earth's 
crust  has  been  derived,  is  springs  of  water  charged  with  carbonate  of 
lime  brought  up  from  beneath  its  surface.  If  we  assume  that  the 
greatest  quantity  of  lime  is  brought  up  from  calcareous  rocks  in  the 
interior  of  the  earth,  when  fiised  or  heated,  during  periods  of  plutonio 
activity,  as  would  seem  to  be  the  case  by  springs  of  water  charged 
with  this  mineral  abounding  in  volcanic  districts,  it  will  be  readily 
admitted,  that  but  little  lime  was  deposited  during  the  period  of  repose 
in  which  the  hypogene  strata  were  accumulating  under  the  ocean; 
and  that  a  large  development  of  it  took  place,  when  by  hx  the 
greater  bulk  of  these  beds  were  broken  up  and  uplifted.  At  all 
events,  there  can  be  no  question  that  the  deposit  of  lime  brought 
up  from  the  earth's  interior  by  springs,  many  still  in  operation, 
must  be  greater  now,  than  when  it  commenced  at  a  remote  geological 
era. 

Clay-slate, — Clay-slate  does  not  occupy  a  large  surface  of  the 
hypogene  area.     Its  principal  localities  are  in  the  Nellore  and  Gun- 

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152  SUMMARY    OF, THE    GEOLOGY 

toor  copper  district;  aronnd  Darwar;  in  the  Ceded  Districts,  near  Bel-* 
larj  and  Sondoor;  in  the  south-west  portions  of  the  Nizam's  country, 
at  Idlapur  and  Cundagal.  It  is  generally  associated  in  conformable 
strata  with  beds  of  chlorite  and  hornblende  schists,  also  of  quartzite 
and  siliceous  schists.  Blue  roofing  slate  is  rare.  The  siliceous  schists 
of  Sondoor,  Darwar,  Ceded  Districts,  &c.,  often  pass  into  a  striped 
jsusper,  and  may  be  classed  under  M'Culloch's  second  diyision  of 
schist,  viz. ; — 

"  F.  Laminar,  with  alternate  colours,  and  forming  some  varieties 
of  the  striped  jasper  of  mineralogists.  The  colours  are  commonly 
shades  of  red,  brown,  yellow,  and  purplish  black,  and  these  kinds 
appear  to  be  derived  from  the  coloured  shales. 

''  G.  Containing  imbedded  crystals  of  quartz,  and  of  a  porphyritio 
aspect." 

This  rock  is  usually  seen  cresting  hills  of  chlorite,  hornblende,  or 
clay-slate,  regularly  interstratified.  At  other  times  the  stratification 
is  obscure ;  the  structure,  usually  laminar,  sometimes  puts  on  the 
aspect  of  a  breccia  that  hajs  the  appearance  of  the  laminar  variety 
having  been  broken  up,  and  re-cemented  in  situ  by  a  dark  brown 
ferruginous  paste.  The  rock  is  often  highly  ferruginous,  and  composed 
of  alternate  layers  of  magnetic  iron  ore  with  polarity,  and  grey,  or 
brownish-grey  chert.  Basanite  occurs  associated  with  the  horn- 
blende, chlorite,  and  day-slates. 

It  would  be  endless  here  to  enumerate  the  various  aspects  under 
which  the  Jiypogene  rocks  present  themselves  dependent  on  mineralo* 
gical  differences.  The  numerous  divisions  into  which  M'Culloch  has 
petrologicaJly  classed  them  may  be  all  observed  in  an  area  of  a  few 
miles'  extent  Their  mineral  character  has,  however,  been  minutely 
described  in  my  more  detailed  geological  notes  published  in  the  Joumala 
•of  the  Bengal  and  Madras  Asiatic  Societies. 

Imbedded  Minerals  in  ike  Hypogene  Rocks:  Earthy  Minerals — 
SUica, — Fine  crystals  of  quartz  are  found  at  Vellum,  near  Tanjore. 
Chert  is  pretty  generaUy  distributed,  aJso  the  common  garnet;  the 
latter  occurs  in  the  greatest  abundance  in  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  the 
Copper  Districts  of  Nellore  and  Guntoor,  Salem,  the  Nilgherries,  and 
in  the  Western  Ghauts  below  Goa.  Mines  of  the  precious  garnet^ 
almandine,  have  been  excavated  by  the  natives  at  Gharibpett  near 
Palunshah  in  the  Nizam's  'territories.  Pyrope  is  said  to  be  found  in 
the  central  parts  of  the  Peninsula :  green  garnet  occurs  in  the  gneiss 
of  Senklidroog,  in  the  Salem  District ' ;   dodecahedral  garnet,  assimi- 

^  Benza,  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  Vol.  IV.,  pages  26lyS67« 

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OF   SOUTHERN   INDIA.  153 

lating  essonite  or  cinnamon  stone,  in  the  hornblende  schist  of  the 
Kilgheiries  >;  and  black  garnet,  and  tremolite  in  the  granitoidal  gneiss 
of  Peroor  and  Worralconda  (Mysore).  Epidote  and  actinolite  are 
found  usually  in  quartz  and  felspar  veins.  Hypersthene  is  occa- 
sionally seen  in  the  hornblende  schist  of  the  Ceded  Districts'. 
Indianite  occurs  sparingly  with  corundum,  fibrolite,  and  garnet  in 
gneiss  and  hornblende  schist  in  the  valley  of  the  Cauyery. 

Earthy  MmeraU :  Alumina — Corundum, — Boumon  considered  in- 
dianite and  fibrolite  to  be  the  matrix  of  corundum  in  Southern  India; 
and  Phillips  states,  on  what  authority  is  not  mentioned,  that  its 
gangue  in  the  Camatic  is  a  coarse-grained  white  marble.  I  have 
always  found  it,  both  in  Mysore  and  Salem,  in  talc,  mica,  or  horn- 
blende schist,  associated  with  iron  ore,  asbestus,  and  sometimes  india- 
nite and  fibrolite.  It  occurs  imbedded  in  the  rock  in  grains  and 
erystals.  Viralimodos  and  Sholasigamany  are  its  principal  localities 
in  the  valley  of  the  Gauvery ;  Golashully  and  Kulkairy  in  Mysore, 
where  it  also  occurs  at  Mimdurim*,  near  Seringapatam,  Tippaty, 
Beygoor,  Bannercota,  Baugoopilly,  and  other  places.  It  is  also  said 
to  be  found  in  the  hypogene  schists  of  Nellore  and  Guntoor.  The 
spinel  ruby  (dodecahedral  corundum),  and  sapphire  (the  corindoh 
hyalin  of  Hauy),  are  occasionally  found  with  the  common  corundum 
in  the  Salem  district^  and  in  the  valley  of  the  Gauvery.  Emery,  or 
granular  corundum,  is  found  at  Bombardipddu',  about  twenty-four 
miles  northerly  from  Tripaty  in  North  Arcot,  in  hornblende  rock,  in 
pieces  varying  from  the  size  of  a  pea  to  that  of  a  hen's  egg,  or  even 
larger.  Common  corundum  is  also  found  where  the  Godavery  escapes 
though  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  east  of  Papconda,  from  the  Nizam's 
territories  to  the  plains  of  Rajahmundry  and  the  sea.  Beryl  occurs 
at  Paddioor  in  Goimbatore ;  and,  according  to  the  natives,  at  Vani« 
ambadi,  at  the  north  base  of  the  Nilgherries. 

Fibrolite  occurs  but  rarely  with  indianite  and  corundum,  as  has 
been  before  alluded  to,  in  speiJ^ing  of  the  last  two  minerals.  Kyanite 
I  found  associated  with  adularia,  asbestiform  tremolite,  and  magnetic 
iron  ore,  at  Adipuram ;  in  the  Nellore  district,  in  gneiss :  it  occurs  in 
the  same  rock  near  Gharibpett^  in  the  Nizam's  territories;  also  in 
Mysore  ^  and  in  the  maritime  districts  of  the  Godavery  and  Kistna^ 
with  tremolite,  pearl  spar,  bitter  spar,  almandine  and  staurolite.     The 

>  Macgregor,  MidrsB  Quarterly  Medical  Journal,  Jnly^  1842,  page  284. 

*  Clarke,  Madras  Journal,  Janoaiy,  1839,  page  121. 

'  Hayne's  Tracts,  page  110.  *  Voyaey. 

'  Clarke,  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science  for  January,  1839,  p.  120. 

'  Macpherson,  Asiatic  Researches,  Vol.  XVIII.,  page  120. 

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154  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

Ifust-mentidned  mineral  oeciirs  in  the  hjpogene  and  plntonio  rocks 
north  of  Rytusotn,,  in  the  Baramahal,  aasociated  with  hornblende, 
felspar,  and  epidote^ 

Earthy  MvneraU:  Magneski, — Steatite  oocurs  in  the  taloose  schiBts 
in  the  western  parts  of  Mysore;  as  also  potstone,  in  beds  of  consider* 
able  size^  and  veins,  and  more  or  less  dispersed  orer  the  whole  hypo- 
gene  area;  occasionally  associated  with  nephrite. 

AlkalimxhEarthy  MvmtoU:  Potash, — ^Mica  is  found  uniTersally 
diffused.  In  some  parts  of  the  Western  Ghauts,  and  on  the  table 
lands  to  the  east,  this  mineral  and  talc  are  found  in  plates  large 
enough  for  windows,  and  lanterns;  for  which  purpose  they  are  used,  as 
also  for  ornamental  devices,  and  for  painting  on,  by  the  natives  of 
India.  Chlorite  is  rarely  found  uncombined  with  felspar,  silex,  or 
hornblende.  Naorite,  or  scaly  talc,  is  here  and  there  met  with.  Adu- 
laria  is  found  in  the  gneiss  at  Adipuram^  in  the  Nelloie  district^  and 
other  places. 

AUcalinchEarthy  Minerah:  Soda. — Albite,  or  deavlandite,  occurs 
pretty  abundantly  in  the  gneiss  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts  above  Bezwara^ 
north  of  the  Kistna,  at  Paddioor  in  Coimbatore,  and  occasionally 
throughout  the  gneiss  districts  of  Southern  India :  as  also  tourmaline^ 
or  schorl,  both  black  and  green. 

Acidiferotts  Earthy  Minerals:  Altanma  and  Lime, — Sulphate  and 
sub-sulphate  of  alumina  are  occasionally  found  in  thin  incrustations 
and  efflorescences  between  the  layers  of  the  soft  ferruginous  slates  into 
which  the  hornblende  and  mica  schists  pass;  for  instance,  in  the 
Copper  Mountain  range  near  Bellary,  where  I  have  also  observed  cal- 
careous spar  in  nests  in  the  gneiss  and  hornblende  schist.  General 
Cullen  has  found  calcareous  spar  in  the  gneiss  of  Travancore.  This 
mineral  is  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  hypogene  rocks  of  Southern 
India.  Bitter  spar  is  said  to  occur'  in  the  maritime  districts  of  the 
Kistna  and  Godavery. 

Acidiferous  Earthy  Minerals:  Magnesia. — Magnesite,  an  almost 
pure  carbonate  of  magnesia^  occurs  in  beds,  veins,  and  nests  in  the 
hornblende  and  talcose  schists  near  Salem,  associated  with  rocks 
analogous  to  serpentine,  or  chromiferous  ophiolite,  asbestus,  chert,  a 
silicate  of  magnesia,  nephrite,  and  chromate  of  iron :  also  at  Yedi- 
chicolum,  and  other  places  on  the  banks  of  the  Cauvery ;  and  in  the 
vicinity  of  Hoonsoor  in  Mysore.  In  geological  situs,  and  age,  the 
magnesite  of  Southern  India  assimilates  the  older  magnesites  of  Styria, 
Moravia,  Baltimore,  and  Turin. 

*  Hayne's  Tracts,  page  345. 
Macphenon,  Asiatic  Researches,  VoL  XVIII.,  p.  120. 


OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  155 

MHKtO^erwA  Mmerals :  IrOfu^^iNUk  pyrites,  or  snlphtiret  of  iron,  id 
distributed  in  bduJI  propcffdoiis  in  .the  hypogene  rocks ;  but  the  oxides^ 
both  magnetic  and  hsBmatitic,  exist  in  extraordinary  abundance,  form-^ 
ing  masses  and  large  interstratified  beds  in  mountain  chains.  In 
gneiss  these  ores  frequently  replace  hornblende  and  mica;  alternating 
with  quartz  in  regular  layers.  Magnetic  iron  ore  with  polarity  is 
found  at  Pakanandoo,  in  the  Salem  district,  in  beautiful  octohedral 
crystals.  It  occurs  in  the  massive  state  on  the  Baba  Booden  hills  in 
MjTSore,  those  of  Kittoor  and  Darwar  in  the  Southern  Mahratta 
country ;  in  large  masses  among  the  hills  of  Sondoor  near  Hospett,  and 
in  many  other  localities. 

Micaceous  and  specular  iron  ore  are  less  common.  A  dark  mag- 
netic iron  sand  is  usually  founds  in  the  beds  of  streams  haying  their 
origin  among  hypogene  rocks^  associated  with  gold  dust;  and  some* 
time  with  menaccanite. 

Titanium. — Iron  ore  slightly  titaniferous  is  found  oyer  the  whole 
hypogene  area.  Menaccanite  I  found  among  the  iron  sand,  and  gold 
dust  in  the  best  of  the  Boni  riyulet  among  the  Kupputgode  hills,  and 
in  some  of  the  riyulets  of  the  Ceded  Districts. 

Manganeie, — The  black  oxide  of  manganese,  associated  with  iron 
ore,  is  found  in  considerable  quantities  among  the  Kupputgode  hills, 
and  more  sparingly  in  those  of  the  Ceded  Districts^  Mysore,  and  the 
Nilgherries. 

Chrome, — Chromate  of  iron  occurs  associated  with  the  magnesite  of 
Salem,  and  probably  exists  in  other  magnesite  localities. 

Copper. — Ores  of  copper,  principally  the  green  carbonate  and  snl- 
phuret)  occur  in  strings,  nests,  nodules,  and  short  broken  yeins  in  the 
gneiss,  mica,  and  hornblende  schists  of  the  Nellore  and  Guntoor  dis- 
tricts. The  carbonate  is  also  found  among  the  Kupputgode  hills,  in 
the  Copper  Mountain  near  Bellary;  and  in  various  localities  in  the 
Eastern  Ghauts.  The  rarity  of  a  regularly  continuous  lode  of  ore  in 
the  rocks  of  India  is  a  remarkable  peculiarity,  and  has  hitherto  dis- 
couraged the  exertions  of  miners.  However,  our  knowledge  is  confined 
to  veins  near  the  surface :  and  I  do  not  consider  that  up  to  the  present 
a  £ur  trial  has  been  made  of  their  mineral  resources. 

Silver. — Ores  of  silver  are  said  to  occur  in  Madura,  and  also  in 
Mysore'.  I  found  a  single  fragment  of  the  grey  carbonate  in  the 
auriferous  sands  of  the  Doni  rivulet  in  the  Kupputgode  hills.  The 
rocks  in  all  these  localities  are  hypogene  and  plutonic.  In  the  Doni 
rivulet  the  sand  contained  magnetic  irou  sand,  menaccanite,  carbonate 

'  Clarke,  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science  for  January,  1839^ 

p.  lao. 


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156  SUMMARY    OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

of  copper,  and  a  grain  or  two  of  a  white  metal,  soluble  only  in  nitro- 
muriatic  acid, — ^probably  platinum.  Two  bits  of  metallic  silver  and 
copper  were  also  found  in  the  sand  here,  which  from  not  being  in  sUu, 
and  the  possibility  of  their  being  adyentitious,  cannot  be  safely 
pronounced  as  native. 

Antimony, — This  mineral  is  said  by  Dr.  Clarke '  to  occur  in  the 
Baba  Booden  hills  of  Mysore.  What  is  generally  sold  as  surmeh,  or 
antimony,  in  the  bazaars  of  Southern  India,  and  used  largely  as  a 
collyrium  by  the  natives  to  improve  the  brilliancy  of  the  eye,  I  have 
fund  to  be  a  micaceous  iron  ore.  Ghdena,  or  sulphuret  of  lead,  is  said 
to  be  also  substituted. 

Combustible  Minerals :  Graphite. — Graphite  I  found  in  thin  shales 
in  the  gneiss  of  the  south-west  part  of  the  Nizam's  dominions  at 
Nundapur. 

Many  minerals  common  in  the  hypogene  series  of  Europe  have  not 
yet  been  noticed  in  this  clfuss  of  rocks  in  Southern  India;  such  sa 
fluor  spar,  barytes,  strontianite,  apatite,  chiastolite,  pyenite,  anda- 
lusite,  antomolite,  and  a  number  of  other  minerals  less  frequent. 

Zircon  is  said  to  occur  in  the  alluvium  at  Ellora,  and  cats'-eye  in 
that  of  the  Kistna,  and  of  the  rivers  in  Malabar;  and  umber  in  the 
Nilgherries.  I  have  little  doubt  that  the  labours  of  future  mineralogists 
will  add  greatly  to  this  list  of  minerals  associated  with  the  hypogene 
formation  of  Southern  India. 

In  concluding  this  summary  of  the  metamorphic  rocks  of  Southern 
India,  I  cannot  refrain  from  remarking  how  forcibly  they  recall  to 
mind  the  remark  of  the  illustrious  Humboldt,  who,  in  concluding  his 
survey  of  the  plutonic  and  hypogene  series  of  South  America,  says : 
''When  we  pass  to  another  hemisphere,  we  see  new  forms  of  animals 
and  plants,  and  even  new  constellations  in  the  heavens;  but  in  the 
rocks  we  still  recognise  our  old  acquaintances ;  the  same  granite,  the 
same  gneiss,  the  same  micaceous  schist,  quartz  rocks>  &c." 


PART  II. 
Diamond  Sandstone,  and  Limestone. 

tlESTiNG  immediately  on  the  hypogene  and  plutonic  rocks  are  found 
beds  of  limestone,  sandstone,  and  sandstone-conglomerate  (the  latter 
often  imbedding  diamonds) — argillaceous,  arenaceous,   and  siliceous 

1  Clarke,   Hadns  Journal  of  Literature  and   Science  for  January,  1839, 
p.  190. 


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OP   SOUTHERN    INDIA^  157 

schists^  Vhidh^  fi^m  their  being  usually  associated,  sometimes  alter-' 
nating,  and  their  frequent  conformabilitj  of  strata,  it  has  been, 
thonght  oonyenient,  until  the  discovery  of  distinguishing  fossils,  to 
describe  under  one  head. 

Geoffraphical  extent  and  position. — Next  to  the  hypogene  schists, 
just  described,  and  the  associated  plutonic  rooks,  these  limestone  and 
sandstone  beds  occupy,  perhaps,  the  greater  portion  of  our  area  north 
of  a  line  drawn  from  Pulicat  to  Mangalore  on  the  south,  and  the 
eouthem  edge  of  the  great  overlying  trap  formation  on  the  north. 
In  the  south  of  India,  from  Cape  Gomorin  to  the  Salem  Break,  they 
have  not  hitherto  been  seen;  and,  what  is  remarkable,  they  appear 
almost  wholly  confined  to  the  elevated  table  lands,  and  to  the  Eastern 
Ghauts,  which  they  cap  at  intervals  from  Naggery  to  beyond  the 
northern  limit  into  Cuttack.  Below  the  escarpment  of  the  Western 
Ghauts  the  sandstone  has  only  been  observed  at  Atchera\  on  the 
Malabar  coast. 

Dipping  at  a  considerable  angle  to  the  north-west,  the  limestone 
has  not  hitherto  been  seen  either  on  the  maritime  plains  below  the 
Eastern  Ghauts,  or  in  those  of  the  Western  Ghauts.  On  the  table- 
lands these  works  are  most  frequently  observed,  exposed  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  great  drainage  lines  of  the  country — ^for  instance,  those 
of  the  Godavery,  Bhima,  Kistna  and  Gutpurba,  Malpurba,  and  Pen- 
naur.  They  occur  in  irregularly-shaped  patches,  separated  usually  by 
broad  and  apparently  denuded  zones  of  the  subjacent  hypogene  and 
plutonic  rocks. 

Physical  aspect, — The  tracts  occupied  by  the  limestone  and  sand* 
stone  beds  present  a  diversified  aspect,  sometimes  flat  and  monotonous, 
and  at  others,  near  lines  of  plutonic  disturbance,  bare,  rugged,  and 
picturesque.  The  lime&tone  in  some  situations  has  evidently  been 
denuded  of  the  usually  superjacent  sandstone,  dislocated,  and  elevated 
several  hundreds  of  feet  above  the  general  level  of  the  surro\mding 
country  in  regular  ranges,  ajdd  often  in  highly-inclined  strata,  as 
in  the  tract  between  Banaganpilly  and  Gooty.  Caps  of  sandstone, 
though  in  such  cases  often  wanting,  are  sometimes  seen  still  covering 
the  limestone  peaks.  The  outline  of  these  limestone  ranges  usually 
presents  long,  flattish-topped  ridges,  whose  sides  and  summits  are  not 
onfrequently  covered  with  detached  angular  blocks  of  the  rock,  with  a 
grey,  weathered,  and  scabrous  exterior,  resembling  that  of  the  moun- . 
tain  limestones  of  Europe. 

The  sandstone,  where  undisturbed  by  plutonic  intrusion,  occurs  in 

>  Maleotmson,  Gkologieal  TraiiMustions,  Vol.  y»,  page  367,  Second  Series, 
Part  IIL 


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158  SUMMARY    OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

low,  flat,  wall-like  ranges,  rising  at  an  almost  similar  level,  rarely 
exceeding  500  feet  from  the  surface  of  the  surronnding  country,  sup- 
porting table  lands  of  some  extent,  and  evidently  once  oontinuous. 
It  is  often  intersected  by  deep  fissures,  extending  from  the  summit  of 
the  rocks  down  to  the  base.  These  sometimes  run  through  and 
divide  entire  hilly  chains,  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  to  their  course, 
and  not  unfreqnently  afford  outlets  to  the  streams  that  cross  the 
Peninsula  from  west  to  east  on  their  passage  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal. 
The  direction  of  the  fissures  is  sometimes  zig-zag,  as  in  the  remarkable 
gap  of  Granjicotta  on  the  table  land  of  the  Ceded  Districts,  through 
which  the  Pennaur  flows,  washing  the  bases  of  the  precipitous  and 
picturesque  clifis  that  form  its  sides.  In  some  instances  these  great 
cracks  in  the  sandstone  have  been  widened  and  altered  by  the  force  of 
the  streams  that  find  a  vent  through  them. 

When  disturbed  by  plutonic  force,  the  sandstone  exhibits  a  striking 
contrast  in  its  outline  to  the  tame  horizontal  aspect  it  assumes  at 
distance  from  the  axes  of  disturbance.  It  rises  in  bold  relief  against 
the  sky  in  lofty  rugged  cross,  or  hog-backed  and  crested  hills,  with 
precipitous  mural  ridges,  which,  rarely  running  at  the  same  level  for 
any  distance,  are  interrupted  by  portions  of  the  same  ridge  thrown  up 
at  various  angles  with  the  horizon  in  steep  and  often  inaccessible  cliffs. 
These  features  are  more  strikingly  seen  in  the  ranges  east  of  Gooty, 
on  the  edge  of  the  granitic  rocks,  and  in  the  Eastern  Ghauts  in  the 
vicinity  of  Naggery,  Udigheny,  and  in  some  parts  of  Goomsur. 
When  it  crests  the  hypogene  rooks,  the  lower  part  of  the  elevation  is 
often  composed  of  the  latter  to  the  height  of  about  200  to  400  feet, 
the  slope  of  which  hafi  usually  an  inclination  of  from  15^  to  20^ 
while  that  of  the  cap  of  sandstone  presents  a  steep  or  precipitous 
declivity  varying  from  45^  to  90°,  giving  &  decided  character  to 
the  aspect  and  configuration  of  the  mountains  and  ranges  thus 
formed. 

The  hills  of  arenaceous  schists  are  to  be  recognised  from  the  more 
mafisive  sandstones  by  their  undulating,  round-backed  summits^  and 
their  buttressed  and  dimpled  flanks;  while  those  of  the  softer  slates 
and  shales  affect  the  mammiform  outline. 

Both  limestone  and  sandstone  beds  there  is  little  doubt  were  for- 
merly of  greater  extent  than  now,  and  owe  much  of  their  present 
discontinuity  and  scattered  positions  to  the  agency  of  plutonic  dis- 
turbance, and  subsequent  denudation.  The  tracts  of  ooimtry  inter- 
vening between  their  areas  are  usually  occupied  by  granitic  and 
hypogene  rocks.  The  superincumbent  beds,  broken  up  by  the  granite 
rising  to  the  surface,  have  been  more  easily  carried  away  by  aqueous 

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OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  159 

GuiTenta,  than  in  nndistnrbed  situationsy  where  we  find  their  continuity 
greater.  To  admit  this,  it  will  be  necessary  to  adopt  the  theory  of 
the  granite^s  rising  abore  the  surface  in  a  solid,  or  a  nearly  solid,  state. 
It  is  a  fact,  that  in  granitic  tracts  the  denudation  has  been  most 
complete. 

I  shall  now  proceed  to  notice,  in  detul,  the  extent,  &c.,  of  the 
Tarions  detached  portions,  or  patches,  of  the  limestone  and  sandstone 
strata. 

Cfuddapah  Beds, — The  Guddapah  beds  appear  to  be  the  most  ex- 
tensive, occupying  an  area  of  about  9000  square  miles,  comprised 
between  the  Idth  and  the  17th  degrees  of  north  latitude.  They 
extend  east  and  west  horn  the  Eastern  Ghauts  over  the  table  land  of 
the  Ceded  Districts,  to  the  village  of  Yaripilly,  about  nine  miles  east 
of  the  fortress  of  Gooty,  and  to  Peddapa.  On  the  north  they  stretch 
from  the  lefb  bank  of  the  Kistna,  near  Waripilly,  covering  the 
eastern  and  central  portions  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts  to  Naggery^  the 
adjacent  table  lands  of  Guddapah,  Kumool,  Tripetty,  and  part  of 
North  Arcot,  to  the  north  frontier  of  Mysore,  near  Rayachooty.  It 
meets  the  hypogene  and  plutonic  rocks  of  Hyderabad  near  Myapoor, 
a  village  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Kistna.,  about  nineteen  miles 
northerly  from  the  city  of  Kumool. 

Godavery  Beds. — A  number  of  small  outlying  patches  stud  the 
plains  between  the  Kistna  and  the  Godavery;  and  the  sandstone  is 
seen  at  intervals  capping  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  and  forming  low  ranges 
stretching  into  Guttack  beyond  our  limits..  Near  the  diamond 
mines  of  Gondapilly,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Kistna,  it  appears  to 
touch  the  Guddapah  beds,  which  are  seen  in  the  channel  of  the  Kistna 
at  Amr^wati.  Further  inland,  on  the  north-east  extremity  of  the 
tract  under  descriptioft,  another  patch  extends  in  a  south-eastern 
direction  on  the  banks  of  the  Godavery,  commencing  to  the  north- 
west of  its  confluence  with  the  Banigunga,  and  traceable  to  the  hot 
springs  of  Budrachelum,  on  the  south-east  ^  Others  occur  at  intervals 
on  the  banks  of  the  Godavery  at  various  distances  to  the  alluvial 
plains  of  Rajahmundry  near  its  embouchure. 

South  Mahratta  Country  Beds, — Separated  by  a  zone  of  outcrop- 
ping hypogene  and  plutonic  rocks,  about  a  degree  and  half  in  breadth, 
from  the  Guddapah  beds,  and  immediately  to  the  westward  of  them, 
lie  those  of  the  South  Mahratta  country,  extending  north  and  south 
from  the  vicinity  of  Chimlughi,  near  the  confluence  of  the  Kistna 
and  the  Outpurba^  to  Gujunderghur  on  the  south,  and  from  Moodgul 

>  HalooImsoD,  Geological  Tiansactions,  Vol  V.,  Second  Series,  Part  III, 
pp.  5^y  &e. 

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160  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

on  the  east,  to  the  subordinate  chains  of  the  Western  Ghatits  at 
Gokauk,  and  thence  stretching  down  southerly  towards  Belgaanu 
The  hill-forts  of  Pedda  and  Chich  Nurgoond,  and  of  Nowlgoond, 
stand  on  outliers  a  little  below  the  southern  limit  of  this  patch.  The 
course  of  the  Gutpurba  forms  an  irregular  boundary  to  the  north,  with 
the  great  overlying  trap  of  the  Dekhah. 

Hydrabad  Beds, — Smaller  isolated  patches  are  observed  in  the 
Southern  Mahratta  country,  between  it  and  Hydrabad,  viz.,  at  Mu- 
dibhal,  and  Talicota,  on  the  banks  of  the  Bhima,  between  the  city  of 
Gulberga  and  Firozabad;  and  also  in  the  vicinity  of  Digaye,  between 
Mnktul  and  Gulberga. 

The  sandstone  again  i  crops  out  in  the  Hydrabad  country  near 
Sarap(ir,  between  Hunnumkoondah  and  Pakkal,  to  which  it  continues 
penetrated  by  granite. 

Beds  of  limestone  occur  at  Kotah,  about  ten  miles  up  the  Pun- 
deetah  river  above  its  confluence  with  the  Godavery. 

IdrntUy, — The  identity  of  these  scattered  beds  is  proved  by  their 
relative  geological  position  with  respect  to  other  rocks,  their  imbedded 
pebbles,  and  striking  mineralogical  resemblance. 

Order  of  Stratification, — The  limestone  occupies,  with  few  excep- 
tions, the  lowest  position  in  the  sections  afforded  by  the  great  lines  of 
drainage  of  these  tracts,  and  in  places  where  the  superincumbent 
strata  have  been  stripped  off. 

Next  in  order  of  superposition  come  calcareous  shales,  mingled  with 
much  argillaceous  matter,  then  argillaceous  shales  and  slates,  sand- 
stone, siliceous  and  arenaceous  schists,  quartz  rock  and  sandstone 
conglomerates. 

'  In  one  or  two  situations  I  have  observed  the  limestone,  where  ele* 
vated  into  chains  of  hills,  alternating  with  sandstone;  for  instance, 
between  Banaganpilly  and  Pycut  Puspoolah;  and  near  Ryelcherroo. 
in  the  Cuddapah  tract ;  and  also  a  little  south  of  Kulladghi  in  the. 
Southern  Mahratta  tract. 

Direction  and  Dip, — The  direction  of  these  beds  usually  conforms 
to  that  of  the  hypogene  schists  on  which  they  rest.  They  have,  with 
the  latter,  been  broken  through,  penetrated,  tilted  up,  and  altered .  by 
plutonic  rocks.  The  disturbance  is  most  apparent  on  the  edges  of  the 
beds.  At  a  distance  from  the  lines,  or  foci  of  plutonic  action,  the  beds 
are  found  but  slightly  inclined,  and  their  dip  following  the  easterly 
and  southerly  inclination  of  the  great  table  lands.  The  Cuddapah 
strata  have  been  raised  at  their  eastern  limits  by  the  elevation  of  the 

*  Dr.  Walker,  Journal  of  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  1841,  No.  30,  p.  471. 

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..'op    southern    INDIA.  161 

fiaatem  Ghauts  with  the  subjacent  hjpogeue  schists,  to  the  average 
eleyation  of  about  2000  feet  above  the  sea's  level ;  dipping  about 
40*  westerly.  They  have  been  similarly  lifted  by  plutonio  rocks 
at  their  western  edge,  between  Ryelcherroo  and  Gooty,  where  the 
dip  is  42°  easterly.  Intermediate  between  these  axes  of  elevation 
the  strata  are  but  little  inclined.  In  the  tongue  of  land  sepa- 
ating  the  Toombuddra  from  the  Kistna,  the  dip  of  the  limestone 
appears  to  conform  to  the  undulations  of  the  plain ;  and  is  in  some 
mammiform  elevations,  qu&quaversal.  On  the  south  bank  of  the  Out^ 
purb%  near  its  confluence  with  the  Kistna,  large  masses  of  the  light 
bluish-grey  limestone  have  been  thrown  on  their  edges,  and  the  strata 
inclined  at  various  angles  to  the  horizon.  At  Knmool,  the  ditch  of 
the  fort  affords  a  beautiful  section,  illustrating  the  little  extent  to 
which  disturbance  is  sometimes  carried  by  plutonic  forces.  The  beds 
of  limestone  in  the  vicinity  have  but  a  very  slight  dip,  which  in  the 
short  space  of  500  yards,  passes  into  highly  inclined,  waving,  curved, 
vertical,  and  anticlinal,  having  been  broken  throdgh  by  a  wedge  of 
hypogene  rock  (hornblende  schist)  resting  on  granite. 

IHp  of  the  Sandstone  Beds, — The  dip  of  the  sandstone  when  resting 
on  the  limestone  is  usually  not  so  great  as  that  of  the  latter,  or,  in 
other  words,  unconformable.  It  may  be  hence  inferred  that  an  interval 
took  place  between  the  deposition  of  the  limestone  and  sandstone 
strata^  during  which  the  former  were  disturbed  and  again  tilted  up 
aliker  the  deposition  of  the  latter.  To  strengthen  this  supposition  of 
two  epochs  of  geological  disturbance,  it  may  be  added  that  pebbles  of 
chert  and  jasper,  evidently  derived  from  veins  in  the  limestone,  are 
frequently  found  in  the  sandstone  conglomerates.  The  sandstone 
sometimes  rests  horisontally  on  the  granite  and  hypogene  schists ;  but 
in  general  it  conforms  almost  to  the  dip  of  the  latter,  as  seen  in  many 
places  in  thejEastem  Ohauts,  north  of  the  Kistna.,  and  in  Goomsur, 
where  the  dip  is  generally  between  60°  and  80°,  and  inclined  to  every 
point  of  the  compass. 

Cleavage  and  Joints, — Joints  and  planes  of  cleavage  are  often 
strikingly  developed  in  the  structure  of  the  more  schistose  and  laminar 
memb^v  of  the  limestone  and  sandstone  rocks.  At  Nundaloor,  in 
the  Cnddapah  district,  where  the  strata  have  an  easterly  dip  of 
12°,  the  cleavage  planes  formed  an  angle  of  40°  with  those  of  depo- 
sition, dipping  in  an  almost  similar  direction,  and  preserving  far 
greater  regularity  and  uniformity  of  dip  even  over  extensive  tracts. 
The  lines  of  deposition  are  here  distinctly  marked  by  alternate  parallel 
light  and  dark-coloured  bands.  The  joints  are  at  right  angles,  or 
nearly  so,  with  the  planes  of  stratification,  and  often  filled  or  lined    * 

VOL.  VIII.  M    f-^^^T^ 

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162  SUMMARY    OF   THE    QBOLOGY 

with  calcareous  inorostations.  Near  Knlladghi,  the  calcareotu  slates 
associated  with  the  limestone  sometimes  possess  a  true  transverse 
deava^,  dividing  the  rock  into  rhomboids  capable  of  indefinite  sub- 
division into  similar  forms,  at  angles  of  from  30^  to  40^  with  the 
direction  of  the  strata.  The  joints  here  intersect  the  cleavage  at 
right  angles.  The  true  surfaces  of  deposition  may  be  usually  dis- 
tinguished from  the  smooth  rectilinear  planes  of  cleavage,  by  their 
peculiar  dimpled  aspect.  This  characteristic  is,  however,  often  more 
or  less  obscure. 

Hippie  Marks. — On  the  exposed  surfaces  of  the  sandstone  cliffs 
south  of  Cuddapah,  at  Ganjicotta  in  the  Ceded  Districts,  Gokauk 
in  the  Southern  Mahratta  country,  among  the  ranges  between  the 
Kistna  and  Bagulcota^  and  various  other  localities,  I  have  observed 
distinct  ripple  marks.  Their  longitudinal  axes,  though  extremely 
various,  have  on  the  large  scale  a  tendency  to  an  KN.E.  direction, 
showing  that  the  current  which  caused  them  flowed  generally  in  a 
W.N.W.  or  in  an  E.S.E.  direction.  The  marks  are  not  confined  to 
strips  or  zones  of  the  sandstones,  like  those  of  ancient  beaches,  but 
extend  in  every  direction  over  considerable  spaces,  resembling  those  on 
sand  constantly  under  water. 

Fissures  and  Caves. — ^I  have  already  alluded  to  the  fissures  which 
often  cleave  the  sandstone  masses  from  snmmit  to  base.  These  when 
numerous  and  crossing  each  other  at  right  angles,  impart  a  tesselated 
appearance  to  the  surfaces  of  the  flat-topped  hills.  The  pebbled  sur- 
faces of  the  comglomerates  thus  divided  are  ofi»n  remarkably  level, 
and  reminded  me  of  the  artificial  pebbled  floors  found  among  many 
of  the  Roman  ruins  in  Italy.  In  other  situations  the  fissured  sur- 
faces resembled  those  produced  by  contraction  in  drying,  in  the 
mud  of  a  tank  or  river,  or  in  the  Eegur,  or  black  cotton  soil.  In  the 
sandstone  their  origin  may  have  been  similar,  during  the  consolidation 
of  the  rock  by  plutonic  heat.  Vertical  fissures  are  also  seen  in  the 
limestone,  though  by  no  means  to  the  same  extent :  they  vary  from  a 
few  hues  in  width  to  many  yards.  Caverns,  so  common  in  the  lime- 
stone formation  of  Europe,  are  rarely  seen :  a  few  occur  in  the  Cud- 
dapah  beds;  some  of  which,  as  well  as  the  fissures,  I  have  searched  in 
vain  for  organic  remains.  They  usually  contain  incrustations  of  car- 
bonate of  lime,  stalactite,  kankar,  detritus,  and  angular  debris  of 
the  rocks  forming  their  sides.  Both  caverns  and  fissures  are  fre- 
quently the  outlets  of  springs.  The  sides  of  the  vaults,  though 
often  smooth,  do  not  exhibit  the  polished  or  grooved  surfaces  of 
attrition ;  nor  can  we  expect  to  find  such  in  tracts  where  the  strata 
are  undisturbed. 


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OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  f63 

Parallel  furrows  and  grooves,  apparency  oaused  by  the  action  of 
pebbles  moved  along  by  water,  are  occasionally  observed  on  the  sur^ 
£Eice:  particularly  on  the  summit  of  some  limestone  cliffs  between 
Banaganpilly  and  Peapilly,  in  the  Ceded  Districts.  Rock  basins  above 
the  present  drainage  level  of  the  country  are  rare. 


PART   III. 
Diamond  Sandstone,  and  Limbstone. 

LUhologic  Chatxicter  of  the  LimesUme. — The  limestone  passes  from  a 
dark  blue,  or  nearly  black  rock  with  a  smooth,  but  somewhat  earthy, 
oonchoidal  fracture,  into  one  of  a  more  compact  texture  and  of  a  light 
buff,  or  cream  colour,  adapted  for  lithographic  purposes :  for  instance, 
some  of  the  varieties  near  Bagulcota,  and  Talicota  in  the  Southern 
Mahratta  country ;  near  Kumool  and  Ryelcherroo  in  the  Ceded  Dis- 
tricts ;  and  Datchopilly  in  the  Nizam's  territories.  The  specimens  of 
these  lithographic  limestones  that  have  been  subjected  to  actual  expe- 
riment, thou^  found  occasionally  to  answer,  have  proved  inferior  to 
those  of  Germany;  being  often  penetrated  by  minute  threads  of  silex,  or 
calc  spar,  and  not  of  a  sufficiently  homogeneous  texture.  It  must  be 
remarked,  at  the  same  time,  that  these  localities  have  not  been  explored 
and  quarried  with  adequate  care  or  labour  for  better  specimens,  which, 
it  is  probable,  the  lower  beds  may  yield.  In  structure  the  limestone 
is  both  thick-bedded,  and  laminar;  in  colour  it  is  generally  of  a  light 
blnish  grey,  though,  sometimes,  as  just  observed,  nearly  black,  pass- 
ing into  a  variety  of  beautiful  and  lively  shades  of  green,  yellow, 
pink,  and  white;  sometimes  irregularly  disposed,  but  more  frequently 
in  alternating  bands,  coinciding  with  the  lines  of  stratification.  The 
green  varieties  are  often  spotted  with  a  darker  green,  or  bluish  black, 
assimilating  in  colour  some  varieties  of  serpentine.  This  latter  mineral 
sometimes  occurs  in  thin  strings  and  nodules  in  the  limestone,  and 
evidently  imparts  to  it  much  of  its  colouring  matter.  These  nodules- 
in  the  vicinity  of  Kumool  and  Ryelcherroo,  are  usually  of  a  light  or 
siskin  green  colour,  translucent  and  sectile;  streak  nearly  white. 
Before  the  blowpipe  they  become  opaque,  redden  slightly,  and  fiise 
partially  ou  their  edges  into  a  white  enamel.  The  variety  of  lime- 
stone imbedding  them  is  often  magnesian,  and  contains  asbestus; 
although  the  general  character  of  the  beds  is  siliceous  and  argillaceous, 
as  is  evident  from  the  following  analysis  of  an  average  specimen 

.  3^^^  y  Google 


164  SUMMARY    OF    THE    GEOLOGY 

of  the  Cuddapah  dark  blue  limestone  made  for  me  by  mj  friend 
Mr.  Macleod,  Inspector-General  of  Hospitals^  Madras. 


SUex 

12 

5 

Alumina 

-      2 

6 

Oxide  of  iron 

1 

3 

Carbonate  of  lime 

-    33 

3 

Loss 

0 

4 

50    0 

The  chief  object  of  this  analysis  was  to  ajscertain  the  origin  of  the 
dark  colour  of  this  limestone;  since^  from  its  whitening  before  the 
blowpipe,  I  had  long  thought  it  could  not  be  ascribable  to  protoxide 
of  iron:  the  analysis  has  proved  the  truth  of  the  conjecture. 
Mr.  Macleod  is  of  opinion  that  it  owes  its  colour  to  volatile  matter; 
^'extractive."  The  limestone,  in  the  vicinity  of  basaltic,  plutonic,  and 
hypogene  rocks,  is  usually  siliceous,  and  presents  veins  of  chert,  red 
and  brown  jasper;  sometimes  intermingled  with  films  and  nests  of  a 
mammillary  chert,  resembling  calcedony;  and  calc  spar,  as  in  the 
vicinity  of  Kumool,  and  Yaripilly  east  of  Gooty.  The  cherts  are 
usually  of  a  greyish  white,  translucent,  and  sometimes  of  a  faint 
roseate  hue ;  while  others  resemble  camelian  both  in  colour  and  tex- 
ture. In  veins  and  layers,  it  splits  by  microscopic  fissures  into  paral- 
lelopipedal  fragments.  The  red  jaspers  are  often  striped  like  the  lime- 
stone with  red  and  green.  The  limestone  frequently  graduates  insen- 
sibly into  these  cherts  and  jaspers.  A  soft  reddish  and  purplish 
laminar  variety  of  the  limestone  prevails  in  the  western  parts  of 
Kumool  and  Cuddapah ;  and  more  or  less  in  all  the  localities  where 
this  formation  extends,  passing  by  insensible  gradations  into  the  ordi- 
nary  blue  limestone  of  the  country.  The  transition,  however,  is  some- 
times so  abrupt,  as  almost  to  excite  the  idea  of  their  being  a  distinct 
formation:  but  as  yet,  this  conclusion  cannot  be  arrived  at  in  the 
absence  of  organic  evidence.  These  red  slaty  and  shaly  beds  aie 
frequently  interlaminated  with  thin  light  green  chloritic  flakes,  which 
are  also  seen  in  the  white  marbly  varieties  of  the  limestones  of  B»-^ 
gulcota  in  the  Southern  Mahratta  country.  In  the  dark  varieties* 
thin  argillaceous  lamellsB  occur;  which,  in  decomposition,  turn  of  a 
light  brown  hue  and  become  distinctly  visible,  alternating  with  the 
dark  blue  limestone. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Bagulcota,  Kulladghi,  and  Kumool,  the  lime- 
stone acquires  so  crystalline  a  structure  ajs  to  resemble  the  finer  mar* 
bles.  At  TaJicota,  beautiful  dendritic  appearances  occur  inscribed  on 
the  successive  surfaces  of  the  laminte,  like  characters  on  the  leaves  of 
a  book^  with  features  so  strongly  resembling  those  of  vegetation  as- 

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OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  165 

to  induoe  Dr.  Wight  ihe  botanist  to  believe  they  were  organio,  though 
probably  the  result  of  metallic  infiltration. 

The  following  is  the  note  he  sent  me  on  the  subject;  and^  if  these 
appearances  be  really  nothing  more  than  the  result  of  metallic  infil- 
tration, it  will  serve,  at  least,  to  show  how  closely  they  sometimes 
mimic  the  productions  of  the  vegetable  kingdom. 

''The  arborescent  appearance  in  the  slate  I  think  an  organic 
remain.  At  least,  I  find,  when  under  a  high  magnifying  power,  that 
the  black  lines  can,  with  the  point  of  a  needle,  be  picked  off  without 
teaching  the  stone,  as  if  the  carbonaceous  matter  of  the  plant  was  still 
there.  I  feel  uncertain,  however,  whether  to  call  the  original  a  mosi 
or  a/f«ciw,  but  think  the  latter." 

At  Chillumcoor,  in  the  Ceded  Districts,  the  limestone  is  associated 
with  a  greyish  breccia,  having  a  coarse  granular  and  crystalline  struc- 
ture, resembling  that  of  granite,  and  imbedding  small  angular  frag- 
ments of  siliceous  slate,  and  iron  pyrites.  The  line  of  junction  with 
the  ordinary  blue  limestone  could  not  be  traced  owing  to  the  thickness 
of  the  superincumbent  soil. 

There  are  also  some  beds  of  a  curious  rock  in  the  Southern  Mah- 
ratta  country  south  of  Darwar,  which,  from  their  insulated  position, 
circumscribed  limits,  and  petrological  character  it  would  be  premature 
to  give  a  permanent  place  to  in  the  formation  under  description. 
These  beds  constitute  a  hill  near  the  village  of  Hurti  with  a  mammi- 
form shape,  having  its  surface  covered  with  detached,  angular,  and 
nigged  masses  of  a  similar  rock,  which  appears  to  have  been  subjected 
to  the  action  of  violent  disruptive  forces.  It  is  of  a  massive  character, 
rarely  laminar,  veined  with  a  white  opaque  quartz,  and  imbeds  crys- 
tab  of  iron  pyrites.  It  is  composed  of  minute  angular  fragments  of 
a  dark  glistening  quartz,  and  crystals  of  pale  fiesh-coloured  felspar, 
cemented  together  by  a  greenish,  granular,  subcrystalline  paste, 
composed  chiefly  of  carbonate  of  lime.  It  is  very  likely  to  be  mis- 
taken, from  the  colour,  hardness,  and  granular  texture,  for  a  variety 
of  massive  siliceous,  chlorite  rock;  and,  in  some  varieties,  resembles 
diallage  and  serpentine;  but  on  the  application  of  a  lens,  and,  indeed, 
by  the  naked  eye,  its  true  aggregate  chara6ter  may  be  distinctly 
recognised.  The  application  of  dilute  nitric  acid  to  the  rock  in 
substance  excites  but  a  feeble  effervescence;  but  from  the  powder, 
the  extrication  of  carbonic  acid  gas  is  abundantly  evident.  Some 
varieties  of  a  dull  green  hue,  are  traversed  with  reddish  brown 
delineations.  Before  the  blowpipe,  per  se,  it  phosphoresces  slightly, 
and  exhibits  on  the  edges  points  of  black  shining  enamel.  The  com- 
pact varieties  are  susceptible  of  a  high  polish,  and  are  used  as  an 

.,t  zed  by  Google 


166  SUMMARY    OF    TH£    GEOLOGIT 

oraamental  building  stone^  which  often  retains  tihe  pyrites  bespangling' 
in  gold-coloured  spots  the  sniooth  surface.  The  minute  scales  of  mica, 
the  crystals  of  reddish  felspar,  and  dark  coloured  quarts,  together  with 
the  general  dull  green  hue  of  the  rock,  indicate  its  detrital  origin  from 
the  micaceous  and  chloritic  schists  with  which  it  is  associated.  No 
section  presented  itself  showing  the  dip  of  its  beds.  The  crystals  of 
pyrites,  not  weathering  so  rapidly  as  the  embedding  limestone,  fre- 
quently stand  out  from  its  surface.  This  is  the  case  with  the  veins  of 
jasper  and  chert  in  the  ordinary  limestone  of  Cuddapah,  the  Southern 
Mahratta  country,  &c.,  exhibiting  curious  reticulations  in  relief  on 
their  exterior. 

Associated  MineraU. — The  most  prominent  mineral  characteristic 
of  the  limestone  is  the  iron  pyrites,  abounding  in  nests  and  cubic 
crystals;  and  which,  on  atmospheric  exposure,  particularly  where 
subject  to  moisture,  acquire  a  liyer-brown  hue.  Nests  and  strings 
of  a  poor  hsematitic  iron  ore  are  also  pretty  generally  distributed; 
the  former  more  particularly  in  the  daik  blue  and  green  varieties; 
the  latter  is  sometimes  seen  filling  a  succession  of  small  spheroidal 
and  tubular  cavities  in  the  substance  of  the  rocks,  which  are  not 
unfrequently  empty;  and  have  possibly  originated  in  bubbles  of 
inclosed  air,  or  gaseous  extrication,  while  the  rock  was  yet  in  the  state 
of  a  soft  mud. 

Galena  is  found  in  the  limestone  near  Jungnmrazpilly,  Bussapur, 
Mahanandi,  and  other  localities  in  the  Cuddapah  district ;  usually  in 
brown  jaspideous  calcareous  and  white  quartz  veins,  associated  with 
iron  ore  and  sulphate  of  barytes,  a  mineral  hitherto  unnoticed  by 
writers  on  the  geology  of  Southern  India,  and  which  occurs  in  the 
Nundi  Cunnama  Pass,  over  the  Eastern  Ghauts.  Between  the  layers 
of  the  laminar,  and  more  frequently  in  the  argillaceous  varieties^  thin 
incrustations  of  muriate  of  soda  are  often  found :  and  I  have  observed 
that,  where  this  saline  development  is  greatest,  the  rock  is  less  solid, 
has  an  earthy  fracture,  and  appears  to  have  undergone  a  chemical 
change.  Selenite  is  rare :  a  specimen  of  this  mineral,  labelled  "  Tiagar, 
southern  division  of  Arcot,"  occurs  in  the  Museum  of  the  Madras 
Branch  Royal  Asiatic  Society. 

Coal  has  been  discovered  by  Mr.  Walker*  in  the  limestone  on  the 
north  limit  of  our  area  at  Kotah,  about  ten  miles  up  the  Pundeetah 
river,  above  its  confluence  with  the  Godavery;  where  it  is  described 
as  occurring  as  a  vein  in  a  layer  of  shale  and  bituminous  i^ale,  in  the 
argillaxseous  limestone  associated  with  the  sandstone,  and  dipping  at  a. 
low  angle  towards  the  north-east. 

'  JouriiAl  of  Auatic  Society  of  Bengal,  No.  112,  1841,  pp.  341,  &c 

- --oie 


■      OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  167 

Organic  RemavM, — The  almost  total  absence  of  fossils  m  this 
limestone,  in  Southern  India,  is  a  remarkable  feature,  and  renders  it 
impossible  to  assign  it,  for  the  present,  a  place  corresponding  with 
ftn J  of  the  classed  formations  of  Enrope  or  America. 

In  some  of  the  chert  veins  in  the  limestone  of  Nannoor,  in 
Knmool,  I  recently  discovered  myriads  of  microscopic,  spherical,  and 
oval  bodies,  resembling  at  first  sight  the  grains  in  oolite ;  but  they  are 
larger,  and  have  a  more  organic  appearance,  resembling  somewhat 
that  of  Bohemia.  Their  section,  however,  usually  gives  two  or  more 
concentric  circles,  with  a  point  or  nucleus  in  the  centre,  which  have 
sometimes  a  distinctly  chambered  structure,  like  that  of  nummulites. 
These  foraminifera  exhibit  no  traces  of  carbonate  of  lime,  being 
entirely  silicified.  In  decomposition  they  fiill  out,  leaving  the  surface 
of  the  stone  so  perforated  with  cavities,  as  to  give  it  the  appearance 
of  coral.  Their  colour  is  usually  white  and  opaque  :  the  opacity  is 
evidently  caused  by  disintegration,  but  in  others,  translucent,  like 
white  camelian.  Those  embedded  in  the  red  jasper-like  chert  fre- 
quently retain  this  appearance :  some  are  entirely  charged  with  the 
red  colouring  matter,  while  others  have  only  the  outer  circles  tinged 
by  it. 

Lithologtc  Character  of  the  Sandstone, — The  sandstone  and  its 
associated  beds,  lithologically  speaking,  are  not  very  dissimilar  to  the 
Devonian  sandstones  of  England,  the  finer  chloritic  slates  of  which, 
with  their  dendritic  delineations,  find  resemblances  in  those  of  Chitty- 
waripilly,  between  Cuddapah  and  Gooty,  in  the  Budwail,  and 
Cummum  Divisions  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  and  in  the  vicinity  of 
Kulladghi,  alternating  with  hard  quartzose  slates,  tilestones,  and 
sandstones.  Assimilations  to  the  millstone  grit  are  seen  in  the  coarse 
white  and  red  sandstones  of  Badami  and  Mudibhal  in  the  Southern 
Mahratta  country.  In  many  localities,  for  instance  Banaganpilly, 
Ryelcherroo,  near  Bagulcota,  and  the  Juggernaut  range  of  Kumool, 
we  find  breccias  and  conglomerates  passing  into  red  sandstone  and 
quartz  rock. 

The  sandstone-capping  portion  of  the  Eastern  Ghauts,  from 
Naggery  to  the  Mahanuddi,  rarely  passes  into  a  breccia.,  and  is 
seldom  associated  with  the  limestone  on  the  more  elevated  portions  of 
the  Ghaut  chain.  Here  it  often  assimilates  the  weathered  gneiss  on 
which  it  rests.  It  frequently  passes  into  red  and  green  argillaceous 
and  siliceous  slates,  and  laminated  marls.  Beautifully  variegated 
sandstones,  exhibiting  waving  and  contorted  bands,  occur  in  the 
vicinity  of  Sidhout,  Cuddapah  district. 

The  sandstone  conglomerate  of  Southern  India  is  most  remarkable 


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168  SUMMARY    OF   THB    GEOLOGY 

for  being  the  matrix  of  the  <Uamond;  and  it  is  in  absence  of  organic 
and  other  data  to  class  it  with  any  known  formation,  that  it  has 
been  deemed  conrenient,  from  this  almost  pecnliar  mineral  featnre,  to 
apply  to  it  this  temporary  distinctiye  prefix^     The  diamond  oconrs 
both  in  the  sandstone  and  its  interstratified  breccias  and  conglome- 
rates, the  pebbles  in  which  are  principally  quartz,  chert,  flinty  slate, 
basanite,  jasper,  and  jaspideons  clay  impregnated  with  iron,  with  » 
few  fragments  of  trap,  and  the  hypogene  schists.     The  pebbles  of 
quartz  greatly  predominate;  and  it  is  worthy  of  note,  that  not   a 
single  bit  of  true  granite  has  hitherto  been  found  in  these  conglome- 
rates.    Those  of  chert,  jasper,  and  indurated  clay  have  evidently  been 
derived  principally  from  the  subjacent  limestone,  and  the  rest  from 
the  hypogene  rocks.     Fossil  chert  from  the  limestone  is  often  found 
embedded  in  the  diamond  breccias  of  Banaganpilly  and  of  Bamulacota 
m  Kumool.     As  the  diamond  has  never  been   discovered  in  these 
subjacent  rocks,  it  cannot  be  said  to  exist  as  a  transported  crystal  or 
fragment  in   the  sandstone.     The  pebbles  from  the  hypogene  and 
limestone  rocks  are  both  rounded  and  angular,  varying  in  relative 
proportions  in  different  localities,  and  are  found  from  the  size  of  a 
duck-shot  to  that  of  a  man's  head.     They  are  usually  cemented  toge- 
ther  by  an  arenaceous  paste,  more  or  less  fine  and  compact,  mixed  with 
argillaceous  matter  and  oxide  of  iron.     These  conglomerates  usually 
rest  on  the  limestone,  particularly  the  beds  where  the  diamond  has 
been  found  in  greatest  abundance.     In  many  localities  the  limestone 
is  entirely  wanting,  and  the  conglomerates  and  sandstone  rest  imme- 
diately on  the  hypogene  strata.     Granite,  or  bairaitic  dykes  are  inva- 
riably found  intruding  into  diamond  areas,  of  which  ae  a  detailed 
account  has  already  been  given,  I  will  not  dwell  on  them  here.     It  may 
be  noticed,  passim,  that  in  all  alluvia  in  which  the  diamond  is  found, 
pebbles  of  this  formation  invariably  occur.     The  most  noted  diamond 
localities  are  in  the  Cuddapah  District,  near  Condapetta,  Lamdoor^ 
Penchetgapadoo,  and  OvalumpuUy,  at  Banaganpilly,  and  in  Kumool 
at  Bamulacotta,  Devanur,  Tandrapaud,  and  near  the  Nundi  Cun- 
nama  Pass,  near  Gazoopilly;  at  Munimudgoo,  and  Wudjra  Caroor 
near  Gooty;   at  Malavilly,  a  village  about  sixteen  miles  W.S.W. 
from  EUore;    at  Ganipartata^,   or    Partial,   Alkur,    Burthyenpada, 
Pertala,  Wustapilly,  and  Codavetty  Kalu;  at  Kattakindapalle,  near 
Bombartipadu,  about  twenty-four  miles  northerly  from  Tripetty.     Old 
diamond  pits  are  also  said  to  exist  about  forty  six  miles  west  from 
Ongola,  and  about  twenty  miles  north  from  Nellore.     Laige  diamonds 
have  been  found  from  time  to  time  in  the  bed  of  the  Kistna,  below 
the  Moorcondah  feny  in  Kumool. 


OF  SOUTHERN   INDIA.  169 

Most  of  the  loealities  jmft  enumerated  wove  formerly  within  the 
sncxent  kingdom  of  Ooloonda^  but  are  now  under  the  British  Govem-p 
ment  and  the  Niasam  of  Hyderabad.  The  diamond  aLso  oocurs  in  the 
alluYia  of  the  sandstone  districts  of  the  Mahannddi,  the  Bramini  and 
Ehee  riyers,  particularly  the  latter.  There  are  diamond  mines  at 
Wyragnrh,  ninety  miles  S.W.  of  Na^gpoor,  formerly  celebrated,  but 
now  nearly  deserted. 

Muriate  of  soda  and  sulphate  of  alumina  occur  frequently  in  thin 
seams  and  layers  in  the  purple,  reddish^  and  brownish  shales, 
interstratified  with  the  sandstone  of  the  hills  of  Gokauk;  and  I  found 
Feins  of  manganese  in  the  sandstone  between  the  falls  of  the  Gutpurba 
and  KttlladghL 

Iron  ores,  chiefly  magnetic  and  luematitic  (specular  and  micaceous 
more  rarely)  are  pretty  generally  distributed  in  veins  with  quartz  and 
in  nodules;  iron  pyrites  occur  less  frequently  in  veins  of  white  quartz. 
Cavities  filled  with  fine  crystals  of  quartz,  and  sometimes  em- 
bedded in  calc  spar,  occur  in  the  Juggernaut  range  of  Kumool.  In 
these  crystalline  nests  I  observed  a  few  lamime  of  a  mineral  of  a 
bright  grass  green  colour,  with  a  lustre  and  appearance  resembling 
those  of  uranite.  GhJena  occurs  in  the  quartz  veins  of  the  Nulla  Mulla 
ehain  and  occasional  detached  strings  and  thin  patches  of  carbonate  of 
oopper. 

Anthracite  has  recently  been  found  in  the  Goond  country  in  the 
sandstone  of  Dantinmapilly,  about  twenty  ndles  north-west  from 
Jungaum,  which  is  sixty-five  miles  west  from  Ghinnore.  The  bed  has 
an  extreme  breadth  of  three  feet,  and  length  200  feet.  Traces  of  coal 
are  also  said  to  exist  in  the  diamond  sandstone  north-west  of  Nag- 
pore,  and  it  occurs  in  great  abundance  in  similar  rocks  in  the  valley 
of  the  Nerbudda,  a  little  further  north. 

The  great  intrusion  of  basalt  into  diamond  areas  has  already  been 
notaoed,  and  it  has  usually  been  accompanied  by  evidence  of  heat, 
viz.,  induration  and  silicification  of  the  limestone,  fissures,  and  nume- 
rous thermal  springs  rising  up  through  them,  impregnated  with  car- 
bonic acid.  It  is  possible  that  this  subterranean  heat,  during  its 
periods  of  intensity,  by  acting  on  the  limestone  which  has  been  shown 
to  contain  volatile  vegetaJble  matter,  in  addition  to  carbonic  acid, 
drove  off  a  portion  of  these  in  a  gaseous  form,  with  the  superincum- 
bent sandstone,  and  thus  caused  its  diamondization,  if  I  may  be  per- 
mitted so  to  express  myself,  by  a  process  somewhat  similar  to  that 
of  the  dolomisation  of  limestone.  The  atoms  of  carbon  set  at  liberty 
from  their  old  combinations  of  lime,  oxygen,  and  hydrogen,  and  having 
little  affinity  for  the  silica  of  their  new  matrix,  gradually  aggregated 


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170  SUMMARY   OP   THE   GEOLOGY 

Under  the  injdaence  of  certain  laws  in  the  poree  of  the  i^andstone^  and 
aaeumed  a  ciystalline  form* 

Organic  Remains, — ^Although,  as  already  stated^  there  is  a  oertain 
degree  of  mineral  resemblance  between  the  sandstone  beds  of  Southe 
India  and  those  of  the  Deyonian  group,  jet  the  singular  ichthjolites;^ 
molluscs,  and  corallines  that  distinguished  the  latter  are  totaUj  want- 
ing in  the  former — that  is,  as  far  as  has  hitherto  been  ascertained. 
The  sandstones  supporting  the  coal  measures  at  Chirra  Pnnji,  resting 
upon  plutonic  rocks,  hjpogene  schists,  and  supposed  to  be  identical 
with  the  diamond  sandstones  of  Punna  in  Bundlecund,  of  Gnddapah,; 
Kumool,  Banaganpillj,  and  Nagpore,  are  said  to  abound  in  teredines, 
and  to  imbed  fossil  stems  and  fruits  of  MimossB,  while  in  its  associated 
limstone,  bivalyed  and  uniyalved  shells,  with  coralloids  hitherto 
unclassed,  are  found,  and  a  single  gryphite^;  this  limestone,  howeyer, 
from  its  superior  position  to  the  sandstone,  is  probably  of  more  recent 
origin  than  that  just  described. 

A  few  impressions  of  stems  and  leayes  of  plants,  one  of  which 
resembles  a  fossil  Glossopteris  Danaaoides  of  the  Burdwan  coal-fields 
figured  by  Professor  Royle,  haye  been  discoyered  by  Lieutenant 
Monro  in  the  Nagpore  sandstone.  There  are  two  other  impressions  in 
Lieutenant  Monro's  specimens,  bearing  some  resemblance.  Mr.  Mai- 
colmson  thinks,  to  the  large  bony  scales  of  the  sauroid  fishes  of  the 
old  red  sandstone.  Howeyer,  they  were  so  indistinct,  that  it  would 
not  be  prudent  to  indulge  in  any  speculation,  until  further  discoyeries 
be  made.  One  of  those  impressions,  which  I  carefully  examined,  bore 
resemblance  to  that  of  the  reticulated  skeleton  of  a  leaf. 

In  the  sandstone  hill  of  Won,  Mr.  Malcolmson  discoyered  a  fossil 
of  a  deep  black  colour,  and  haying  a  compact  structure,  which  he 
conceiyes  to  be  a  portion  of  a  hollow  compressed  yegetable ;  its 
centre  is  filled  with  sandsfbne.  The  carboniferous  sandstones  of 
Damuda,  it  is  well  known,  contain  fossil  remains  of  the  Vertebraria 
Indica,  R. ;  of  Sphenophyllum  (?)  speciosum,  R. ;  of  Glossopteris 
Brownian%  Ad.  Brongniart;  Pustularia  Calderiana;  Precopteris 
Lindleyana,  &c. 

Age, — ^With  regard  to  the  age  of  the  diamond  sandstone  and 
limestone,  geologists  are  of  conflicting  opinions.  Christie  referred  the 
latter  to  the  transition  period,  and  the  former  to  the  old  red  sand- 
stone, without  further  eyidence  than  mineral  character,  and  their  haying 
been  disturbed,  with  the  hypogene  schists,  by  plutonic  rocks.  Major 
Franklin'  has  referred  the  limestone  to  the  lias,  and  the  sandstone  U% 

I  Conybeare*s  Report  to  British  AssociatioD,  1832. 

'  Geological  Transactions,  Second  Series,  Vol.  III.,  Part  I. 

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OF    SOUTHEUN     INDIA.  171 

the  new  red.  Mr.  Maloolmson*  has  already  refntod  the  opinion  of 
the  latter,  and  states  his  oonyiction.  that  they  belong  to  the  more 
ancient  secondary,  or  even  transition  rocks.  Major  Franklin's  theory 
appears  to  have  been  principally  founded  on  the  saliferons  seams 
oocnrring  in  the  sandstone;  but  in  Southern  India,  sa  Mr.  Malcolm- 
son  justly  observes,  salt  occurs  in  all  the  formations,  from  granite  to 
alluvium,  and  the  blue  limestone,  classed  as  lias,  almost  invariably 
underlies  the  sandstone  classed  as  the  new  red.  A  large  sandstone 
track  in  Russia,  long  supposed  identical  with  the  new  red,  on  account 
of  its  interstratified  gypseous  and  saliferons  beds,  has  recently  been 
proved  by  MM.  Murchison  and  Vemeuil '  to  belong  to  the  old  red, 
from  its  imbedded  ichthyolites.  It  is  a  well-known  fact»  that  the  old 
red  in  the  north  of  Scotland  is  saliferous :  salt  springs  occur  in  the 
English  coal  measures,  in  the  liajB  of  Switzerland,  in  the  tertiary  lime- 
stones of  Egypt  and  Greece,  and  in  the  old  transition  slates  of 
America. 

The  frequent  horizontal  position  of  the  diamond  sandstone  and 
limestone  strata  must  not  be  regarded  sa  a  proof  of  recent  origin* 
Granite,  it  is  well  known,  has  tilted  up,  and  disturbed  rocks  of  a  period 
more  modern  than  the  chalk ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  distin- 
guished geologists  first  quoted  found  the  older  silurian  rocks,  cover- 
ing a  considerable  portion  of  Russia,  in  perfectly  horizontal  stratifi- 
cation. Until  the  further  discovery  of  organic  remains  enables  the 
geologist  to  see  his  way  more  clearly,  it  would  be  advisable  to  refrain 
from  any  hasty  and  premature  classification. 

WiUi  respect  to  their  age,  relatively  to  other  Indian  rocks,  it  has 
been  clearly  shown,  from  superposition,  unconformability  of  stratifica- 
tion, and  imbedded  pebbles,  that  they  are  posterior  to  the  oldest  hypo- 
gene  schists,  and  anterior  to  the  latest  outbreaks  of  granite  and  basaltic 
greenstone,  which  have  penetrated  and  altered  their  structure.  A  few 
pebbles  of  an  older  greenstone  occasionally  occur  imbedded.  I  have 
already  stated  my  opinion  of  an  interval  having  taken  place  between 
the  deposition  of  the  limestone  and  the  sandstone  sufficient  for  the 
consolidation  of  the  former,  from  the  fact  of  a  slight  unconformability 
of  dip,  and  of  the  latter*s  containing  imbedded  pebbles  of  a  fossiliferous 
chert  evidently  derived  from  the  limestone. 

^  Geological  Transactioiis,  Second  Series,  Vol  V.,  pp.  668,  509. 
*  Ibi<L  Ibid.  VoL  V.,  Report  of   Biickland*8 

Annivefsarjf  Speech,  1841. 

[To  be  Continued,] 

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172 


Art.  VIII.— -^  few  ObservationA  on  the  lempU  of  SomnatA;  by 
Captain  Postans. 

[Bead  June  15,  lS4i.] 

As  a  strong  feeling  has  been  evinced  by  the  Society  that  by  means 
xxf  graphic  illustration  the  curiosities  and  monuments  of  antiquity  in 
India  should  be  rescued  from  oblivion,  (a  wish  that  has  been  most 
liberally  met  by  the  Honourable  Company,)  I  have  considered  it  some- 
what conducive  to  the  object  in  view  to  print  the  sketch  which  I  took 
of  the  celebrated  temple  of  Somnath  during  my  visit  to  Girnar  in 
1838*,  and  of  which  a  description  was  given  in  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society's  Journal  for  October,  in  that  year. 

The  principal  historical  notices  of  Somnath  which  have  reached 
us  are  comprised  in  the  well-known  accounts  of  Mirkhond,  (in  his 
Rozat-as-safa,)  Firishtah,  in  his  great  History,  and  a  curious  and  quaint 
story  of  the  poet  Sadies  visit  to  the  temple,  about  two  centuries  after  the 
invasion  of  the  Saurashtra  by  iVIahmdd  of  Ghazni.  From  these,  as 
well  as  collateral  accounts,  it  is  certain,  notwithstanding  a  great  discre- 
pancy as  to  the  peculiar  form  of  the  idol  or  object  of  adoration  which 
MahmCid  found  on  his  visit  in  the  beginning  of  the  eleventh  century  of 
our  era,  that  the  temple  of  Somnath  was  one  of  the  richest  and  most 
gorgeous  shrines  then  existing  in  Western  India,  and  that  this  wealth 
and  renown  formed  no  little  portion  of  the  inducements  which  influenced 
the  Mohammedan  march  to  that  extreme  comer  of  the  Gujarat  penin- 
sula. Like  everything  of  an  historical  character  in  India,  the  Hindds 
themselves  are  totally  ignorant  respecting  the  interest  which  attaches  to 
Somnath,  and  certainly  in  and  near  the  spot,  the  fact  of  Mahmdd's 
invasion,  startling  though  it  was,  is  quite  unknown,  and  the  building 
itself  looked  upon  in  its  ruined  state  without  the  slightest  approach  to 
respect  or  interest  of  any  kind.  How  far  this  apathy  may  extend  into 
the  interior  of  India  I  am  not  prepared  to  state,  but  certainly  in  no  part 
of  the  Bombay  Presidency,  or  amongst  the  Rajput  tribes  of  Saurashtra. 
did  I  ever  hear  a  syllable  indicative  of  an  acquaintance  with  an 
interest  in  the  Somnath,  except  amongst  the  Jain  priests  of  Girnar, 
who  in  their  crude  historical  records  designate  it  as  Chandra  prabasat 
and  appear  to  consider  it  as  one  of  their  shrines ;  but  of  its  political 
history  they  know  nothing.  The  vicinity  has  shared  tlie  veneration  of 
pilgrims  (with  the  neighbouring  shrine  of  Dwarkanath  and  the  whole 

*  Pablished  by  Messrs.  Smith  and  Elder,  Cornbili. 

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THE  TBMPLB  OP  SOMNATH.  173 

line  of  coast,)  from  the  legend  which  ascribes  the  death  of  Krishna 
from  the  arrow  of  his  brother  Vali^  to  a  spot  near  Somnath,  but  to 
the  temple  itself  they  pay  no  respect.  In  an  Upapurana  it  is  men- 
tioned as  one  of  the  twelve  Lingas  of  Siva,  and  hence  a  great  difference 
of  opinion  between  learned  commentators  as  to  the  Budhistical  or  Brah- 
manical  character  which  should  be  assigned  to  the  place  when  found 
and  pillaged  by  Mahmud :  the  able  discussions  on  this  point  printed  in 
the  Asiatic  Journal  for  May  and  June,  1843,  must  be  referred  to  for 
every  information  on  this  head  ;  it  would  ill  become  a  mere  observer 
and  recorder  of  facts  like  myself  to  offer  any  opinion  on  so  erudite  a 
question  ;  but  as  my  impressions  were  given  in  1838,  so  I  venture  to 
refer  to  them  here,  and  will  conclude  this  notice  with  the  description  I 
then  gave  of  the  actual  appearance  of  the  temple.  Colonel  Tod  has 
quoted  inscriptions  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Somnath,  some 
of  which  I  saw,  and  which  appear  to  record  repairs  or  additions  made 
to  the  temple  by  petty  princes  or  chiefs  of  Anthilwara;  and  the  modern 
temple  raised  by  Ahalia  Bhye,  near  the  ruin  of  the  greater,  is  rather  a 
proof  that  the  Mahrattas  considered  the  neighbourhood  imbued  with  a 
certain  degp*ee  of  sanctity,  as  it  certainly  is  to  Hindiis,  than  that  they 
attached  any  interest  to  Somnath  itself. 

Pattan,  and  all  the  part  of  the  country  wherein  it  is  situated,  is 
now  under  a  Mohamedan  ruler,  the  Nawaub  of  Junagurh,  and  the 
city  itself  offers  the  most  curious  specimen  of  any  I  have  ever  seen 
of  its  original  Hindd  character,  preserved  throughout  its  walls,  gates, 
and  buildings,  despite  Mohammedan  innovations  and  a  studied  attempt 
to  obliterate  the  traces  of  paganism ;  even  the  very  musjtds,  which  are 
here  and  there  encountered  in  the  town,  have  been  raised  by  materials 
from  the  sacred  edifices  of  the  conquered,  or,  as  it  is  said  by  the  histo- 
rians of  Sindh,  '*  the  true  believers  turned  the  temples  of  the  idol  wor- . 
shippers  into  places  of  prayer."  Old  Pattan  is  to  this  day  a  Hindu 
city  in  all  but  its  inhabitants — perhaps  one  of  the  most  interesting  his- 
torical spots  in  Western  India.  Mahmiid,  we  know,  left  a  Hindti  or  a 
native  ruler  here,  but  successive  changes  have  taken  place  since  then, 
and  various  historians  mention  spoliations  and  conversions  of  the 
temples  to  mosques  by  succeeding  conquerors,  until  Somnath  assumed 
the  appearance  it  now  presents,  of  a  temple  evidently  of  pagan  ori- 
g^al  altered  by  the  introduction  of  a  Mohammedan  style  of  archi- 
tecture in  various  portions,  but  leaving  its  general  plan  and  minor 
features  unmolested.  Whether  any  or  what  portion  of  the  original 
structure  now  stands  as  it  was  seen  by  Mahmtid  in  the  eleventh  century, 
I  would  beg  to  leave  to  more  learned  commentators  to  decide ;  I  can 
jonly  say,  that  in  various  portions,  particularly  the  western  front,  where 

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174  A    FEW   OBSBRVATIONS   ON 

it  18  most  perfect^  it  is  rich  in  ornament,  and  by  whomever  raised  or 
restored,  the  work  most  have  been  done  at  a  period  when  seal  and  wealth 
prompted  the  laboar.  Its  material  altogether  is  cyclopean,  and  even  in 
its  present  state  would,  unless  wilfully  demolished,  stand  for  centuries, 
though  exposed  to  the  trying  effects  of  damp  sea  air,  and  for  some 
portion  of  the  year  to  the  whole  violence  of  the  monsoon.  I  would 
here  express  a  hope  that  it  may  long  be  allowed  to  stand  as  a  remarkable 
monument- of  Indian  history,  replete  with  an  interest  of  which  its  total 
or  partial  former  demolition  cannot  deprive  it.  It  can  never  be  again 
used  for  the  purposes  to  which  it  has  heretofore  been  appropriated; 
and  any  slight  efforts  for  its  preservation  could  not,  therefore*  be  mis- 
construed. 

The  following  is  the  translation  of  an  inscription  in  the  Cufic  cha- 
racter, transcribed  by  Major  Rawlinson,  which  was  found  on  the 
reputed  gates  of  Somnath,  brought,  in  1843,  by  our  victorious  troops 
from  the  tomb  of  the  champion  of  the  faith  at  Ghazni. — "/n  the 
name  of  the  most  mftrcifvl  God  (may  there  be)  forgiveness  Srom  God 
for  the  most  nohle  Ameer  the  great  King,  who  was  bom  to  become  the 
Lord  of  the  State,  and  the  Lord  of  religion^  Abdul  Kassim  Mahmudj 
the  son  of  Sabuktagin,  may  the  mercy  of  God  be  upon  him"  (remain- 
ing phrase  illegible.)  A  sketch  of  these  gates  has,  I  believe,  been  pub- 
lished, but  it  is  curious  to  observe,  whatever  may  have  been  their 
architectural  character  or  material,  as  applicable  to  Somnath,  whence 
vague  tradition  has  assigned  their  removal,  that  there  is  no  allusion 
to  the  exploit  in  the  above,  unless  the  illegible  phrase  may  contain  it. 

The   following  is  the  description  of  the  appearance  of  Somnath, 
which  I  have  elsewhere  ventured  to  describe  with  pen  and  pencil. 

^*  This  famous  shrine  occupies  an  elevated  site  in  the  north-western 
comer  of  the  city  of  Puttan,  on  the  western  coast  of  the  Gujarat 
peninsula,  overlooking  the  sea  and  close  to  the  walls.  In  its  present 
mutilated  state  it  may  be  difficult  to  convey  any  very  distinct  or  correct 
idea  of  Somnath,  for  though  its  original  design  and  gorgeous  archi- 
tecture may  still  be  traced  even  in  the  complete  ruin  it  presents,  its 
general  effect  is  likely  to  be  better  understood  from  an  effort  of  the 
pencil  than  the  pen. 

^  The  temple  consists  of  one  large  hall  in  an  oblong  form,  from  one 
end  of  which  proceeds  a  small  square  chamber,  or  sanctum.  The 
centre  of  the  hall  is  occupied  by  a  noble  dome  over  an  octagon  of  eight 
arches ;  the  remainder  of  the  roof  terraced  and  supported  by  numerous 
pillars.  There  are  three  entrances.  The  sides  of  the  building  face  to 
the  cardinal  points,  and  the  principal  entrance  appears  to  be  on  the 
eastern  side,  (the  view  is  taken  from  this  quarter.)     These  doorways 


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THE   TEMPLE    OF    SOMNATH.  175 

are  unusually  high  and  wide,  in  the  Pyramidal  or  Egyptian  form, 
decreasing  towards  the  top;  they  add  much  to  the  effect  of  the  build- 
ing. Internally,  the  whole  presents  a  scene  of  complete  destruction ; 
the  pavement  is  everywhere  covered  with  heaps  of  stones  and  rubbish ; 
the  facings  of  the  walls,  capitals  of  the  pillars,  in  short,  every  portion 
possessing  anything  approaching  to  ornament,  having  been  defaced  or 
removed,  (if  not  by  Mahmud,  by  those  who  subsequently  converted  this 
temple  into  its  present  semi-Mohammedan  appearance).  On  a  pillar 
beyond  the  centre  arch,  and  leading  to  the  sanctum,  is  an  inscription 
which,  anxious  as  I  was  to  learn  anything  connected  with  the  t«mple, 
much  excited  my  curiosity.  On  translation,  however,  it  proved  to  be 
merely  a  record  of  a  certain  Seldt  or  mason,  who  visited  the  place  some 
300  years  since.  I  learnt,  to  my  inexpressible  regret,  that  an  ancient 
tablet,  whose  unoccupied  niche  was  pointed  out  to  me,  had  been  removed 
from  Somnath  some  years  ago  by  a  European  visitor.  I  need  hardly 
quote  Col.  Tod*s  remark  on  this  mistaken,  though  I  fear  too  frequent 
practice  ;^vii  if  what  he  says  be  applicable  to  the  mere  architectural 
ornaments  of  a  building,  how  much  more  so  to  engraven  records 
similar  to  that  which  is  here  wanting. 

*^  Externally  the  whole  of  the  buildings  are  most  elaborately  carved 
and  ornamented  with  figures,  single  and  in  grroups  of  various  dimensions. 
Many  of  them  appear  to  have  been  of  some  size;  but  so  laboriously  was 
the  work  of  mutilation  carried  on  here,  that  of  the  larger  figures 
scarcely  a  trunk  has  been  left,  whilst  few  even  of  the  most  minute 
remain  uninjured.  The  western  side  is  the  most  perfect:  here  the 
pillars  and  ornaments  are  in  excellent  preservation.  The  front  entrance 
is  ornamented  with  a  portico,  and  surmounted  by  two  slender  minarets 
-—ornaments  so  much  in  the  Moliammedan  style,  that  they,  as  well  as 
the  domes,  have  evidently  been  added  to  the  original  building.  The  two 
side  entrances,  which  are  at  some  height  from  the  ground,  were  gained  by 
flights  of  steps :  of  these  latter  the  remains  only  are  to  be  traced.  The 
whole  space,  for  a  considerable  distance  around  the  temple,  is  occupied 
by  portions  of  pillars,  stones,  and*  fragments  of  the  original  building.'* 

Such  is  a  brief  description  of  the  present  appearance  of  the  re- 
nowned Somnathy  which,  notwithstanding  its  original  spoliation  and 
subsequent  alterations,  mus4  always  prove  an  object  of  g^at  interest  to 
all  who  have  studied  the  history  er  antiquities  of  India.  I  must  not 
omit  to  mention,  as  a  proof  of  the  wonderful  solidity  of  this  structure^ 
that  within  a  few  years  its  roof  was  used  as  a  battery  for  some  heavy 
pieces  of  ordnance,  with  which  the  neighbouring  port  of  Virawal  was 
defended  from  the  pirates  who  previously  infested  the  coast. 


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176 


Art.  IX. — Report  on  some  of  the  Rights^  PrivUegeB^  and  Usapei 
of  the  Hill  Population  in  Meytcar;  by  Captain  W.  Hunier, 
of  the  Meyitar  Bhxl  Corps, 

\R€Qd  Fdyruary  25,  1843.] 

REspECTiYfi  Rights  of  Soyereion  Chiefs  and  Subjects  on  the 
Hilly  Tract  between  Sirohi  and  Doongurpore. 

This  question  appears  to  haYe  been  first  seriously  agitated  in  1826,  in 
consequence  of  a  reference  from  the  Acting  Political  Agent  in  Meywar, 
Capt.  Sutherland,  to  Sir  C.  Metcalfe,  regarding  certain  Gras3ra  chiefs 
of  the  Hill  principalities,  nominally  independent,  but  from  whom  alle- 
giance was  claimed  by  the  Oodeypore  GoYcmment. 

In  reply  to  the  aboYe  reference.  Sir  C.  Metcalfe  expressed  himself 
of  opinion  that  those  chiefs  whom  he  found  independent  when  our 
mediation  was  established  in  this  part  of  India,  and  who  might  be  able 
to  show  that  they  had  not  for  a  considerable  period  prior  to  our  media- 
tion  acknowledged  submission  to  any  power,  should  be  recognised  as 
still  independent;  and  that  in  that  case  we  ought  not  to  lend  oar  aid 
to  reduce  them:  this  was  the  general  principle  established  by  Sip 
Charles  Metcalfe,  upon  which  to  regulate  our  conduct  towards  these 
states ;  but  for  a  more  particular  solution  of  the  question  in  each  case, 
the  Political  Agent  at  Oodeypore  was  desired  to  haYe  recourse  to  an 
inYcstigation  of  the  claims  to  allegiance  set  up  on  the  one  hand,  and 
of  the  grounds  of  denial  on  the  other. 

Consequent  on  these  instructions,  Capt.  Cobbe,  in  the  coarse  of 
conYcrsation  with  the  Minister  of  Rana  Bheem  Sing,  endeaYOored  to 
ascertain  whether,  within  the  period  of  his  Highnesses  existence,  any 
chont,  tunkhwah,  or  other  tributary  payment,  had  been  made  to  the 
durbar  by  the  chiefs  of  the  Grasya  tribes  of  Joora,  Meerpoor,  Oguna^ 
and  Panarwa>  and  whether  any  engagements  of  the  kind  had  eiaated 
during  the  same  period.  • 

The  Minister's  answer  was  soch  as  to  satisfy  Capt.  Cobbe  that  the 
claims  of  the  Rana  to  sapremaoy  OYcr  these  cbiefis  had  been  in  abey- 
ance for  a  period  far  exceeding  the  term  adYcrted  to.  The  Rana 
Bheem  Sing  disaYowed  the  collection  of  any  roYenue  from  them  daring 
his  long  reign  of  nearly  half  a  century,  and  admitted  that  during  thai 


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HILL    POPULATION    IN    METWAR.  177 

period  the  Grasya  ohiefe  had  never  Yohintarilj  afforded,  nor  had  he 
been  able  to  enforce  any  service  or  tribute  from  them.  Capt.  Cobbe 
therefore  considered  that  the  Oode3rpore  chief  had  failed  in  sub- 
stantiating a  claim  to  supremacy  over  the  chiefs  of  Joora,  Meerpoor, 
Oguna»  and  Pannrwa;  and  that,  on  the  principles  laid  down  in  Sir 
Charles  Metcalfe's  letter  of  instructions  under  date  9th  December,  1826, 
the  independence  of  these  chiefs  was  indisputably  established. 

Assuming  this  point  to  be  fully  settled,  the  next  subject  of  con- 
sideration was  what  course  it  might  be  prudent  and  necessary  to  adopt 
to  oblige  these  chiefs  to  afford  protection  to  travellers  against  the 
violence  and  outrage  of  those  over  whom  they  claimed  unqualified 
jurisdiction,  and  to  induce  them,  whilst  respecting  the  rights  of  their 
neighbours,  to  afford  every  encouragement  to  the  cultivation  of  such 
resources  as  they  possessed  within  the  limits  of  their  respecth^e  terri- 
tories. 

Capt.  Cobbe,  in  consequence  of  the  poverty  and  weakness  to  which 
these  chiefs  had  been  reduced  by  a  long  period  of  anarchy  and  con- 
iiision,  recommended  that  to  carry  these  views  into  execution,  some 
assistance  should  be  afforded  them  by  the  British  Government,  more 
especially  as  in  their  unsettled  and  disorganised  state,  if  left  to  them- 
selves, they  were  avowedly  and  manifestly  nnable  to  control  their 
subjects,  or  to  obtain  from  them  anything  more  than  a  scanty  and 
uncertain  income,  granted  rather  to  hereditary  claims  than  exacted  by 
the  power  of  the  chiefs. 

In  conmion  cases  of  real  or  pretended  inability  on  the  part  of  the 
chiefs  to  repress  the  outrages  and  aggressions  of  their  subjects,  the 
power  to  whom  the  general  tranquillity  is  confided,  Capt.  Cobbe 
argued,  was  entitled  to  assume  the  management  of  the  estate ;  and 
though,  owing  to  the  extreme  poverty  of  the  country,  such  an  assump- 
tion would  in  all  probability  prove  anything  but  profitable  to  the 
paramount  power,  still,  from  the  position  of  the  states  bordering 
on  Edur,  Oujttrst,  Sirohi,  and  Palhanpore,  it  was,  in  Capt.  Cobbe's 
opinion,  of  the  highest  importance  that  such  arrangements  should  be 
adopted  by  the  British  Government  as  would  effectually  insure  the 
suppression  of  the  constant  predatory  irruptions  of  the  Bhils,  and 
oblige  the  chiefs  themselves  to  refrain  from  committing  aggressions  on 
the  neighbouring  principalities. 

In  reply  to  these  observations.  Sir  Charles  Metcalfe,  in  a  letter 
dated  18th  December,  1826,  remarked,  that  as  the  Grasya  chiefs  were 
independent,  and  did  not  acknowledge  allegiance  to  Oodeypore,  or  any 
other  state,  it  would  be  necessary  to  negotiate  with  them*  on  our  part: 
that  it  did  not,  however,  appear  to  him  that  the  chiefs  in  question  had 
VOL.  VIII.  N   r^  T 

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178  REPORT   ON   THB 

axij  elum  to  oor  aaastaaoe,  and  that  they  were  not  even  entitled  to 
our  protection :  that  we  required  nothing  from  them  but  the  aecority 
of  our  own  subjects  and  allies  against  the  predatory  irruptions  of  the 
people  over  whom  they  professed  to  have  soyereignty,  and  a  safe 
passage  through  their  territories  for  travellers  and  merchandise. 

The  first  of  these  demands,  if  not  both,  Sir  Charles  observes;  we  axe 
entitled  to,  and  even  bound,  in  justice  to  others,  to  insist  on ;  and 
should  the  chiefs  be  unable  to  give  us  satisfaction  on  that  point,  we 
have  an  unquestionable  right,  in  defence  of  our  subjects  and  allies,  to 
subjugate  the  country  of  the  offenders. 

Such  Sir  Charles  Metcalfe  conceived  to  be  the'*proper  and  only 
principles  of  any  negotiation  to  be  opened  with  these  chiefs.  '^  We 
hereby,**  he  says,  ''ask  nothing  but  what  we  have  a  right  to  require: 
if,  therefore,  they  withhold  it,  they  become  public  enemies :  if  they 
be  unable  to  effect  it,  they  virtually  abdicate  the  sovereignty  to  which 
they  pretend  over  all  whom  they  cannot  restrain  from  outrage.** 

In  conformity  with  these  principles.  Sir  Charles  recommended  that 
the  Grasya  chiefs  should  be  called  on  to  state  distinctly  what  portion 
of  territory  they  could  be  responsible  for,  and  what  portion  was 
beyond  the  exercise  of  their  efficient  sovereignty.  He  did  not  think  it 
desirable  that  the  expectation  of  assistance  should  be  encouraged,  but 
in  the  event  of  their  soliciting  it,  they  were  to  be  called  on  to  state  in 
what  particulars,  and  for  what  purposes,  it  would  be  wanted ;  as  also 
what  equivalent  they  might  be  prepared  to  pay  for  a^istanoe  whidi 
they  could  not  in  equity  expect  gratuitously. 

On  the  above  principles,  as  £B»r  as  they  could  be  acted  upon  without 
involving  a  violation  of  any  manifest  rights  appertaining  to  the  Rana 
of  Oodeypore,  Capt.  Cobbe  was  authorised  to  enter  into  negotiations 
with  the  Grasya  chiefs,  himself  directiy,  or  to  entrust  the  business  to 
Capt.  Black  as  a  part  of  the  duties  of  a  deputation  on  which  he  was 
about  to  be  employed  under  the  orders  of  the  Political  Agent. 

Capt.  Black  proceeded  towards  the  Hills  in  January,  1827,  but 
unfortunately  owing  to  the  rebellion  of  the  celebrated  Dowlut  Singh, 
the  manager  of  Jowass,  all  his  efforts  to  overcome  the  disaffection  of 
the  Orasya  chie&  proved  unavailing,  and  nothing  was  accomplished 
till  the  cold  weather  of  1828,  when  Capt  Speirs,  supported  by  a  force 
of  upwards  of  2000  of  our  own  men  from  Neemuch,  under  the  com- 
mand of  the  present  MajoivGeneral  Burgh,  succeeded  in  persuading 
Dowlnt  Singh,  together  with  the  chiefs  of  Joora^  Ognna^  and  Panurwa, 
to  render  their  submission,  and  to  acknowledge  the  supremacy  of  the 
British  Government 

The  claims  of  the  Orasya  chiefs  to  independence  were  at  this  period 

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HILL    POPULATION    IN    MEYWAR.  179 

lolly  establidied  on  the  principles  laid  down  in  Sir  Chailes  Metcalfe's 
nutrnciimis,  and  the  justice  of  a  claim  thus  recognised  by  the  GoTemor- 
General's  Agent  for  the  affairs  of  Rajpootana,  and  afterwards  ratified 
by  the  Supreme  Goveromeot^  would  seem  to  be  supported  by  the 
authority  of  Oapt.  Tod,  who^  in  regard  to  the  states  under  discussion, 
remarks  as  follows : — 

"  The  principalities  of  Oguna,  Panurwa,  and  Meerpoor,  are  inhar 
bited  by  communities  of  the  aboriginal  races,  living  in  a  state  of  pri- 
meval and  almost  savage  independence,  owning  no  paramount  power, 
paying  no  tribute,  but  with  all  the  simplicity  of  Republics  *."  "  Oguna 
Panora  is  the  sole  spot  in  India  which  enjoys  a  state  of  natural 
freedom;  attached  to  no  state;  having  no  foreign  communications; 
Ihring  under  its  own  patriandial  head,  its  chief,  with  the  title  of  Rana, 
whom  one  thousand  hamlets  scattered  over  the  forest-crowned  valleys 
obey,  can  if  requisite  appear  at  the  head  of  5000  bows.  He  is  a 
Bhoomia  Bhil  of  mixed  blood,  from  the  Solanki  Rajpoot  on  the  old 
stock  of  pure  (oojla)  Bhils'."  ''  The  descendants  of  Baleo  and  Deeva, 
the  Oguna  and  Gondree  Bhils,  celebrated  as  the  faithful  guardians  and 
companions  of  the  fugitive  Bappa  Rawut,  the  great  ancestor  of  the 
Oodeypore  royal  £Eunily,  still  claim  the  privilege  of  performing  the 
teeka  on  the  inauguration  of  a  new  sovereign,  on  which  occasion, 
besides  making  the  teeka  of  blood  drawn  from  the  finger  of  a  Bhil, 
the  Oguna  chief  is  entitled  to  take  the  prince  by  the  arm,  and  seat 
him  on  the  throne"." 

Though  the  Rana  of  Panurwa  disclaims  the  feudal  supremacy  of 
the  Rana^  owing  to  the  long  time  it  has  been  in  abeyance,  as  well  as 
on  account  of  the  uncertain  and  indefinite  nature  of  such  claim  when 
it  has  been  temporarily  recognised,  still  he  acknowledges  to  Oapt. 
Speirs  that  his  ancestors,  many  generations  back,  had  a  certain  gate  in 
the  Hills  entrusted  to  their  charge,  where  they  were  bound  to  keep  up 
a  stipulated  number  of  horse  and  foot,  and  for  the  performance  of  this 
dnky  the  Rana  of  Oodeypore  bestowed  upon  them  several  Villages. 
Theee  villages  at  a  subsequMit  period  having  been  resumed,  the  above 
service  was  discontinued,  and  their  dependent  condition  again  wholly 
disappeared. 

The  Oguna  Rawut  is  a  younger  branch  of  the  Panurwa  family, 
and  acknowledges  the  supremacy  of  its  chiefs.  No  member  of  the 
Oguna  house  can  take  his  seat  on  the  Gaddi  till  pbiced  therein 
by  the  chief  of  Panurwa,  who  girds  on  his  sword,  and  receives  the 
usual  fine  of  investuie.     Whether  any  engagements  have  been  entered 

•  Tod,  VoL  L,  p.  10.  «  Ibid.  p.  224.  •  Ibid. 

N2 

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180  REPORT    ON    THE 

into  subsequent  to  the  treaties  settled  by  Capt.  Speiis  in  1828, 1  have 
not  had  the  means  of  ascertaining. 

The  valley  in  which  Joora  is  situated,  as  also  the  villages  of 
Oguna  and  Panurwa^  extends  from  north  to  south  about  fifteen  ooss, 
varying  in  breadth  from  five  miles  to  three  and  two.  The  population 
is  considerable,  and  the  soil  extremely  fertile,  producing  as  fine  fields 
of  wheat  and  barley  as  are  to  be  seen  in  any  part  of  India.  The 
inhabitants  cultivate  the  sugar-cane  and  ginger,  and  many  valuable 
drugs  used  by  native  physicians  are  also  produced  on  these  Hills. 
The  chiefs  themselves  are  said  to  derive  little  benefit  from  all  these 
advantages,  their  share  of  the  revenue  or  produce  being  very  much  in 
the  proportion  to  the  power  they  possess  of  exacting  them  from  their 
subjects,  the  more  powerful  of  whom  have  been  in  the  habit  of  giving 
what  they  do,  more  as  a  benefaction  to  the  chiefs,  than  from  any 
acknowledged  or  inherent  right  on  their  part  to  enforce  it 

The  country  is  by  nature  exceedingly  strong,  and  the  difficulty 
attending  military  operations  is  much  enhanced  by  the  great  scarcity 
of  water,  the  absence  of  every  species  of  cattle  and  carriage,  and  the 
difficulty  of  procuring  supplies  and  information.  March  and  April 
are  perhaps  the  most  favourable  months  for  military  operations,  when, 
in  consequence  of  the  scarcity  of  water  in  the  Hills,  the  Bhilsand  their 
cattle  are  compelled  to  descend  to  the  valleys;  and  on  these  occasions 
they  are  easily  surrounded;  but  this,  owing  to  the  scattered  site  of 
their  hamlets,  is  very  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  accomplish  when 
they  once  get  to  their  Hills.  Nothing  alarms  the  Bhils  more  than  the 
probable  loss  of  the  Indian  com,  or  Kharif  crop,  which  is  cultivated 
during  the  rains,  and  on  which  they  chiefly  subsist.  Their  dread  on 
this  score  has  often  induced  the  rebellious  Bhils  to  surrender,  and  to 
give  hostages  or  security  for  future  good  conduct,  when  all  other  means 
have  failed  to  reduce  them  to  subjection. 

In  the  Grasya  Hills,  as  well  as  in  the  Jowass  District,  there  exist 
numerous  petty  chiefs  of  the  same  caste  as,  and  acknowledged  by  the 
population;  which,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  Baniyas  in  the  prin- 
cipal villages  of  each  chief,  consists  almost  entirely  of  Bhils  and 
Grasyas.  The  whole  body  of  the  governed  are  there  naturally  con- 
nected with  their  rulers;  and  were  these  only  more  solicitous  of  the 
public  welfare,  and  more  disposed  to  exert  themselves,  their  influenoe 
and  power  would  no  doubt  avail  much  to  suppress  the  indefensible 
outrages  so  frequently  committed  by  their  turbulent  and  unruly 
subjects. 

In  Chupan  and  Doongurpore  the  relations  between  chief  and 
subject  aie  on  a  very  different  footing.     In  those  tracts,  no  chief  of 

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HILL   POPULATION    IN    MBTWAR.  181 

Bhil  or  Mina  extnustion  is  to  be  foand.  The  people  have  there  been 
for  ages  in  partial  subjection  to  the  Rajpoot  chiefs,  between  whom 
and  the  Bhil  no  bond  of  union  or  attachment,  except  that  of  commn- 
nitj  of  crime,  ever  appears  to  have  existed.  Moreover,  owing  to  the 
constant  residence  of  these  chiefs  on  their  estates,  the  population  in 
that  quarter  has  naturally  become  very  mixed — so  much  so,  that  in 
fiome  parts  of  Chupan,  it  is  supposed  that  the  Bhils  are  outnumbered 
bj  the  other  classes  of  inhabitants, — ^Rajpoots,  Baniyas,  artisans, 
traders,  &c. 

Amongst  the  tribes  which  had  made  themselTCs  particularly  con- 
spicuous by  their  predatory  habits  in  these  Hills  are  the  Moghlas. 
They  are  mercenary  foot  soldiers,  usually  armed  with  tulwars  and 
matchlocks.  They  have  the  reputation  of  being  a  bold,  hardy,  and 
enterprising,  but  very  debauched  race:  trained  to  plunder  and 
fEitigue,  and  at  all  times  willing  to  sell  their  services  to  the  highest 
bidder.  They  are  originally  from  Joudpore,  whence  they  were  ex- 
pelled about  seventy  years  ago  by  Raja  Bajee  Sing.  They  eat  eveiy 
kind  of  flesh,  even  to  the  cow  and  jackal,  and  are  sadly  addicted  to 
strong  liquors.  Their  Jamadars  or  leaders,  whom  they  obey  im- 
plicitly, are  usually  mounted,  and,  like  most  Hindus,  they  have  the 
reputation  of  being  true  to  their  salt,  or  employers,  but  never  fail  to 
return  to  their  plundering  habits  the  moment  they  are  released  from 
service. 

A  strong  party  of  Moghias,  under  the  orders  of  their  leader 
Humauth,  were  in  the  service  of  Dowlut  Singh,  the  Manager  of 
Jowass,  during  the  period  he  was  in  rebellion  in  1827-28.  In  April 
1828,  information  was  received  of  the  death  of  Humauth,  in  a  plun- 
dering expedition  he  made  into  Gujarat  He  had  long  been  one  of 
the  most  dangerous  and  turbulent  characters  in  this  quarter,  and 
had,  on  various  occasions,  given  much  trouble  to  the  Government 
officers. 

General  Remarks  regarding  the  Bhil  Tribes. 

The  fabulous  traditions  of  the  Hindus  have  supplied  us  with  the 
following  extravagant  account  of  the  origin  of  the  Bhils.  Mahadeo, 
when  sick,  was  one  day  reclining  in  a  forest,  when  a  beautiful  damsel 
appeared,  the  first  sight  of  whom  effected  a  complete  cure  of  all  his 
complaints.  The  result  of  this  interview  was  the  birth  of  many  chil- 
dren, one  of  whom,  distinguished  for  his  ugliness,  slew  the  favourite 
bull  of  Mahadeo,  for  which  crime  he  was  expelled  to  the  woods  and 
mountains ;  and  his  descendants  have  ever  since  been  stigmatised  with 
the  names  of  Bhil  and  Ushaster,  or  Outcast. 


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182  REPORT    ON    THB 

The  Bhils,  it  has  been  remarked,  have  ever  been  oonfiidsred  a 
degraded  race,  the  very  refose  of  society ;  and  the  estrangement  and 
despair  which  such  a  notion  is  sure  to  generate^  whilst  it  tends  to  cat 
off  all  those  more  kindly  and  hnmane  feelings  which,  in  other  classes 
of  even  the  Indian  community  are  generated  between  man  and  man, 
naturally  prompts  them  to  acts  of  outrage  against  their  fellow-orear 
tares,  and  reconciles  them  to  those  habits  of  rapine  and  plunder  which 
their  traditions  teach  them  they  were  created  to  follow,  and  which  for 
ages  hare  rendered  them  a  scourge  to  society. 

Without  any  fellow-feeling  for  the  rest  of  the  community,  who 
hold  them  so  low  and  so  degi'aded,  with  such  an  impression  as  to 
their  destiny  from,  their  birth,  inured  to  hardships,  especially  to  lire 
in  the  open  air,  and  to  the  use  of  arms,  and  caring  little  for  a  life 
which,  under  the  most  favourable  circumstances,  affords  few  comforts 
and  little  gratification  beyond  that  enjoyed  by  the  brute;  the  course  of 
reckless  violence,  and  wanton  cruelty  they  have  always  pursaed  cannot 
excite  much  astonishment. 

The  Bhils  are  usually  divided  into  two  classes, — the  village  or  the 
cultivating,  and  the  wild  or  Mountain  BhlLs.  They  generally,  how- 
ever, preserve  the  same  usages,  and  the  same  forms  of  religion ;  but 
in  those  parts  of  the  country  where  the  Bhils  appear  more  hu- 
mane and  less  reckless  of  their  own  and  others*  lives,  it  has  gene* 
rally  been  found  that  they  are  not  so  destitute  of  the  means  of  exist- 
ence ;  and  that  in  proportion  to  the  abundance,  or  otherwise,  of  these 
essentials,  they  are  generally  more  or  less  disposed  to  live  in  peace 
and  quietness. 

A  vicinity  to  the  Hills  in  every  country  has  invariably  been  found 
favourable  to  the  systematic  .aggressions  of  plundering  tribes  possess- 
ing retreats  among  fascnesses  of  mountains  and  extensive  jungles;  and 
to  repress  the  outrages  of  such  local  banditti  has  at  all  times  proved  a 
task  of  no  common  labour  and  difficulty.  It  has  been  very  justly 
remarked,  that  it  is  no  reflection  on  the  irresistible  nature  of  the  power 
and  policy  of  the  Indian  Government,  that  we  have  not  succeeded  at 
once  in  this  object.  In  more  civilized  countries,  in  Greece,  Spain,  and 
Italy,  the  best  efforts  of  Government  have  failed  in  effecting  the  ex- 
tirpation of  such  illegal  communities;  and  even  England  does  not 
consider  herself  disgraced,  notwithstanding  all  the  efforts  of  her  navy, 

all  the  activity  and  discipline  of  her  trained  bands  and  militaiy  on 

shore,  have  been  ineffectual  to  put  down  the  system  of  smuggling. 

We  can  therefore  but  too  well  conceive  that  among  clans  such  aa 
the  Bhils,  plunged  as  they  are  in  the  grossest  and  most  debasing 
ignorance;  unshackled  by  any  laws;  in  many  parts  of  the  ooantiy. 

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HUL    POPULATION    IN    MIYWAB.  183 

leoognini^  no  Gbvemment;  and  aeoostomed  to  set  ereiy  pfinoiple 
but  that  of  yiolenoe  at  defiance^  itmnat  prove  a  very  difficult  and 
delicate  task,  even  by  the  application  of  the  wisest  and  gentlest  mea^ 
sues,  to  replace  with  the  forbearance  of  ciyilised  life,  that  desire  for 
fend,  and  that  Inst  for  unlawful  possession  which  is  common  to  all 
barbarous  tribes.  Plunder,  to  a  Bhil,  has  hitherto  been  the  charm 
of  lus  existence:  plnndering  they  designate  MJmt,  sport;  and 
the  prospect  of  driving  off  a  few  bullocks,  possessing  them- 
selves of  the  property  of  travellers,  or  of  a  field  of  ripe  grain,  has 
hitherto,  in  the  estimation  of  these  strange  people,  been  found  to  out> 
weigh  all  the  advantages  which  have  at  different  times  been  held  out 
to  them  by  the  offer  of  regular  employment.  I  trust,  however,  that 
in  the  disinterested  experiment  which,  under  the  authority  of  the 
British  Oovemment,  is  now  being  made  to  ameliorate  their  moral  and 
physical  condition,  we  are  in  a  foir  way  to  establish  a  better  order  of 
things.  The  mild  and  humanizing  spirit  of  these  measures,  aided  by 
the  cementing  influence  of  good  and  rognlar  pay,  can  hardly  fail  to 
produce  the  usual  effects  in  this  quarter ;  and  after  the  several  Bhil 
corps  shall  have  been  successfully  organized,  as  we  gradually  suc- 
ceed in  bending  the  people  to  our  sway,  by  giving  a  new  aim,  cha^ 
racter,  and  interest  to  their  existence,  as  we  gradually  succeed  in 
soothing  their  exasperated  passions,  and  in  awakening  them  to  habits 
of  discipline,  industry,  and  sobriety,  we  may  hope  to  obtain  a  very 
powerful  pledge  against  futuro  irruption,  and  that  constant  disturb- 
ance of  the  public  tranquillity  which  has  hitherto  been  the  bane  of 
this  misgoverned  country. 

That  the  Bhlls  in  this  tract,  by  long  giving  license  to  the  most 
lawless  and  predatory  habits,  should  have  rendered  themselves 
obnoxious  to  the  severest  penalties,  can  hardly  excite  surprise,  when 
we  reflect  on  the  moral  and  political  disorganization — I  may  say,  the 
almost  irremediable  confusion  of  every  portion  of  the  Rana's  domi- 
nions at  the  period  of  our  mediation.  Captain  Cobbe,  in  adverting  to 
this  lamentable  subject,  does  not  hesitate  to  affirm  that,  in  his  time> 
from  the  prince  to  the  peasant,  all  were  thieves  and  robbers  through- 
out the  province;  and  remarks,  there  is  no  security  for  person  or  pro* 
perty.  The  Government  is  a  tissue  of  cheating  and  oppression,  with« 
out  even  the  semblance  of  law  and  justice;  and  its  influence  and 
example  are  but  too  glaringly  manifest  in  the  shocking  depravity  and 
demoralization  of  all  classes  of  the  people. 

Thus  the  Bhils  and  Grasyas,  occupying  the  tract  between  Sirohi 
and  Doongurpore,  as  also  those  in  Chupan,  have  at  one  time  been 
enoouaged  to  the  commission  of  outrage  by  the  example  of  those 

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184  REPORT    ON    THE 

whom  they  have  been  aocustomed  to  recognise  as  their  chie&,  and  to 
whom  they  have  been  obliged  to  surrender  a  portion  of  the  fruits  of 
depredations.  At  other  times,  they  have  been  goaded  into  rebellion 
by  the  violent  and  oppressive  administration  of  the  Rana*s  Kamdars, 
as  well  as  by  the  overbearing,  and  often  oniel  conduct  of  the  irregular 
troops  which,  under  the  control  of  those  state  harpies,  have  been 
stationed  at  the  different  ihannas  to  enforce  the  orders  of  the 
Durbar. 

Another  cause  of  the  violent  and  vindictiye  spirit  which  has  occa- 
sionally hitherto  exhibited  itself  amongst  the  Bhil  population,  may 
be  traced  to  the  attempts  on  the  part  of  the  Durbar  to  deprive  the 
Bhils  of  the  privileges  of  levying  rakhwalee,  or  black-mail,  on  tra- 
vellers and  merchandize.  The  Bhils  have  the  reputation  of  being  par- 
ticularly tenacious  regarding  this  privilege ;  and  hitherto  any  attempt 
to  abolish  it  has  been  productive  only  of  disastrous  consequences. 
When  their  dues  are  paid  the  Bhils  seldom  commit  depredations : 
when  withheld,  no  native  power  has  yet  been  able  to  coerce  them. 
Travellers  and  merchants  pass  through  their  Hills  without  molestation 
or  interference,  after  paying  the  usual  tax,  and  property  under  their 
charge  is  rarely  plundered  or  touched.  On  the  other  hand,  if  any 
attempt  be  rashly  made  by  traveUers  to  force  a  passage  without  pay- 
ing the  dues,  they  are  certain  to  be  pillaged.  Thousands  of  these 
warlike  spirits,  as  their  war-scream  is  re-echoed  from  hill  to  hill,  will 
immediately  collect  from  every  hamlet  in  the  neighbourhood  to  resist 
this,  or  any  other  innovation. 

Privileges,  Customs,  and  Habits  of  the  Buils,  more  particu- 
larly THOSE  inhabiting  Kurruck,  Khairwarra,  and  the 
Hilly  portion  of  Chupan  between  Doongarpore  and 
oodeypoor. 

As  I  have  before  observed,  one  of  the  most  important  privileges  to 
which  the  Bhils  lay  claim,  is  a  right  to  levy  a  tax  denominated  in- 
differently rakhwalee,  chowkee,  and  bolaee,  on  all  travellers  and 
traders  passing  through  their  country,  in  return  for  which  they  are 
responsible  for  their  safety  and  protection.  The  sum  paid  on  these 
occasions  appears  never  to  have  been  exactly  defined:  it  varies  in 
different  parts  of  the  country,  and  has  sometimes  been  regulated  by 
the  known  or  supposed  wealth  of  the  parties. 

When  the  Rajpoot  chief  was  powerful  enough  to  keep  the  Bhll 
population  in  due  subjection,  this  tax  was  levied  by  him  directly, 
either  at  the  borders  of  his  district,  or  in  the  town  where  he  resided : 
but  such  Bhil  Pals  as  did  not  acknowledge  obedience  to  the  Rajpoot 

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HILL    POPULATION     IN    MEYWAR.  185 

cbief  (though  nominally  his  dependants),  assumed  the  right  of  en- 
forcing the  above  tax  on  their  own  account;  and  this  custom  now 
obtains  over  a  great  portion  of  the  Hill  Districts. 

Tn  addition  to  the  above  tax,  the  Chief  has  been  in  the  habit  of 
exacting  customs  on  all  grain  and  merchandize  passing  through  his 
districts;  as  also  the  Mafra,  which  is  a  tax  on  all  produce  taken  from 
one  village  to  another  within  the  district. 

The  BhiLs  of  powerful  Pals,  who  are  in  the  habit  of  plundering  the 
villages  in  Meywar,  Doongarpore,  Pertabghur,  Sedur,  &c.,  ^quentlj 
enter  into  engagements  with  certain  Rjot  villages  to  receive  chowkee 
or  rakhwalee.  By  this  arrangement  the  Bhils  are  secured  a  certain 
quantity  of  grain,  or  a  specified  number  of  cattle  from  the  village,  in 
return  for  which  they  are  under  an  engagement,  not  only  to  abstain 
from  the  future  plunder  of  its  inhabitants,  but  likewise  to  afford  them 
protection  against  the  depredations  of  others.  This  protection  is  not 
secured  on  all  occasions  by  the  Bhils  keeping  a  watch  for  the  protection 
of  the  Ryots,  but  by  the  power  which  the  Bhils  receiving  the  rakhwalee 
possess  of  attacking  and  forcing  the  members  of  any  other  Pal  to 
make  restitution  of  all  property  plundered  from  the  village  under  their 
guardianship.  The  Ryot  villages,  however,  have  sometimes  been  under 
the  necessity  of  paying  two  or  more  Pals  for  this  protection ;  and  in 
addition  to  the  above  tax,  the  Ryot  villages  often  give  a  quarter  of  their 
crops  to  the  Rajpoot  chiefs,  either  in  money  or  kind;  provide  also 
for  the  maintenance  of  a  certain  number  of  horses;  pay  a  fine  for  the 
marriage  of  any  individual  of  the  family;  supply  funds  for  the  repair 
of  the  Chiefs  house,  wells,  &c.,  and  are,  besides,  subject  to  other  com- 
pulsory fines. 

The  Rajpoot  chiefr  also  claim  a  fourth  of  the  agricultural  produce 
of  the  Bhil  Pals;  but  this  is  seldom  paid  in  kind  by  any  of  the  Bhil 
communities,  excepting  those  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  Chiefs 
residence.  The  sum  claimed  in  lieu  thereof  it  has  been  usual  to  dis- 
charge every  two  or  three  years  from  a  portion  of  the  cattle  they  for 
that  purpose  may  have  driven  from  the  adjoining  states.  Frequently, 
however,  in  order  to  obtain  his  dues,  the  Chief  has  himself  been  obliged 
to  attack  the  rebellious  Pals ;  on  which  occasion  everything  his  fol- 
lowers can  lay  hands  upon  is  seized  and  carried  off:  but  women 
children,  and  cattle  are  generally  restored,  on  the  payment  of  a  sum 
of  money,  amounting  to  about  five  rupees  per  head.  A  certain  por- 
tion of  all  property,  such  as  money,  jewels,  cloths,  captured  by  the 
BhiLs  is  also  claimed  by  the  Chief,  who,  in  some  instances,  has  with  his 
followers  been  known  to  accompany  the  marauding  parties. 

In  the  year  1818,  in  consequence  of  the  allianoe  of  Meywar  with 

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186  REPORT   ON    TH£ 

the  Britidi  OoTemment^  the  Rajpoot  Chiefs  haying  been  BomiiKmid 
to  the  Darbar  by  Captain  Todd,  they  were  induced  to  sabmit  to  His 
Highness;  who,  on  redeeming  that  portion  of  the  Khalisa-lands 
which  had  been  forcibly  usaix>ed,  and  granting  them  snnnuds  for  their 
original  estates,  thought  fit  to  prohibit  these  chiefs  from  exacting  the 
rakhwalee  and  tax  which  had  only  been  submitt^  to  by  the  Kha*- 
lisa  Tillages  in  consequence  of  the  inability  of  the  Rana's  goyenunent 
to  afford  them  the  protection  to  which  they  are  entitled. 

The  engagements  entered  into  between  the  Rana  and  his  chiefs^  on 
the  aboye  occasion,  are  detailed  in  the  following  treaty : — 

Charter  giyen  by  the  Rana  of  Meywar,  accepted  and  signed  by 
his  Chie£s,  defining  the  duties  of  the  Contracting  Parties,  a.d.  1818. 

Seid  Sree  Maha  Rana  Dheioj,  Maha  Rana  Bheem  Sing,  to  all  the 
Nobles  my  brothers  and  Kin,  Rajas,  Patels,  Jhalaef,  Chohans,  Chon- 
dawuts,  Pawars,  Sarangdests,  Suktawuts,  Rahtores,  Rawuta,  &o.,  &a 
Now,  since  Samyat  1822  (a.d.  1776)  during  the  reign  of  Sree  Wnr 
Singh-ji,  when  the  troubles  conunenced,  laying  ancient  usages  aside^ 
undue  usurpations  of  the  land  haye  been  made ;  therefore  on  this  day 
Bysakh  Badi  14,  Samyat  1874  (a.d.  1818)  the  Maha  Rana  assembling 
all  his  chiefs,  lays  down  the  path  of  duty  in  new  ordinances. 

1.  All  lands  belonging  to  the  Crown  obtained  since  the  troubles, 
and  all  lands  seized  by  one  chief  from  another,  shall  be  restored. 

2.  All  Rakhwalee,  Bhoom,  Sagat  (dues)  established  since  the 
troubles,  shall  be  renounced. 

3.  Dhan  Bisioo  (transit  duties)  the  right  of  the  Crown  alone,  shall 
be  renounced. 

4.  No  chiefs  shall  conunit  thefts  or  yiolence  within  the  boundaries 
of  their  states.  They  shall  entertain  no  Thugs,  foreign  thieyes^ 
or  thieyes  of  the  country,  as  Mogees,  Baories,  Shories;  those  who 
shall  adopt  peaceful  habits  may  remain,  but  should  any  return  te 
their  old  pursuits,  their  heads  shall  instantly  be  taken  off.  All  pro- 
perty stolen  shall  be  made  good  by  the  proprietor  of  the  estate  within 
the  limits  of  which  it  la  plundered. 

5.  Home  or  foreign  merchants,  traders,  kafilas,  brinjarties,  who 
enter  the  country,  shaU  be  protected :  in  no  wise  shall  they  be 
molested  or  injured ;  and  whoeyer  breaks  this  ordinance,  his  estates 
shall  be  confiscated. 

6.  According  to  command,  at  home  or  abroad,  seryioe  must  be 
performed.  Four  diyisions  (Chokies)  shaU  be  formed  of  the  chiefs, 
and  each  diyision  shall  remain  three  months  in  attendance  at  Court, 
when  they  shall  be  dismissed  to  their  estates.     Once  a-year,  on  the 


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HILL    POPULATION    IN     MEYWAR.  187 

-feeiiTsl  of  the  DnmnmL,  all  the  ohieft  shall  aasemble  with  their  quotaa, 
ten  days  preyioiis  thereto,  and  twenty  days  subaequent  they  shall  be 
dismissed.  On  urgent  occasions,  and  whenever  their  services  are 
required,  they  shall  repair  to  the  Presence. 

7.  Every  Pattawut  holding  a  separate  patta  from  the  Presence, 
shall  perfonn  separate  service.  They  shall  not  unite  or  serve  under 
the  greater  pattawuts;  and  the  subvassals  of  all  such  chiefs  shall 
remain  with  and  serve  their  immediate  Pattawuts  \ 

8.  The  Maha  Rana  shall  maintain  the  dignities  due  to  each  chief 
according  to  his  degree. 

9.  The  Ryots  shall  not  be  oppressed :  there  shall  be  no  new  exac- 
tions or  arbitrary  fines :  this  is  ordained. 

10*.  What  has  been  executed  by  Thocoor  Ajeet  Sing  and  sanc- 
tioned by  the  Rana,  to  this  all  shall  agree*. 

11.  Whoever  shall  depart  from  the  foregoing  the  Maha  Rana  shall 
punish :  in  doing  so  the  fault  will  not  be  the  Rana's ;  whoever  fiula, 
on  him  be  the  oath  (dn')  of  Eklinga,  and  the  Maharana. 

The  result  of  the  above  arrangement,  though  not  effected  without 
much  ill-blood,  as  was  to  be  expected  when  so  many  conflicting  in- 
terests were  to  be  reconciled,  was  a  temporary  move  towards  peace  and 
repose.  But  it  was  of  short  duration.  Several  of  the  turbulent  chiefig^ 
who,  under  various  pretences  had  on  the  above  occasion  declined 
attending  the  durbar,  continued  to  enforce  the  collection  of  the  rakh- 
walee,  or,  in  the  event  of  non-payment,  to  plunder  the  villages;  and  as 
the  chiefs  who  tendered  their  submission  declared  their  incompetency 
to  restrain  their  Bhils,  the  country  was  soon  thrown  back  into  a  state 
of  anarchy;  and  to  so  dangerous  extent  as  to  render  it  expedient 
to  aid  the  government  of  Meywar  by  the  employment  of  a  British 
Force. 

The  Bhlls,  by  these  measures  reduced  to  submission,  and  having 
entered  into  written  engagements  to  deliver  up  all  their  arms,  and  to 
abstain  £rom  plunder,  and  from  the  exaction  of  rakhwalee,  were  in  the 
first  instance  placed  under  the  immediate  control  of  his  Highness* 
officers. 

Shortly  after  this  arrangement  the  greater  portion  of  the  Bhil  Pak 
were  restored  by  the  Rana  to  the  Rajpoot  chiefs,  on  their  promising  to 

1  This  Article  has  become  espedally  necessary,  as  the  inferior  chiefs,  partica* 
larly  those  of  the  third  class,  had  amalgaoiated  themselves  with  the  head  of  the 
elans,  to  whom  they  had  become  more  acooantable  than  to  their  prince. 

'  This  aUades  to  the  treaty  which  the  chief  has  formed,  as  Ambassador  to  the 
Sana,  with  the  British  GoYemment. 

•  Jn,  oath  of  aUegianoe.    Tod^  Vol.  I.,  p^  173. 


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188  REPOUT    ON   THE 

be  answerable  for  the  conduct  of  the  Bhils,  as  well  as  for  the  pro- 
tection of  travellers  and  traders.  It  was  yery  soon,  however,  apparent 
that  the  Kajpoot  chiefs  were  neither  willing  nor  able  to  fulfil  their 
engagements;  and  several  who  were  notoriously  disaffected  to  the 
Kana's  cause,  hesitated  not  to  aid  in  openly  obstructing  the  measures 
of  government.  These  circumstances,  combined  with  the  frequent 
defeats  which  the  Rana's  troops  sustained  from  the  rebel  Dowlut 
Singh  and  his  Bhlls,  gave  great  confidence  to  the  latter;  the  result  of 
which  was  the  re-establishment  of  the  rakhwalee  system  on  its  former 
footing;  when  all  traders  and  travellers  refusing  to  pay  his  compulsory 
tax  were  invariably  plundered,  and  sometimes  murdered. 

In  1828,  notwithstanding  the  Bhils  were  again  reduced  to  submis- 
sion by  the  force  under  the  orders  of  Capt.  Speirs,  the  abolition  of  the 
rakhwalee  tax  does  not  on  that  occasion  appear  to  have  been  insisted 
on ;  and  the  system  is  now  in  force  not  only  along  the  whole  line  of 
road  between  Oodeypore  and  Doongurpore,  but  I  believe  obtains  in 
most  parts  of  these  hilly  tracts.  In  bad  seasons,  it  appears  to  be 
almost  the  only  means  the  Bhils  have  of  supporting  themselves  without 
plunder;  and,  accordingly,  as  I  have  before  observed,  to  deprive  them 
of  this  privilege  only  tends  to  excite  the  flame  we  would  wish  to  extin- 
guish, and  to  render  the  Bhils  more  intractable,  and  more  determined 
to  set  the  authority  of  their  sovereign  at  defiance.  In  return  for  this 
tax  the  traveller  is  furnished  with  a  guide  and  protection,  the  Pal  in 
the  receipt  of  the  bolaee  becoming  accountable  for  any  loss. 

Appearance  of  the  BhIls. 

The  Bhils  of  the  Vindya  range  have  been  described  as  a  very  hard- 
featured  race.  In  this  tract  of  the  country  many  of  the  young  men 
are  particularly  good-looking;  and  some  of  their  women  handsome, 
and  remarkable  for  the  elegance  of  their  figures.  They  are  said  to  be 
prolific,  and  very  faithful  to  their  husbands,  whom  they  often  accom- 
pany on  their  marauding  excursions,  and  even  to  battle,  carrying  pro- 
visions and  water,  and  sometimes  themselves  facing  the  enemy,  and 
armed  with  slings,  in  the  use  of  which  many  of  them  are  very  idkilfuL 
They  cheerfully  undergo  great  labour  in  these  plundering  expeditions ; 
are  generally,  both  men  and  women,  very  abstemious  as  regards  food, 
though  addicted  to  liquor;  and  have  few  wants  which  are  not  easily 
supplied  by  night  attacks  upon  villages  from  any  range  of  hills  on 
which  they  may  take  up  their  position. 


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HILL    POPULATION    TN    MEYWAB.  189 

Fidelity  op  thb  BaiLS. 

The  fidelity  of  the  Bhils  to  their  acknowledged  chiefs  ia  very 
remarkable.  This  feeling  is  quite  independent  of  what  we  should 
consider  the  justice  of  their  cause,  the  Bhils^  owing  to  their  igno- 
rance, being  totally  disqualified  for  the  discussion  or  comprehension 
of  such  matters.  The  direction  of  their  chief  is  all  they  look  to;  and 
60  wonderful  is  the  influence  of  the  chief  oyer  this  infatuated  people, 
that  in  no  situation,  however  desperate,  can  they  be  induced  to  betray 
him.  If  old  and  incapable  of  action  they  will  convey  him  to  places  of 
safety.  No  hope  of  reward  or  fear  of  punishment  affects  them ;  and 
under  the*  orders  of  their  master  they  exult  in  the  plunder  of  all  those 
classes  by  whom  they  are  considered  and  treated  su9  the  lowest  of  the 
human  race. 

During  the  period  Capt.  Black  was  employed  in  this  quarter, 
though  instant  intelligence  of  all  his  movements  was  conveyed  to  the 
rebel  Dowlut  Singh,  he  was  never  himself  able  to  obtain  any  in- 
formation regarding  the  noiture  of  the  country,  or  the  numbers, 
positions,  and  motions  of  the  enemy.  But  on  this  subject  I  cannot  do 
better  than  quote  Capt.  Black's  own  language,  who,  in  reference  to  the 
proceedings  in  Kurruck  and  Chupan  in  1827,  remarks  as  follows : — 

''  Intelligence  is  not  procurable  for  any  sum  of  money ;  whilst  not 
a  single  guard  can  quit  this  post  without  the  strength  and  destination 
of  it  being  instantly  reported  to  the  rebels,  who  remain  concealed  in 
the  jungles  or  hills,  ready  to  take  advantage  of  the  excellent  informa- 
tion they  receive.  To  counteract  this,  I  frequently  attempted  to 
change  the  position  of  a  guard  during  the  night,  but  generally  without 
success.  In  some  instances  my  men  refused  to  move  till  daylight ; 
but  whenever  they  did,  the  intelligence  was  instantly  conveyed  from 
hill  to  hill.'' 

Capt.  Tod,  in  iUnstration  of  the  faith  which  may  be  placed  in  the 
pledged  word  of  the  Bhils,  relates  as  follows: — ''Many  year  ago 
one  of  my  parties  was  permitted  to  range  through  this  [Aravulli] 
tract.  In  one  of  the  passages  of  their  lengthened  vallep  tlie  lord  of 
the  mountain  was  dead;  the  men  were  all  abroad;  and  his  widow 
alone  in  the  hut  [My  servant]  Madarri  told  his  story,  and  claimed 
her  surety  and  passport,  which  the  Bhilni  delivered  £rom  the  quiver 
of  her  late  lord ;  and  his  arrow,  carried  in  his  hand,  was  as  well  recog- 
nised as  the  cumbrous  roll,  with  all  its  seals  and  appendages,  of  a 
traveller  in  Europe '." 

'  Tod,VoLI.,p.ll. 

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190  RBPORt   ON   THB 

In  some  of  the  Bhil  districts^  the  aziows  are  used  in  lian  of  dzafi* 
for  mone J.  The  Sdpit  Bldi  Mgi,  oa  Hm  ooeaaion  of  a  yiait  from 
mane  of  the  Natrre  GoYemment  Agents,  wishing  to  make  them  a 
present,  regretted  that  a  fire  had  destroyed  all  his  cloth,  6ic,,  &o. 
*'  But,  never  mind,"  he  said,  "  take  this,"---drawing  an  arrow  from  his 
well-fiUed  qaiver, — ''take  this  to  any  village  of  Kotah,  and  demand 
nine  rupees.''  To  another,  he  gave  one  on  a  second  village  to  demand 
five  rupees;  which  on  being  presented  were  honoured  at  sight;  the 
Patels  stating  that  they  knew  too  well  what  would  be  the  consequence 
should  they  refuse  the  arrows  as  drafts  for  money. 

Owing  to  the  impossibility  of  obtaining  any  authentic  records 
regarding  this  strange  race,  the  information  which  I  have  been  able  to 
collect  from  different  sources  is  necessarily  of  a  veiy  cursory  and 
superficial  description ;  and  the  very  defective  communication  which  I 
now  venture  to  make  is  not  offered  as  one  to  be  depended  upon,  bnt 
merely  as  a  rough  statement  supposed  to  approach  nearly  to  the  truth; 
and  which  may,  in  some  measure,  serve  as  a  guide,  till  a  local  inves- 
tigation of  the  country,  and  a  more  thorough  knowledge  of  the  history, 
customs,  and  character  of  these  tribes  shall  enable  us  to  form  a  better 
judgment,  and  authorise  my  offering  an  opinion  on  this  important 
subject  with  more  confidence  than  I  can  presume  to  do  with  my 
present  very  limited  experience. 

Kkairwarra, 
20th  July,  1841. 


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HILL    POPULATION   IN    METWAR.  191 


APPENDIX. 


No.  I. — Comprises  copies  of  treaties  wiA  Gnnjra  chiefs  of  Meywar 
made  in  the  beginning  of  1828,  by  mediation  of  Major  Speirs.  Tbese 
are  generally  engagemenis  to  cease  from  disturbance  and  plunder, 
and  from  entertahnng  rebels;  and  to  attend  the  goyemment  in  its 
service  iHien  called  upon;  to  hold  themselyes  responsible  for  losses 
sBtlBilied  by  traveUers  and  traders  within  their  territories;  and  to 
eollect  their  revenues  according  to  a  regulated  system. 


No.  II. 


MitceUaneoui  Remarks  on  the  Character  and  Ctutoms  of  the  Bhils; 
by  Colonel  Bobertson,  formerly  Collector  in  Candeish, 

The  Bhil  banditti  are  a  timid  race;  screening  themselves  in  fast- 
nesses, and  only,  like  beasts  of  prey,  venturing  abroad  under  cover  of 
the  night,  or  in  the  absence  of  forces.  The  men  as  well  as  the  women, 
are  very  hard-featured.  The  clothing  of  the  men  is  often  not  more 
than  the  calls  of  decency  require.  They  can  live  on  the  products  of 
the  wilds,  for  a  considerable  time;  but  generally  they  show  evexy  sign 
of  being  badly  fed.  This  is  not  because  ihey  cannot  find  employment, 
for  they  can  all  cultivate  if  they  choose,  but  because  they  are  inve- 
terately  idle,  and  would  rather  eat  half  a  meal  of  indifferent  food,  pro- 
vided they  are  not  obliged  to  work,  than  a  good  and  substantial  meal 
procurable  by  labour.  In  their  plundering  expeditions  they  often  live 
in  the  fields,  at  their  appointed  stations,  with  their  &mllies ;  and  all  their 
stock  and  effects  consist  generally  of  not  more  than  a  wretched  cow  or 
buffalo,  a  few  fowb,  a  small  fishing-net»  and  now  and  then  a  sword  or 
matchlock,  with  a  bow  and  plentiful  supply  of  arrows.  They  are 
very  cruel  and  regardless  of  life ;  will,  any  day,  become  assassins  for  a 
trifling  recompense,  and  are  yery  revengefrd;  they  themselves  com- 
paring their  enmity  to  the  bite  of  a  snake.  They  are  immoderately 
fond  of  liquor;  and  it  is  to  the  quantity  expended  that  the  marriage 
of  a  Bhil  owes  all  its  ^dat  Rather  than  be  deprived  of  this  luxury 
for  any  time,  they  will  resort  to  every  excess.  They  kill  and  eat  the 
cow,  and  have  little  or  no  religion.  They  share  equally  in  plunder, 
except  when  under  an  hereditary  chief,  whose  share  is  then  a  chowth. 

The  term  Tarvi,  applied  to  the  Mohammedan  Bhils,  supposed  to 


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192     REPORT  ON  THE  HILL  POPULATION  OF  METWAR. 

have  been  conrerted  to  that  religion  in  the  roign  of  Aurangseb,  Sir 
J.  Malcolm  erroneously  supposed  to  be  a  title. 

The  Mohammedan  Bhils  are  cleaner  in  their  persons  than  the  Hindn 
Bhils;  have  better  features;  and  are  more  civilised^  speaking  Hin- 
dustani. 

The  Pateb  often  encourage  the  Bhils  in  plunder^  in  order  to  share 
in  their  spoils. 

The  different  classes  of  Bhils  are  the  Turvo^  Nahallo^  Bhilalas, 
Kokanis,  Dorepass,  Munchafi.  The  latter  race  are  very  superstitions, 
changing  their  place  of  residence  at  the  slightest  ill-omen,  such  as 
the  death  of  a  dog  or  a  fowl.  Their  honesty  is  surprising :  on  quitting 
a  temporary  residence,  if  they  have  been  unable  to  pay  the  government 
dues,  they  have  been  known  to  send  the  sum  the  next  year. 

The  Bhils  are  kind  and  affectionate  fathers,  and  great  £uth  may 
be  attached  to  their  word.  Their  simplicity  is  extraordinary ;  if  any 
offender  is  seized,  he  not  only  confesses  his  fault,  but  any  others  he 
may  have  committed ;  and  details  his  adventure  with  the  most  appa- 
rent mngfroid  and  innocence,  stating  the  names  of  his  associates,  be 
they  friends  or  near  relatives.  The  seizure  of  their  women  is  one  of 
the  best  means  of  bringing  the  husbands  to  terms. 

There  is  little  religion  among  them.  They  keep  all  feasts,  Hindu 
and  Mussulman,  with  equal  zeal;  and  the  most  solemn  form  of  oath  ia 
that  of  mixing  salt,  cowdung,  and  jowarree,  and  lifting  up  the  mixture  : 
this  is  called  the  meat  gowree.  If  a  Bhil  perjures  himself  on  this 
oath  he  is  deemed  execrable,  and  abandoned  by  his  caste. 


No.  III. — Consists  of  Extracts  from  Sir  John  Malcolm*s  Memoir 
on  Central  India,  Vol.  I.,  pp.  516,  517,  524,  526,  550,  576;  Vol.  II., 
pp.  155,  179,  450,  469. 


No.  IV. — ^Is  a  treaty  between  the  Ea^  India  Company  and  the 
Maharana  Bheem  Sing,  of  Oodeypore,  concluded  at  Delhi  on  tiie 
13th  January,  1818,  whereby  the  Maharana  entrusted  his  dominion  to 
the  protection  of  the  British  Government  See  Treaties,  printed  by 
Parliament,  February,  1819,  p.  38. 


No.  V. — Contains  a  statement  of  the  dues  levied  by  the  Bhil  Pals 
between  Oodeypore  and  Khairwarra.,  and  a  list  of  the  Grasya  Hill 
chiefi9  of  Babul  and  Khairwarra. 


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]93 


Art.  X.— 0»  the  Hyssop  of  Scripture;  by  J.  Forbes  Royle, 
M.D.,  F.R.S.,  L.S.,  and  G.S.,  &c..  Professor  of  Materia 
Mediea  and  Therapeutics,  King^s  CoUege^  London. 

[Read  June  \5,  1844.] 

When  I  lately  had  the  honour  of  reading  a  paper  before  the 
Society^  on  the  Mustard  Tree  of  Scripture,  I  ventured  to  make  some 
observations  on  what  I  considered  to  be  the  requisites  for,  and  the 
best  mode  of  pursuing,  as  well  as  upon  what  we  should  admit  as 
proofs  in,  such  enquiries.  I  proceed  now  to  treat  of  another  Biblical 
plant,  which  is  not  less  interesting  than  the  Mustard  Tree  to  deter- 
mine. This  is  the  Hyssop,  frequently  mentioned  in  the  Old,  and  twice 
independently  in  the  New  Testament,  and  which,  if  we  are  to  judge  by 
the  numerous  attempts  which  have  been  made  to  ascertain  the  parti- 
cular plant  that  is  meant,  is  not  less  difficult  to  determine,  than  any 
one  of  the  several  unascertained  plants  of  the  Bible. 

That  I  may  not  seem  to  exaggerate  what  appeared  to  others  the 
difficulties  of  ascertaining  this  plant,  I  will  quote  the  commencement 
of  the  article  on  Hyssop  of  the  learned  and  judicious  Celsius :  ''  De 
plantis  plerisque  in  Hebrsao  Veteris  Testamenti  codice  commemoratis, 
imprimisque  de  21T^^,  recte  pronuntiare,  res  est  longe  difficillima. 
Veritatem  hie,  si  uspiam, 

Scmpoflis  aequimor  Tadis. 

Fronte  exile  negotinm, 

Et  dignum  paeris  pates. 

Aggreesis  labor  arduus, 

Nee  tractabile  pondus  est, 

ut  loqoi  amat  Terentianus."  It  was  not  to  Celsius  alone  that  this 
appeared  to  be  a  difficulty;  for  he  says  farther  on^ '' Aben  Ezra,  inter 
EbriBOB  commentatores  £EUsile  princeps,  suam  ignorantiam,  circa  banc 
stirpem,  palam,  et  ingenue  fatetur  ad  Exod.  xii.  22;"  and  he  thus 
translates  the  passage  from  the  Hebrew  of  Aben  Ezra:  ^'Qtbcenam 
kcec  sU  plantarum,  ignoro,"  "  osatera,  quanta  est,  Rabbinorum  turba 
modo  banc,  modo  aliam  conjectando,  satis  declarant,  hujus  plantaa 
notitiam  sibi,  EbrsesBque  genti  periisse."  Celsius  Hierobotanicon,  i. 
pp.  407  et  409. 

Trusting  that  according  to  the  acknowledged  difficulties  of  the 
oadertaking,  so  will  be  the  indulgence  accorded  to  any  attempt  to 
VOL.  Tin.  0     i^^^^i^ 

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194  ON   THK    HYSSOP 

nnrayel  its  intricacies,  I  proceed,  in  the  first  instance,  to  adduce  the 
passages  in  Scripture  referring  to  Hyssop. 

The  first  mention  of  Hyssop  in  the  Old  Testament,  is  immediately 
previous  to  the  departure  of  the  Israelites  out  of  Egypt,  and  at  the 
first  institution  of  the  Passover,  when  Moses  called  for  all  the  elders  of 
Israel  and  said  unto  them,  (Exodus  xii.  22,)  "  And  ye  shall  take  a  bunch 
of  hyssop,  and  dip  it  in  the  blood  that  is  in  the  bason,  and  strike  the 
lintel  and  the  two  side  posts  with  the  blood  that  is  in  the  bason." 
From  this  passage  it  is  evident  that  the  plant  must  have  been  indige- 
nous in  Lower  Egypt,  and  that  it  must  have  been  sufficiently  large 
and  leafy,  to  be  fit  for  sprinkling  the  door  posts  as  directed.  2.  Tha 
next  notices  of  the  hyssop  are  in  Leviticus  and  in  Numbers,  which 
books  having  been  written  by  Moses,  indicate  that  the  substances 
which  he  directs  to  be  employed  for  sacrificial  purposes,  must  have 
been  procurable  in  the  situations  where  the  Israelites  wandered,  that 
is,  in  the  countries  between  Lower  Egypt  and  Palestine.  Thus  in 
the  ceremony  practised  in  declaring  lepers  to  be  clean,  the  priest  is 
directed  (Levit.  xiv.  4)  "  to  take  for  him  that  is  to  be  cleansed,  two 
birds  alive  and  clean,  and  cedar  wood,  and  scarlet,  and  hyssop,^* 
These  are  again  all  mentioned  both  in  verse  6  and  in  verse  52.  So  in 
Numbers  xix.  6,  in  the  ceremony  of  burning  the  heifer  and  preparing  the 
water  of  separation,  the  directions  are :  ''  And  the  priest  shall  take 
cedar  wood,  and  hyssop,  and  scarlet,  and  cast  it  into  the  midst  of  the 
burning  of  the  heifer;"  and  in  verse  18,  ^'  That  a  clean  person  shall 
take  hyssop,  and  dip  it  in  the  water,  and  sprinkle  it  upon  the  tent, 
and  upon  all  the  vessels,  and  upon  the  persons  that  were  there,'* 
&o.  Here  we  again  see  that  the  hpsop  must  have  been  large 
enough  to  be  suitable  for  the  purposes  of  sprinkling;  that  it  must 
have  been  procurable  on  the  outskirts  of  Palestine,  probably  in  the 
plain  of  Moab.  It  is  to  this  passage  that  the  Apostle  alludes  in 
Hebrews  iz.  19:  "For  when  Moses  had  spoken  every  precept  to  all 
the  people  according  to  the  law,  he  took  the  blood  of  calves,  and  of 
goats,  with  water  and  scarlet  wool,  and  hyssop,  and  sprinkled  both  the 
book  and  all  the  people."  In  this  passage  we  obtain  no  additional 
information,  but  as  in  the  Septuagint  the  app^lieation  of  the  Greek 
term  wrtratros  as  the  equivalent  of  the  Hebrew  name  esof.  3.  The 
next  passage  where  hyssop  is  mentioned  in  chronological  order  is  in 
the  beautiful  psalm  of  David,  where  the  royal  penitent  sajrs  (li.  2), 
"  Wa«h  me  throughly  from  mine  iniquity,  and  cleanse  me  from  my 
sin ;"  and  in  verse  7,  ''Purge  me  with  hyssop,  and  I  shall  be  clean : 
wash  me,  and  I  shall  be  whiter  than  snow.''  This  expression  is  con- 
sidered by  Bishop  Home  (and  also  by  others),  in  his  Commentary  on 

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OF   SCRIPTURE.  195 

the  Psftlms,  to  refer  to  the  rite  described  in  the  above  paasa^es,  as  the 
ceremony  of  sprinkling  the  unclean  person  with  a  bunch  of  "hyssop," 
dipped  in  the  "  water  of  separation." 

But  though  the  passage  no  doubt  has  a  figuratiye  signification, 
yet^  with  all  due  deference  to  such  high  authorities,  the  mode  of  expres- 
sion is  so  direct^  as  to  appear  to  me,  as  if  the  hyssop  itself  did  possess, 
or  was  supposed  to  have  some  cleansing  properties.  If  so,  such  might 
have  led  originally  to  its  selection  for  the  different  ceremonies  of  puri- 
fication, or  such  properties  may  have  been  ascribed  to  it  in  later  ages, 
in  consequence  of  its  having  been  employed  in  such  ceremonies.  At  all 
events,  if  the  plant  which  we  suppose  to  be  the  hyssop  of  Scripture 
can  bear  this  signification,  it  will  not  be  less  appropriate.  4.  The 
next  notice  of  hyssop  is  in  1  Kings  iv.  33,  where  in  the  account  of 
the  wisdom  of  Solomon  it  is  said :  "  And  he  spake  of  trees,  from  the 
cedar  tree  that  is  in  Lebanon  even  unto  the  hyssop  that  springeth 
out  of  the  wall :  he  spake  also  of  beasts,  and  of  fowl,  and  of  creeping 
things,  and  of  fishes.'*  In  this  passage  we  find  that  the  plant  which  is 
alluded  to  by  [the  name  of  esob,  must  also  have  grown  upon  a  wall, 
though  not  necessarily  to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  situations.  Some 
commentators  have  inferred  that  the  plant  alluded  to  must  have  been 
one  of  the  smallest,  to  contrast  well  with  the  cedar  of  Lebanon,  and 
thus  show  the  extent  of  the  knowledge  and  wisdom  of  Solomon.  But 
nothing  of  this  kind  appears  in  the  text.  The  last  passage  which  we 
have  to  adduce  occurs  in  the  New  Testament,  where  in  the  crucifixion 
of  our  Saviour  the  Apostle  John  relates  (xix.  29) :  "  Now  there  was 
set  a  vessel  full  of  vinegar :  and  they  filled  a  sponge  with  vinegar  and 
put  it  upon  hyssop,  and  put  it  to  his  mouth."  This  passage  has 
elicited  the  remarks  of  various  critics,  and  inferences  have  been  drawn 
respecting  the  nature  of  the  plant,  from  the  use  to  which  it  was 
applied.  Others  have  observed,  that  the  Evangelists  Matthew  and 
Mark,  in  relating  the  same  circumstance,  make  no  mention  of  the 
hyssop,  but  state  that  the  sponge  was  put  upon  a  reed,  and  given 
him  to  drink.  The  deductions  which  we  may  legitimately  draw  from 
the  above  passage  are,  that  the  hyssop  was  a  plant  of  Judea,  found 
indeed  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  Jerusalem,  and  that  it  seems 
to  have  been  used  as  a  stick  to  which  the  sponge  was  fixed.  If  the 
plant  which  I  suppose  to  be  hyssop  is  calculated  to  answer  this  purpose, 
it  will  likewise  answer  for  the  elucidation  of  the  parallel  passages  in 
the  other  Evangelist&  Salmasius,  as  quoted  by  Celsius  says :  "  Quod- 
cnnque  feceris,  et  licet  in  omnia  tete  vertas,  probabilem  aliam  verbis 
Evangelists  explicationem  adplicare  non  possis,  prsBter  earn,  quie 
uo-o-iMroy  pro  calamo,  vel  ?irga  hyssopi,  cui  alligata  erat  spongia  Ghristo 

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196  ON   THE    HYSSOP 

porrigenda>  aocipit  Tbi  vavmrw  locum  plane  oocnpat  Kok^ftoVf  cujus 
eandem  ad  rem  uauB  apad  alium  Eyangelistam." 

Before  proceeding  to  ascertain  the  particular  plant  which  is  alluded 
to,  in  the  above  passages,  it  is  necessary  to  notice  the  name  of  hyssop  in 
the  Hebrew,  as  also  those  which  were  considered  its  synonymes  in  the 
several  ancient  versions  of  the  Scriptures.  For  this  information  I  am 
indebted  chiefly  to  Celsius.     The  Hebrew  name   ^ITM  egobhy  written 

also  esob  and  esof,  also  by  some  azuh,  Celsius  derives  from  a  Hebrew 
root  2tl^ '  "  Nempe  Arabum . .  ^\  idem  est,  quod  Hebr.  31?  fluere;, 
quo  nostrum  y\t^  referri  solet;  ut  ab  aspergendo  nomen  acceperit.'' 
The  Greek  he  derives  from  the  Hebrew  name:  ''ab  y\{H  eaob 
derivandum  esse  GrsBCorum  vvtrwrov,  undo  Latini  hystopttm  habent, 
nulla  est  ratio,  cur  dubitemus,  nam  equidem  frustra  sunt,  qui  y\\H 
Ebrseorum,  et  wnrwrov  Grsecorum,  re  et  nomine  differre  volunt,  ac  in 
nominibus  illis  non  esse  nisi  fortuitam  soni  vicinitatem;  unde  condu- 
dunt,  baud  esse  necessarium,  ut,  que  planta  Ebrasis  est  ^1TM>  sit  onmino 
statuenda  vatratros  Grsecorum;  ex  qua  hypothesi  tot  divers®  plant® 
ab  unica  y\tl^  in  versionibus  interpretum  propullularunt."  In  this 
derivation  agree  Salmasius  de  Homonymis  Hyles  latric®,  p.  19,  and 
Bochart  Geogr.  Sacr.  494,  ''duumviros  reipublic®  literariie  claris- 
simos  i"  and  Celsius  adds,  "  Neminem  puto  fore  tam  morosum,  ut  etymi 
hujus  veritatem  in  dubium  vocare  sustineat.*'  Notwithstanding  which, 
I  cannot  help  thinking  with  the  authors  above  alluded  to,  that  the 
similarity  in  the  sound  of  the  two  names  is  accidental,  and  has  dis- 
tracted the  attention  from  other  plants,  to  one  which  does  not  answer 
to  all  that  is  required.  But  it  is  quite  possible  that  the  name  hyssop 
may  in  later  times  have  been  applied  to  the  same  plant,  which  at  a 
certain  period  was  indicated  by  the  term  esob  or  esof.  Celsius  further 
states,  from  Ovidius  Montalbanus  in  Horto  Botanigraphico,  pp.  47  et 
48,  "  Hyssopus  Salomonica,  que  erumpit  e  pariete,  Hebraice  esof,  et 
ChaJdaice  eaofa.**  Also  that  according  to  Maimonides,  Saadias,  Kim- 
ohius,  and  Bartenora,  2^tlk  etob  of  the  Hebrews,  is  Miur  Ji^  of  the 
Arabs.  This  is  variously  translated,  origanimny  ihymbra^  icAurmOy 
serpyUum,  in  different  Lexicons ;  but  majorana,  marum,  &c.,  "  TaJmu- 
dicis  doctoribus,''  (Celsius,  1.  c.  p.  409);  while  in  the  Persian  version 
^uUjA  diramne  is  given  as  the  synonym  of  esob,  which  is  said  by 
Castellus  to  refer  to  Absinthium  ponticum.  It  is  translated  muscus 
in  the  Latin  version  of  Junius  Tremellius ;  in  that  of  Piscator,  liba-- 
notis  V.  Bos  marinus;  Origanum  in  dissertations  of  Anguillaria,  &c. 
*'  His  adde  vcro-ty,  et  vora-cvrhy  et  oiovnop,  quae  in  Evangelista  JohaHne 
pro  hyssopo  legenda^  superioris  SBvi  Aristarchi  censuerunt    Sed  non  rare 

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OP   SCRIPTURE.  197 

interpreium  ccnjedunjB,  nt  ait  Cioero,  magu  ingenia  eanim,  quam  vim 
consentumque  naturcB  dedarant,*'    GelsiiiSy  L  c.  p.  410. 

The  several  plants  which  have  been  considered  by  different  authors 
to  be  the  Hyssop  of  Scripture,  are  enumerated  by  Celsius  under 
eighteen  different  heads.  These  we  shall  group  together  according  to 
their  natural  affinities. 

1.  Adiantum  Capillus  Veneris,  or  Maidenhair,  a  native  of  South 
Europe  and  of  the  East,  is  adduced  as  the  hyssop  of  Solomon,  by 
Lemnius,  but  he  thinks  that  this  is  distinct  from  the  hyssop  of  the  other 
passages  of  Scripture :  ^'Quoniam  itaque  exiguus  est,  atque  e  parietinis 
erumpit,  hunc  pro  Hysopo  designari  arbitror."  (Herb.  Bibl.  Expl.  p.  68.) 

2.  Asplenium  Ruta  muraria,  L.,  or  Wall  Rue,  formerly  called  Salva 
VitiB,  or  Salvia  VitcB,  common  in  the  fissures  of  rocks  in  Europe,  is 
adduced  by  Deodatus  in  the  notes  to  the  Italian  version.  Both  of 
these  are  of  the  class  of  Ferns. 

d.  Tremellius,  adopting  in  some  measure  the  opinion  of  Lemnius, 
yet  translates  esob  by  mtuctu,  and  considers  Polytrichum  commune,  or 
common  Hair  Moss,  found  both  in  Asia  and  Europe,  to  be  the  plant. 

4.  Ovid.  Montalbanus  (in  Horto  Botanigraphico,  pp.  47  et  48), 
conceives,  in  a  passage  quoted  by  Celsius,  that  esob  is  the  small  plant 
called  klosterkysopB  in  German,  and  which  Celsius  ascertained  to  be 
the  Alsine  pusilla,  graminea^  flore  tetrapetalo,  of  Toumefort,  Sagina 
procumbens,  L.,  or  Procumbent  Pearlwort,  a  native  of  Europe  in  sterile 
and  moist  fields,  of  the  natural  family  of  CaryophyllesB. 

Of  the  tribe  of  GompositsB,  and  genus  Artemisia,  two  species 
have  been  thought  to  be  hyssop.  5.  Abreta  or  Abrotonum.  "  Job. 
Mercerus,  profnndsB  in  Hebraicis  doctrinie  vir,  existimabat  (Abraiham) 
esse  GrsBCorum,  et  Romanorum  Abrotonum."  This  is  the  Artemisia 
abrotonum,  L.,  or  Southernwood,  a  native  of  the  South  of  Europe  and 
of  Asia  Minor,  and  which  was,  according  to  Celsius,  thought  to  be  the 
hyssop,  by  some  of  the  Hebrew  doctors.  Casaubon  remarks  that  it  was 
probably  this  kind  of  hyssop  which  was  given  with  the  sponge  and 
vinegar.  ^'Idque  eo  consilio,  ut  potionem  Domino  pararent  penitus 
amaram,  penitus  ingratam."  6.  Artemisia  Pontica  (including  probably 
also  A.  Judaica),  a  native  of  the  South  of  Europe,  Syria^  and  Central 
Asia^  **  unde  semen  contra  vermes  colligitur  et  ex  Chorasan  deportatur 
Halebum ;"  It  Seme  iarUo,  Lat.  sementina^  is  adduced  by  CasteUus 
as  a  translation  of  the  Diramne  which  occurs  in  the  Persian  version, 
but  which  is  usually  translated  Thymbra^  Satureia  Thymbra, 

The  majority  of  plants  which  have  been  adduced  as  the  hyssop  of 
Scripture  belong  to  the  natural  family  of  LabiatsB,  of  which  many  species 
**  are  known  for  their  uses  in  seasoning]  food,  as  thyme,  sage,  savory, 

.,.„ ,^.^A^ 


198  ON   THE    HYSSOP 

marjoram^  and  mint^  while  others,  as  lavender  and  rosemary,  are  more 
celebrated  for  their  uses  as  perfumes.  Many  of  these  having  been 
described  in  the  works  of  the  ancients,  have  found  their  way  into 
those  of  the  Asiatics,  where  Lavandula  stsBchas  may  be  found  under 
the  name  oostakhoodus ;  rosemary  under  vJdeel  ocl-jibbiul;  thyme  as 
hatha;  hyssop,  zoofat  ydbis;  bfusil,  rihan;  marjoram,  satur;  uani, 
nana;  and  sage  under  the  names  talhiah  and  9efakuSj  which  last  are 
evident  corruptions  of  salvia  and  eliaphaoos.*^  (lUnstr.  Himal.  Bot 
p.  302.) 

The  several  plants  of  the  family  of  Labiate  which  have  been 
adduced  by  different  authors,  are  as  follow, — 

7.  Prosper  Alpinus  figures  as  Hyssopus  Grtecorum,  a  plant  he 
describes  as  ''plantam  nobilissimam,"  having  grown  it  from  seeds 
obtained  from  Crete,  and  '^Origano  Oniti"  (pot-marjoram)  '^adpiime 
similem,  esse  legitimum  hyssopum  visum  est." 

8.  Some  of  the  Hebrews  (v.  Celsius)  call  a  plant  esob  javan,  which 
by  the  Arabs  is  called  igtuchudus,  and  of  which  the  leaves  resemble 
the  plant  called  2a;tar  (v.  infra).  The  Arabic  name  is  probably  a  cor- 
ruption of  StsBchas,  which  is  Lavandula  Stadchas,  L. ;  a  plant  found  in 
the  Mediterranean  region. 

9.  Rosmarinus  officinalis,  or  common  Rosemary,  a  native  of  the 
Mediterranean  region,  and  which  may  perhaps  be  found  in  Palestine : 
''Quod  in  Galilea  etiam  frequens  sit,  auctoribus  Radzivilio  et  P. 
Dappero."  (Cels,  1.  o.  p.  418.)  Some  of  the  older  authors  have 
selected  this  plant,  because  being  a  shrubby  species,  a  stick  might 
easily  be  obtained,  to  which  the  sponge  dipped  in  vinegar  could  have 
been  tied.     It  is  suitable  aJso  for  sprinkling. 

10.  Origanum  Majorana,  Sa/i^^x^'^  of  the  Greeks,  and  tckonuchok 
of  the  Talmud,  was  considered  to  be  the  hyssop  by  Pena  and  Lobel. 
(Stirp.  Advers.  p.  212.)  It  is  doubtful  whether  this  be  not  Origanum 
Onites.    (Spr.  ii.  507.) 

1 1.  Mentha,  or  a  species  of  mint,  is  adduced  in  the  Ethiopic  version. 

12.  Mentha  Pulegium,  another  species  of  the  same  genus,  theyXi^x^n' 
of  the  Greeks,  and  foodnuj  of  the  Arabs,  and  siah  of  the  Talmud. 

13.  Teucrium  Polium,  or  Teucrium  pseudohyssopum,  Sckreb.  a 
native  of  the  Mediterranean  region,  and  found  by  Bov6  in  the  desert 
of  Sinai,  is  brought  forward  by  Columna,  not  only  as  the  hyssop  oi 
the  Greeks  and  Romans, ''  sed  ipsius  quoque  Mosis  et  Salomoms  veram 
et  genuinam  hyssopum." 

14.  Thymus  serpyllum,  or  common  Thyme,  widely  diffused  in 
mountainous  situations  in  Europe  and  Northern  Asia;  kasha  of  the 
Arabs,  and  6)0*Tlp  Talmudicis.     Cels.  1.  c.  p.  423. 

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OF   8€RIPTUR£.  199 

15.  In  the  Arabio  version  of  the  Books  of  Moses,  esob  is  trans- 
lated by  jXXfD  saiur  or  Mtur  of  the  Arabs,  sntri  of  Talmadical 
writers;  the  Arabic  name  is  considered  by  them  to  be  synonymous 
with  opiyayosof  the  Oreeks,  snpposed  to  be  Origanum  heracleoticam,  L., 
but  several  different  species  or  varieties  are  included  under  the  Arabic 
name  Botur,  which  it  is  needless  here  to  inquire  into,  as  they  are  all 
similar  in  nature  and  properties. 

Some  other  names,  as,  16.  Hyssopus  cochaliensis,  and,  17.  Marum 
album,  Maruchivara  Talmudicis,  are  adduced  by  Celsius,  pp.  416  et 
419,  which  I  have  not  yet  traced.  Sibthorp  (Fl.  Grsdca,  i.  pp.  596, 
597,)  mentions  that  in  Greece  the  name  vo'<r&fns  is  applied  both  to 
Satureia  grsBca  and  to  S.  Juliana.  He  himself  conjectures  that  Thymbra 
spicata  may  be  the  vtrawirw  iptanip  of  Dioscorides.  Thymbra  verti- 
ciUata,  L.,  wajB  similarly  adduced  by  Dalechamp. 

The  only  plant  which  remains  of  those  adduced  by  GeLdus  is,  18.  the 
common  or  garden  Hyssop,  Hyssopus  officinalis  of  botanists,  which  is 
supported  by  Celsius  himself.  It  has  had  the  greatest  number  of  suf** 
frages,  apparently  from  ihe  similarity  of  name.  This  may  or  may  not 
be  accidental  It  is  in  the  first  place  desirable  to  know,  not  only 
whether  the  esab  of  the  Hebrews,  the  wra-Arros  of  the  Grreeks,  and  the 
hynopus  of  the  Romans,  was  the  same  plant,  but  also  whether  what  we 
now  call  hyssop  is  the  same  plant  as  any  one  of  these.  Of  this,  I 
believe,  with  Sprengel,  and  others,  there  is  no  proof. 

The  account  given  of  the  hyssop  by  Dioscorides  is  so  imperfect^ 
tiiat  we  have  no  points  of  comparison  given  in  the  article  on  this  plant. 
But  in  describing  optymmv^  {Origanum  heradeoticum),  the  leaves  are 
described  aji  being  similar  to  those  of  hyssop,  but  that  its  umbel  is  not 
rotate,  as  if  he  wished  to  indicate  that  such  was  the  inflorescence  of  the 
hyssop.  In  the  chapter  on  Chrysocoma  it  is  said  that  it  has  a  corymboid 
coma,  like  the  hyssop.  Nieander  moreover  has  stated  that  the  hjrssop 
is  like  marjoram  ((ra/i^x^i^)  and  the  Arab  Isaac  Ebn  Amram  compares 
zoofa  Qi^C)  with  marjoram.  Besides  this,  Dioscorides  mentions  that 
there  are  two  kinds,  one  mountain,  and  the  other  garden  hyssop,  and 
that  the  best  is  produced  in  Cilicia;  Pliny  adds  '*in  Pamphylium 
et  Smymeum.*'  The  Arab  authors,  Abu*l  Fadli  and  Al-Olaji,  as 
quoted  by  Celsius,  also  mention  two  kinds,  the  mountain  and  the 
garden.  In  the  Talmud  authors,  that  which  is  found  in  the  desert 
is  distinguished  from  the  garden  kind.  Maimonides,  as  quoted  by 
Celsius,  says:  "Hyssopi  multie  sunt  species,  in  legem  autem  hsdo 
qua  homines  plerumque  utuntur  in  cibum,  quam  nos  meUe  condire 
solemus."    That  it  was  employed  by  the  Greeks  and  Romans  as  a 

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200  ON    THE    HYSSOP 

condiment  is  eyident  from  ita  mention  by  Apicius ;  others  describe  it  as 
bitter  and  fragrant ;  Diosoorides  mentions  only  the  diseases  in  which  it 
is  useful. 

The  modem  hyssop  (Hyssopus  officinalis^  L.  Sp.  796)  belongs  to  a 
genus  of  which  itself  is  the  only  species.  It  is  a  perennial  plant, 
usually  very  smooth;  (but  a  variety  is  described  by  De  Candolle,  in 
the  Flore  Fran9aiBey  Suppl.  396,  which  he  calls  H.  canescens,  from 
its  being  covered  with  short  rigid  hairs.)  The  root  throws  up  several 
leafy  stems,  which  are  woody  at  the  base,  diffuse  and  much  branched. 
The  branches  are  from  one  to  two  feet  in  length.  The  leaves  are  oppo- 
site, sessile,  rather  thick  in  texture,  narrow,  linear,  lanceolate,  in  one 
variety  elliptical;  margins  very  entire,  flat,  or  subrevolute;  green  on 
both  sides;  below,  one-nerved;  held  up  to  the  light  and  looked  at 
with  a  magnifying  glass,  they  seem  to  be  obscurely  dotted.  The 
flowers,  of  a  bluish  or  reddish  colour,  are  arranged  <d(mg  one  sidt  of 
the  stem  in  closely  approximated  whorls  in  a  terminal  spike.  The 
floral  leaves  are  similar  to  those  of  the  stem,  but  smaller.  Bracts 
lanceolate,  linear,  acute.  The  calyx  is  tubular,  fifteen-nerved,  with  five 
equal  teeth,  with  the  throat  naked.  The  corolla,  of  a  reddish-purple 
oolour,  with  its  tube  equalling  the  calyx,  is  bilabiate,  with  its  upper, 
lip  erect,  flat,  and  emarginate;  the  lower  one  spreading  and  trifid, 
middle  lobe  largest;  stamens  four,  exserted,  didynamous,  diverging; 
the  lower  ones  the  longest;  anthers  two-celled;  cells  linear,  divaricate; 
style  nearly  equally  bifid  at  the  apex;  lobes  subulate,  with  the  stigmas 
at  the  apex.  The  four  achenia  (or  seeds  with  their  coverings)  ovoid, 
three-cornered,  compressed,  and  rather  smooth. 

The  localities  of  the  hyssop,  as  given  by  Mr.  Bentham,  the  latest 
and  most  accurate  author  on  the  family  (Labiatae)  to  which  it  belongs, 
are  as  follow :  "  Hab.  in  Europa  austndiori  et  Asia  media;  in  Hispania 
[Favon],  Gallia  australi,  Italia,  Germania  australi,  rarior  in  (xermania 
media  [Eeichenhadi],  in  Belgio  [pumortier],  in  Rossia  meridionali 
\Pre9cott],  in  Tauria  et  Caucajso  in  Jugo  Altaico  [Bungey*  M.  Bove 
mentions  a  hyssopus  within  three  leagues  of  Jerusalem,  and  the  rose- 
mary. I  myself  have  obtained  it,  and  the  specimens  have  been 
examined  by  Mr.  Bentham,  from  Kanum  and  the  Ganthung  Pass  in 
Kunawur,  a  tract  along  the  Sutledge  on  the  northern  face  of  the  Himsr 
layan  Mountains,  and  which  may  be  considered  a  part  of  Tibet 

The  hyssop  is  remarkable  for  its  fragrant  and  aromatic  proper- 
ties, hence  its  employment  as  a  condiment  and  a  sweet  herb,  and  as  a 
moderate  excitant  in  medicine:  to  it,  however,  many  other  virtues 
were  formerly  ascribed. 

Of  all  these  plants,  we  need  only  say,  as  Celsius  has  already  done 


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OF   SCRIPTURE.  201 

respectiiig  a  plant  which  he  ihoaght  to  be  less  eli^ble  than  what  is 
eommonly  known  by  the  name  of  hyssop,  ''Nam  postmodo,  ubi  de 
▼era  hyssopo  allqna  dicenda  enmt,  Abrotonum  cum  leliqois,  hyssopi 
nmbrisy  uno  fftlcuke  ictu  snooidetnr.'' 

The  plants  adduced  by  the  latest  wiiteis  are,  1st,  Phjrtolaoca. 
decandns  ^J  Mr.  Kitto  in  the  Pictorial  Bible  in  Exod.  xii.  22. 
''  The  hyssop  of  the  Sacred  Scriptures  has  opened  a  wide  field  for 
conjecture,  but  in  no  instance  has  any  plant  been  suggested,  that  at 
the  same  time  had  a  sufficient  length  of  stem  to  answer  the  purpose  of 
a  wand  or  pole,  and  such  detergent  or  cleansing  properties,  as  to  ren- 
der it  a  fit  emblem  for  purification.  Our  wood-cut  represents  a  shrub, 
remarkable  in  both  these  respects,  which  is  the  Fhytolacoa  decandraJ^ 
RosenmiiUer  says,  the  Hebrew  word  esobh  does  not  denote  our  hyssop, 
but  an  aromatic  plant  resembling  it,  the  wUd  marforam,  which  the 
Germans  call  daden  or  Wohlgemuth^  the  Arabs  gater,  and  the  (Greeks 
ariganon. 

Dr.  Robinson,  in  the  ascent  of  Jebel  Musa  by  himself  and  Mr. 
Smith,  says :  ''  In  all  this  part  of  the  mountains  were  great  quantities 
of  the  fragrant  phixitjadehy  which  the  monks  call  hyssop,"  (Bibl.  Res. 
L  p.  157) ;  and  on  the  ascent  of  St.  Catherine, "  The  ja'deh  or  hyssop  was 
here  in  great  plenty;  and  especially  the  fragrant  zater,  a  species  of 
thyme,  (Thymus  serpyllum  of  Forskal,)"  p.  162.  Lady  Calcott  suggests 
that  the  hyssop  of  aspersion  was  hyssop  tied  to  a  stick  of  cedar. 
Winer,  (Biblisches  Real  W&rterbuch,  ii.  p.  820,)  admits  the  same  plant 
as  RosenmiiUer,  but  considers  that  several  plants  were  included  under 
the  name  esobh;  and  concludes  his  observations  on  Ysop  by  saying: 
"We  must,  however,  wait  for  more  accurate  observations  upon  the 
species  of  hyssop  and  origanum  indigenous  in  Western  Asia^  before 
the  meaning  of  the  Hebrew  etoUi  can  be  finally  settled." 

My  attention  was  first  directed  to  the  subject  when  lately  collat- 
ing the  list  of  drugs  in  the  Latin  edition  of  Rhases,  with  those  in  my 
own  MS.  Catalogue  before  alluded  to.  It  is  stated  in  that  work, 
as  indeed  in  that  of  Dioscorides,  c,  that  there  are  two  kinds  of 
hyssop,  the  one  a  garden,  the  other  a  mountain  plant;  but  Rhases 
fbrther  adds,  that  the  latter  is  found  on  the  mountain  of  the  Temple, 
that  is,  of  Jerusalem :  "est  herba  quaa  oritur  in  montibus  Templi,  folia  ut 
majorana.  Sylvestri  montanus  fortior,  et  dicitur  'ysopus  altaris.'" 
These  two  kinds  are  also  noted  by  Celsius  as  "  Hyssopus  in  montibus 
Hierosolymorum,  ^jJQl  ^Lxa^  l»%3  ^^^  ^^  j^^^  ^  kuds,"  and 
"Hyssopus  sicca,|y^lj  \it^  zoofa  yabis."  Jerusalem  is  now  called  by  the 
Arabs  EUkuds,  "the  Holy,"  and  also  by  Arabian  writers  BeU^dr^ 

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202  ON    THE    HYSSOP 

MukdUy  or  £eU^l-Mfikuddu$,  ihe  Sanctuacy,  &o.  (Robinson's  BibUoa 
ResearcheSi  i.  p.  880.)  Rhases  again,  in  the  article  Epithymum 
{GuBcuta  or  Dodder),  says  of  it :  *'  Caret  radice  sed  suspendit  supra 
arborem  jssopi  magni  et  folia  ysopi  oolligitur  cum  eo ;  et  fit  in  monti- 
bus  Templi."  So  Serapion,  quoting  Aben  Mesuai,  says  of  it:  "£z 
Greta  ac  dome  sancta,  allatum  f  and  of  the  hyssop,  he  quotes  Isaao 
Eben  Amram  as  saying,  '^  Laudatissima,  ex  domus  sanctffi  montibus." 
Whether  these  expressions  refer  to  the  common  hyssop,  or  to  that  which 
we  oonoeiye  to  be  the  true  plant,  it  is  not  eaey  to  determine,  as  the 
accounts  are  confused.  But  tiie  large  size  of  one  kind  indicates  that  it 
must  have  been  a  yery  different  plant  from  the  common  hyssop.  One 
troublesome  circumstance  is,  that  the  translators  of  these  Arabic  works 
do  not  always  adhere  to  the  arrangement  of  their  authors,  as  they  some- 
times conyert  the  arrangement  according  to  the  Arabic  alphabet,  into 
one  according  to  the  Latin  names  and  the  Roman  alphabet.  Thus  in  the 
great  work  of  Rhases,  called  Hawi,  or"Continens,'*  hyssop  is  described 
under  the  letter  atn,  and  the  name  in  the  Latin  translation  is  written 
yeoptu;  but  in  his  work  Ad  Mansor,  we  haye  hyssop  under  the  letter 
*'  Ze  id  est,  Z,"  and  two  kinds  mentioned,  one  called  "  Cyfe,  id  est, 
hyssopus  qu8B  yegetatur,^  and  the  other  written  '^CEsypus  autem  humida^ 
qwB  et  cerotes  dicitur,  qute  ex  lansB  sordibus  fit."  These  two  yarieties 
refer  to  the  iMuU  If^j  ^^^fa yahis,  or  khooskk,  that  is,  dry  hyssop,  and 
the  other  to  <_-Jri,  \i^  zoofa  nUub,  Lana  succida,  oUnmo^  of  Diosc. 
2.  c.  84.  (N.  98.  2,  Ay.  c.  364.)  Here  we  haye  yery  clear  eyidence, 
that  two  yery  different  things  haye  been  treated  of  under  one  name, 
apparently  only  because  the  Greek  names  are  a  little  similar.  Hence 
it  is  not  impossible  but  that  similar  confusion  may  haye  taken  place 
with  the  Greek  vaawns,  hyssopus,  and  an  oriental  name  like  the 
Hebrew  esob  or  esof. 

Having  suspected  the  existence  of  a  plant  distinct  from  the  hyssop, 
I  was  led  to  what  appears  to  me  its  discoyeiy,  by  a  passage  from 
Burckhardt's  Travels  in  Syria,  quoted  by  Mr.  Kitto  in  his  work 
entitled  The  Physical  Geography  and  Natural  History  of  the  Holy 
Land,  p.  cclii. :  ^' Among  trees  and  shrubs  known  only  by  native 
names  and  imperfect  descriptions :  The  aazei  is  spoken  of  this  month 
by  Burckhardt,  while  travelling  in  the  Sinai  Peninsula.  On  noticing  its 
presence  in  Wady  Kheysey,  he  describes  it  as  a  tree  which  he  had 
already  seen  in  several  other  wadys.  It  springs  from  the  fissures  in 
the  rocks,  and  its  crooked  stem  creep  up  the  mountain  side  like  a 
parasitical  plant.  According  to  the  Arabs  it  produces  a  fruit  of  the 
size  of  the  walnut,  of  a  blackish  colour,  and  very  sweet  to  the  taste. 


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OF   SCRIPTURB.  203 

The  bark  of  the  tree  is  white,  and  the  branehee  are  thickly  covered 
with  small  thorns;  the  leayes  are  heart-shaped,  and  of  the  same  shade 
of  green,  as  those  of  the  oak.     (SjTia>  536,  537.)" 

The  abore  description,  thongh  apparently  incorrect  in  the  appli- 
cation of  sonke  terms,  as  that  of  tree,  to  a  plant  creeping  like  a 
parasitical  plant,  yet  will  strike  most  botanists,  as  a  characteristic 
description  of  the  Common  Caper  Bosh,  which  is  indigenous  in  these 
regions,  and  which  I  was  aware  had  an  Arabic  name,  in  sonnd  some- 
thing like  the  (uzef  of  Burckhardt.  The  caper  plant  is  one  of  those 
which  in  the  copious  language  of  the  Arabs  has  more  than  one  name. 
It  is  well  known  that  its  most  common  name  is^xT  ki^>l>ur  or  kubar. 
From  this  the  Greek  KSmrapis,  and  the  Latin  capparis,  appear  to  have 
been  derived.  In  referring  to  one  of  the  Persian  works  on  Materia 
Medica,  which  has  been  published  with  an  English  translation  by  Mr. 
Gladwin,  that  is,  the  Ulfaz  Udwiyeh,  we  are  referred  from  capers  in  the 
Index  to  Nos.  1271. 175  and  184.  The  first  of  these  is  ^jS  or  capers, 
the  second  is  y^\  y^\  usstd  td  kubir,  root  of  the  caper  bush.  No. 
184  is  another  name  for  the  same  thing,  iJuoUl  ^i^\  ^mmZ  al  dguf,  as 
it  is  translated,  root  of  the  caper  bush.  We  may  learn  also  from  other 
sources,  that  amf  is  one  of  the  names  of  the  caper  bush.  Thus  in  the 
Kamus,  or  Great  Arabic  Dictionary,  amf  is  al  hibber.  So  also  in 
Freytags  Lexicon  Arabico-Latinum,  (uuf  is  translated  capparis; 
likewise  in  Richardson's  Persian,  Arabic,  and  English  Dictionary, 
London,  1829,  and  in  Shakespear's  Hindustani  Dictionary,  we  have 
ou^t  <uu/,  ''the  caper  tree  or  root.^  That  this  has  long  been 
known  to  be  one  of  the  names  of  the  caper  plant  is  evident  from 
MentzeFs  Index  Nominum  Plantarum  Multilinguis ;  where  we  have 
oZonf  given  as  an  Arabic  name  of  capparis,  taken  from  the  Index 
of  Avicenna>  editio  Veneta,  1564.  foL  I  quote  this,  as  I  am  unable 
to  find  the  word  in  my  own  copy  of  Avioenna>  Venice,  1555.  It 
appears  to  be  a  corruption  of  alasif  that  Forskal  heard  applied  to 
the  caper  plant  which  he  found  at  Taas  near  Mocha,  as  a  shrub 
growing  out  of  a  wall  (Flora  iEgyptiaco-Arabica),  and  of  which  he  says, 
''Si  hiBC  vera  est  Capparis  spinosa,  competit  illi  nomen  Arab.  Lasaf, 
ijudl."  This  may  be  a  corruption  of  %,Juay\,  or  Forskal  may  have 
written  it  simply  ^Juol  o^f,  <uid  the  mere  junction  of  the  letters  would 
convert  it  into  cJi^  lasuf,  a  mistake  which  might  easily  be  made  even 
by  the  celebrated  Niebuhr,  as  he  published  the  work  from  Forskal's 
notes  after  his  death.     In  my  own  MS.  Materia  Medica,  asuf  is  given 

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204  ON   THE   HYSSOP 

BB  a  synonym  of  IMur,  with  hifarus,  as  the  Yoonanee  or  Greek  name, 
which  is  evidently  intended  for  KSwwapiSf  aa  the  letter  p  is  wanting  in 
the  Arabic  alphabet. 

The  similarity  in  sound  between  the  ctsuf  of  the  Arabs  and  the 
«qf  of  the  Hebrews,  cannot  fail  to  strike  every  one,  aad  this  similarity 
would  extend  equally  to  the  writing  of  the  two  names  in  the  language 
of  the  other.  A  less  degree  of  similarity  has  in  other  cases  of  Hebrew 
and  Arabic  names,  been  considered  to  indicate  identity  of  origin  in 
words  in  these  two  languages.  This  similarity  might  certainly  be 
accidental,  but  it  cannot  be  accidental  that  the  plant  called  asuf  by 
the  Arabs,  answers  to  every  particular  which  is  required  for  the  due 
elucidation,  not  of  one,  but  of  every  passage  of  the  Bible  in  which 
egqf  is  mentioned.  This  we  shall  proceed,  we  hope  satisfactorily,  to 
prove. 

First  witii  respect  to  its  geographical  distribution,  the  asuf  like  the 
esof  ought  to  be  found  in  Lower  Egypt,  in  the  Desert  or  country 
between  the  Red  Sea  and  Palestine,  and  also  in  Palestine  itself. 

The  Caper  plant,  Capparis  spinosa  of  Linnaeus  and  of  all  modem 
botanists,  is  weU  known  to  be  abundant  in  the  south  of  Europe,  where 
it  appears  to  be  indigenous.  It  is  found  also  in  the  islands  of  the 
Mediterranean  and  generally  on  the  coasts  of  that  sea,  the  Mediter- 
ranean region,  of  botanists.  It  is  specifically  mentioned  as  found  in 
Lower  Egypt,  by  Forskal  in  his  Flora  ^gypt-Arab.  as  Capparis 
gpinosa,  called  habbar  by  the  Arabs,  growing  wild  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Alexandria.  The  same  facts  are  stated  by  De  Lile,  in  his  Illus- 
tratio  FL  ^gypt.  pp.  8  and  16,  forming  the  botanical  portion  of  the 
great  French  work  on  Egypt.  Previous  to  these  authorities.  Prosper 
Alpinus  had  stated  that  the  capers  of  Alexandria  were  larger  than 
those  of  other  places:  ''Capparis  Alexandrise  majores  quam  alibi 
inveniantur  proveniunt,  quos  cappar  quoque  appellant."  (De  PL 
iEgypti,  p.  60.)  So  Pliny,  "  Likewise  in  iEgypt  groweth  capparis,  a 
shrub  of  a  harder  and  more  woody  substance :  well  known  for  the 
seed  and  fruit  that  it  carrieth,  conmionly  eaten  with  meats,  and  for  the 
most  part  the  capres  and  the  stalke  are  plucked  and  gathered  together. 
The  outlandish  capres  (not  growing  in  i^gypt)  we  must  take  good 
heed  of  and  beware :  for  those  of  Arabia  be  pestilentiall  and  venomous: 
they  of  Africke  be  hurtful  to  the  gumbs,  and  principally  ihe  Marmarike 
are  enemies  to  the  matrice,  and  breed  ventosities.  The  Apulian 
capres  cause  vomit,  and  make  lubricite  both  of  stomack  and  bellie. 
Some  call  the  shrub  cynosbatos:  others  ophiostphayla."  (Holland's 
Translation,  lib.  xili.  c.  xxiii.)  So  in  Av.  c.  141,  capparis  is  called 
kabar  in  the  margin,  with  a  reference  to  Diosc.  2.  c.  166,  ''quaedam 
est  species,  quae  e  Rubro  Mari  defertur."  ^  I 

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OF   SCRIPTURB.  205 

In  Lower  Egjpt  is  also  fomnd  another  flpeoiea^  first  discovered  by 
Lippi,  the  Cappar%$  JEgyptia  of  Lamarck*  It  is  figured  by  De  Lile, 
FL  ^g.  p.  93.  t.  31.  £  3,  and  described  by  him  as  a  spreading  shrub^ 
of  which  the  branches  are  slender  but  firm ;  it  grows  in  the  moun- 
tfuns  of  the  desert  opposite  Minyeh^  This  species  was  also  found 
by  M.  Boy6^  and  by  Auchex^Eloy^  in  the  desert  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Suez. 

In  the  deserts  and  tract  of  country  in  which  the  Israelites  wan- 
deredy  the  caper  plant,  or  some  of  the  species  of  capparis  resembling  it 
in  general  appearance,  are  no  doubt  found  in  many  places.  The 
notices  of  it,  howeyer,  are  few,  but  the  localities  are  so  widely  sepa- 
rated that  we  are  warrantedjin  considering  that  it  might  be  found 
in  many  intermediate  situations ;  and  it  would  be  so  by  competent 
travellers,  that  is,  by  those  having  some  knowledge  of  Natural 
History. 

From  the  description  of  Burckhardt  already  quoted,  in  which  he 
saw  the  ok^  in  the  Sinai  Peninsula,  springing  from  the  fissures  of 
rocks,  with  its  crooked  stem  creeping  up  the  mountain  side  like  a 
parasitical  plant,  with  a  white  bark  and  the  branches  thickly  covered 
with  small  thorns,  and  heart-shaped  leaves, — there  can  be  little  doubt 
of  this  being  a  species  of  capparis,  and  probably  the  caper  plant.  It  is 
interesting  to  observe  that  he  mentions  it  as  a  plant  which  he  had 
already  seen  in  several  other  wadys.  We  have  however  very  definite 
information  respecting  the  caper  plant  in  this  situation,  as  M.  Bov6,  in 
his  ''Relation  d'un  Voyage  Botanique  en  Egypte,  dans  les  trois  Arabics, 
en  Palestine  eten  Syrie,"  (Ann.  des  Sc.  Nat.  i.  p.  72,)  says:  "Le  mont 
Sainte  Catherine  est  au  sud-sud-ouest  du  mont  Sinai'.  Dans  les  d^rts 
qui  environnent  ces  montagnes  j'ai  trouve  Capparu  spinotOy  &c.'' 
Belon  (Obs.  ii.  c.  xzi.)  mentions  ''Capparis  non  spinosa — ^minores enim 
in  Capparum  stirpibus  spinosis  nascuntur  .  .  .  ,**  and  at  c.  lx.  ''  Per 
istos  colles  'oberrantes,  cappares  invenimus,  pumilarum  ficuum  altitu- 
dinem  lequaates, — eemina  instar  piperis  calida."  So  Dr.  Shaw,  ''Cap- 
pans  Arabica,  fructn  ovi  magnitudine,  semine  piperis  instar  acri."  Belon. 
Obs.  1.  iL  c.  60.  "Nostra  tricubitalis  est  Folia  habet  glauc%  crassa, 
sncculenta,  rotunda,  unciali%  Fructus,  quern  vidi,  poUicis  fuit  magnitu- 
dine, oblongus  cucumeris  forma,  quem  Arabes  appellant  Filfal  jibbel^ 
i,  e.  Piper  montanum.  Copiose  crescit  in  via  ad  montem  Sinai."  (Travels, 
vol.  iL  p.  355.)  More  to  the  eastward  we  have  no  distinct  notices  of 
the  true  caper  plant,  but  other  species  are  found,  as  C.  heteracantha 
and  C.  leucophylla>  between  Aleppo  and  Bagdad  by  Olivier.  (D.C.  Sp. 
12  et  13.)  So  Aucher-Eloy  mentions  the  banks  of  the  Tigris  as 
eoveied  with  "la  plus  vigoureuse  vegetation;*'  that  is,  with  Tamarix, 


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206  ON    THE    HYSSOP 

Salix,  Capparis  leaoophylla.  If  we  trace  it  to  the  southward,  we  have 
already  mentioned,  that  Forskai  found  it  as  a  small  shrub  growing  out  of 
a  wall  near  Taxua  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mocha.  Dr.  Falconer,  late 
Superintendent  of  the  East  India  Companjs  Botanical  Garden  at 
Saharunpore,  has  informed  me  that  when  at  Aden  on  his  way  home,  he 
saw  the  rocks  there  covered  with  a  species  of  capparis,  which  appeared 
very  like  the  common  caper.  A  species  yery  similar  to  it  is  also 
among  the  plants  collected  by  Lieutenant  Wellsted  in  the  island  of 
Socotra. 

We  have,  thirdly,  to  find  the  caper  indigenous  in  Palestine  and 
Syria.  This  there  would  be  no  difficulty  in  doing,  if  trayellers  took 
the  trouble  of  noting  the  yegetation  of  a  country,  as  one  of  the 
featuies  which  distinguish  its  physical  geography.  S<Hne  omit  all 
notice  of  common  plants.  Others  notice  a  plant  only  when  first  met  with. 
Mr.  Kitto,  who  has  made  an  abstract  of  nearly  all  the  natural  history 
information  of  most  of  the  trayellers  in  the  Holy  Land,  mentions  the 
caper,  only  in  the  fields  near  Aleppo,  as  obseryed  by  Dr.  Russel. 
M.  Aucher-Eloy  mentions  a  species  of  capparis  (C.  effusa)  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Mount  Tabor.  Dr.  Clarke  found  "  Capparis  spinoea, 
common  caper  tree,  at  Cyprus,  and  in  the  Holy  Land  (Jaffa).  **  M. 
Boy6,  entering  Palestine  from  Egypt,  mentions  on  his  arrival  at  Gaz% 
^'Au  nombre  des  plantes  spontan^es,  je  citerai  les  suivantes:  Cap- 
paris gpmosa,**  Again,  on  his  arrival  at  Jerusalem,  he  says,  (1.  o. 
p.  173,)  '^  Dans  les  mines  croissent  les  Rhus  coriaria,  THyoscyamus 
conaria,  le  Momordica  Ela^rium,  et  le  Capparis  spinosa"  Belon 
had  previously  mentioned  finding  the  caper  plant  in  the  vicinity  of 
Jerusalem,  (v.  Rauwolf,  p.  269.) 

In  the  above  references  we  have  ample  proofs  of  the  caper  plant,  or 
amf,  being  found  in  all  the  situations  where  the  esof  is  mentioned  in  the 
Bible.  That  it  grows  out  of  the  fissures  of  rocks,  and  the  ruins  of  build- 
ings is  evident  from  some  of  the  above  extracts.  Thus  De  CandoUe  gives 
as  its  habitat,  "  In  muris  et  rupestribus  Europie  australis  et  oiientis.*^ 
When  at  Aleppo,  Rauwolf  says  (Travels,  p.  49),  "There  grew  also  in  the 
road  and  on  old  walls  such  plenty  of  capers,  that  they  are  not  at  all 
esteemed;  they  take  these  flowers  before  they  open,  and  pickle  them, 
and  eat  them  for  sauce  with  their  meat;"  and  again,  at  p.  75,  "and 
near  it  in  old  decayed  brick-walls  and  stony  places.*'  So  Ray,  (Hist. 
Plant,  p.  1629,)  "  Locis  arenosis  et  ruderatis  gaudet.  Nos  in  muris  et 
ruderibus  Ronue,  Senarum,  Florentise  et  alibi  in  Italia  observavimus 
spontaneam;  cultam  circa  Tolonam  in  Gallo-provincia,  ad  muros  et 
macerias." 

We  proceed  now  to  show  that  capers  were  supposed  to  be  possessed 


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OF    SCRIPTURE.  207 

of  cleansing  properties.  This  is  evident  from  tbe  following  quota- 
tions. Thus  Murray  (Apparatus  Medicaminnm,  ii.  p.  38 1,)  in  summing 
up  the  account  of  its  uses  as  given  hj  the  ancients,  says:  ^'£t  que 
▼eteres,  quibus  insigni  in  pretio  fuit,  de  eo  recensent,  ad  aperiendi  yim 
potissimum  et  abstergendi  pertinent.  Nompe  preoipue  in  obstmctio- 
nibus  lienis,  in  mensium  suppressione,  malo  ischiadico,  in  strumis  dis- 
outiendis,  porro  in  nlceribus  ezpurgandis,  pmceperuni.  Dioso.  Mat. 
Med.  lib.  ii.  cap.  204.  Galen  de  Simpl.  1.  7.  Plin.  Hist.  Nat.  lib.  20. 
cap.  15.- 

Dr.  Alston  (Mat.  Med.  i.p.871,)  observes,  ^'Hippocrates  even  orders 
it  as  a  detergent  in  peripneumonia.  'Postquam  autem  purum  esse 
sputum  cseperit  ari  concham  majorem  et  sesamum  .  .  .  Quod  si  magis 
educere  voles  radicis  capparis  corticem  his  admisceto.'  De  Morb.  1.  iii. 
p.  493.  lin.  23.** 

Plinj,  who  exhausted  all  the  sources  of  information  to  give  us  in 
his  Natural  History,  a  view  of  the  knowledge  of  his  times,  has  a 
curious  observation  on  the  utility  of  the  root  of  capers  in  a  disease 
closely  allied  to  leprosy,  the  complaint  in  which  esof  was  employed  by 
the  Israelites.  Thus  in  the  translation  of  Holland,  we  learn  that 
^The  root  of  capres  is  singular  good  to  take  away  the  white  spotted 
morphew,  (cousin  germane  to  the  leprosie,)  in  case  it  be  stamped,  and 
the  place  affected  rubbed  therewith.  Take  tiie  rind  of  the  root,  the 
quantitie  of  two  drams,  and  drinke  it  in  wine,  it  helpeth  the  swelled 
splene ;  provided  alwaies  that  the  patient  forbeare  the  use  of  baines 
and  hot-houses:  for  (by  report)  this  course  continued  35  daies  will 
cause  the  said  splene  to  purge  away,  partly  by  urine  and  partly  by 
seege.  The  same,  if  it  be  taken  in  drinke,  allaieth  paane  in  the  loins 
and  cureth  the  palsey.  The  seed  of  capers  sodden  in  vinegre,  brused 
and  applied  to  the  teeth,  or  otherwise  the  root  thereof  chewed  only, 
assuageth  the  tooth-ach.  A  decoction  of  capers  in  oile,  instilled  into 
the  ears,  mitigateth  thehr  paines.  The  leaves  and  the  root  newly 
gathered,  and  so  applied  as  a  cataplasme  with  honey,  healeth  the  cor- 
rosive ulcers  that  eat  to  the  very  bone.  Likewise  the  root  resolveth 
all  those  glandular  swellings  which  wee  call  the  King's  evill :  and  if 
the  same  be  sodden  in  water,  it  discusseth  the  tumors  behind  the  ears, 
and  riddeth  away  the  wormes  breeding  within.  It  cureth  also  the 
infirmities  of  the  liver.  The  manner  is  to  give  the  same  in  vinegre 
and  honey  for  to  chase  away  the  vermin  engendered  within  the  guts. 
Boiled  in  vinegre,  it  is  singular  for  the  cankers  or  ulcerations  within 
the  mouth :  howbeit,  all  authors  doe  accord,  that  they  be  not  good  for 
the  stomacke."  20  Book.  ch.  xv. 

In  modern  works  which  have  derived  much  of  their  information 

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208  ON    THE    HYSSOP 

from  the  more  ancient,  we  find  it  noticed;  even  in  a  botanical  .work> 
that  '^  Les  capriers  excitent  Tapp^tit,  et  sont  regard^s  comme  aperi- 
tives,  antiscorbntiqnes,  et  propre  pour  tner  les  yers.  L'6corce  de  la 
racine  est  aperitive,  dinr^tiqne  et  emmenagogue."  Lamarck.  EncjrcL 
Botanique,  art  Caprier. 

So  capers  formed  one  of  the  '^  Qoinque  radices  aperientes  minores/' 
or  the  &NB  lesser  aperient  roots,  as  Caper,  Dandelion,  Eiyngo,  Madder, 
and  Restharrow.  It  still  holds  a  place  in  some  of  the  German  Phar- 
macopceias  as  well  as  in  the  Spanish,  and  continues  to  be  employed 
throughout  Eastern  countries,  where  old  remedies  still  enjoj  their 
pristine  repute.  In  Europe,  it  is  now  almost  unirersally  known  as  a 
<>ondiment,  its  unexpanded  flower-buds  being  preserved  in  vinegar. 

It  remains  only  to  consider  whether  the  caper  plant  is  suitable  to 
the  passage  of  the  New  Testament  in  which  the  hyssop  is  mentioned^ 
and  it  appears  to  me,  that  it  is  as  well  so,  as  any  other  that  has  been 
proposed. 

The  passage  in  which  hyssop  is  mentioned  has  been  much  com- 
mented on,  in  consequence  of  the  difficulty  which  commentators 
bave  experienced  in  finding  a  plant  which  should  answer  in  all  points 
to  what  is  required.     Thus  it  is  said,  John  xix.  29,  Sxcvoff  ovv  tKtvro 

ffvtyicaaf  avrov  r^  orofuiri,  or  as  translated  in  the  authorized  version. 
''Now  there  was  set  a  vessel  full  of  vinegar,  and  they  filled  a  sponge 
with  vinegar,  and  put  it  upon  hyssop  {fixing  it  on  a  hyssop  stalk  of 
some)  and  put  it  to  his  mouth."  One  difficulty  has  arisen  from  the  evan- 
gelists Matthew  and  Mark,  in  describing  the  same  occurrence,  making 
no  mention  of  the  hyssop.  Thus  Matthew  (xxviL  48,)  describes  one, 
as  bringing  a  sponge,  frXijo-oj  me  ofovr,  icat  frepc^eif  icoXofi^,  and  they  "filled 
it  with  vinegar  and  put  it  on  a  reed,  and  gave  him  to  drink.''  Mark 
(xv.  36,)  in  like  manner  writes,  kcu  yt/iuras  amyyop  o^r,  vtpfBtis  re 
jcaXo/i^  ''and  one  filling  a  sponge  with  vinegar,  and  placing  it  about  a 
reed,  gave  him  to  drink." 

In  all  the  three  accounts  we  have  the  sponge  filled  with  vinegar^ 
and  given  to  our  Saviour  to  drink ;  Matthew  and  Mark  stating  it,  as 
being  raised  on  a  reed,  while  John  omits  all  mention  of  the  reed,  but 
describes  the  sponge  as  bemg  put  on  or  about  hyssop.  By  some  com- 
mentators it  has  been  supposed  that  the  sponge  and  hyssop  were  fixed 
to  a  reed  or  stick,  and  that  one  evangelist  has  omitted  all  notice  of  the 
latter,  ajid  the  two  other  evangelists  of  the  hyssop.  Other  commen- 
tators argue,  that  in  the  relation  of  the  same  circumstances  by  these 
witnesses,  it  is  evident  that  the  reed  or  stick  must  be  the  same  as  a 
stick  of  hyssop.    As  John  is  the  more  particular  in  his  deeciiption 

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OF    SCRIPTURE.  209 

and  osnally  supplies  what  ha«  been  omitted  in  the  other  accounts  of 
our  Saviour,  and  as  he  expressly  states,  xix.  35,  "And  he  that  saw  it 
bare  record,  and  his  record  is  true,"  so  are  we  bound  to  make  our 
explanation  suit  his  description. 

The  difficulty  has  been  to  find  a  plant  fitted  for  the  purpose  and 
to  which  the  name  hyssop  was  applied;  for  it  is  acknowledged  on  all 
hands  that  the  common  hyssop  is  too  short  and  too  slender  to  be  used 
as  a  stick.  Some  commentators  therefore  have  proceeded  so  far  as  to 
^gg^^  alterations  in  the  text.  Thus  Camerarins  for  wrtr^^  proposes 
vo-cTf ,  pUo  vel  veruto,  " jaTelin  or  dart."  Heinsius  suggests  ^o-M-f^ 
atkiy  ^  a  spear  or  pike,"  and  also  oUnmos,  lana  wcdda^  vel  sordida; 
as  the  words  wramrov  and  oUnmw  are  often  confounded  by  others  as 
well  as  by  Arab  authors,  "  multis  locis  apud  auctores  tarn  Gnecos, 
quam  Latinos,  errore  scribarum  esse  permutatas."  (Celsius.  L  c.  p.  444.) 
Bochart  again,  retaining  the  name,  luus  proposed  changing  the  case  of 
hyssop,  "et  pro  {fctrofir^  legendum  censuit  Ijctrwrov,  Quasi  yellet 
Johannes :  vtpiBwvrts  Ufa-o'tinrov  <nr6yy^,  posuerunt  hyssopum  circa  spon- 
glam :  qusB  explicatio  est  violenta ;  contraria  vero  maxime  naturalis, 
cum  sponte  se  offerat  accusativus  tnrAyyov  ex  ingenio  lingusB,  et 
phraseos,  hie  subintelligendus,  et  repetendus,  ut  sit :  mpt6€PT€s  (o^nfTyor) 
wra-^nijf,  u  e.  v€p\  v<r<noirov^  quomodo  GriBci  nonnunquam  loqunntur.'' 
Celsius.  1.  0.  p.  445. 

Instead  of  supposing  as  in  the  above  instance,  tiiat  the  hyssop  was 
placed  round  the  sponge,  Celsius  himself  is  of  opinion  that  the  sponge  was 
filled  with  vinegar,  and  that  to  it  was  tied  a  bundle  of  hyssop,  which 
might  thus  be  contained  in  its  middle  when  it  was  reached  up  to  our 
Saviour.  He  further  adduces  Casaubon  and  others  as  agreeing  with 
this  explanation,  as  well  as  with  the  Ethiopic  version,  where  we  read, 
''Bt  erat  ibi  vas  aceto  plenum,  et  impleveront  spongiam  aceto,  ae 
foliis  hyssopi,  et  ligarunt  super  amndinem." 

But  all  these  explanations  and  interpretations  are  variations  from 
the  plain  and  obvious  meaning  of  the  passage  of  St  John  in  which  the 
sponge  filled  with  vinegar  is  described  as  being  put  upon  hyssop,  that 
is,  a  stick  of  hyssop,  and  raised  to  our  Saviour  on  the  Gross.  The  diffi- 
cnlties  experienced  have  arisen  from  the  common  hyssop,  which  is 
generally  supposed  to  be  the  plant  alluded  to,  not  being  suited  for  the 
purpose.  But  we  have  already  seen  that  the  common  hyssop  does  not 
answer  in  any  respect  to  what  is  required.  The  caper  plant,  which  we 
have  seen  exactly  appropriate  to  so  many  of  the  passages,  seems  also 
well  suited  to  the  present,  as  it  will  yield  a  stick  large  enough  for  the 
purpose.  And  this  is  required  by  some  of  the  versions,  as  the  old 
Italian,  un  basto  e  ifhisBopo^  likewise  in  the  Spanish,  and  in  th» 

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210  ON   THE    HYSSOP 

French  edition  of  Mohtenei;  aiv  botU  cTun  baton  (Chysmpe,  So  also  in 
that  of  many  celebrated  men. 

Some  also  of  the  ancient  statements  refer  evidently  to  a  larger 
plant  than  the  common  hyssop.  Thus  Josephus,  (Antiq.  lib.  yiii.  cap.  2,) 
ranks  it  with  trees.  By  the  Rabbins  it  was  included  among  woods, 
^'hyssopum  inter  ligna  censeri  apud  Rabbinos."  Tract  Shebiit,  c.  viii. 
$  1.  Parah,  c.  xi.  §  8.  So  in  Tract.  Succah,  fol.  xiii.  1,  ''inter  men- 
tionem  cannarum,  et  surculorum,  quibus  obtexerunt  Judsei  tentoria 
in  festo  tabemaculorum  memorari  etiam  hyssopnm."  (Celsius.  Hierobot. 
439 — 442.)  It  is  more  than  probable  that  the  amf,  or  caper  plant,  is 
the  esd  or  ««(/ referred  to  in  these  passages,  and  Winer  says,  ''Truly 
it  cannot  be  concealed,  that  the  Talmudists  distinguish  the  hyssop  of 
the  Greeks  and  Romans  from  the  eschk  of  the  Law.*'  Biblisches  Real 
Worterbuch.  ii.  p.  820. 

The  height  of  a  shrub  which  would  be  fitted  for  such  a  purpose 
may  be  judged  of,  by  what  must  have  been  the  fact,  that  the  Cross  of 
our  Saviour  could  not  have  been  higher  than  what  any  man  of  mo- 
derate stature  might,  with  an  ordinary  stick  and  his  arm  stretched  out, 
easily  reach  the  mouth  of  our  Saviour.  For  it  is  evident  that  the 
cross  to  be  of  sufficient  strength  and  yet  carried  by  a  man,  could  not 
also  be  very  lofty. 

For  such  a  purpose  it  is  evident  that  no  large  tree  is  required, 
because  a  shrub  of  moderate  dimensions  would  easily  yield  a  stick  of 
three  or  four  feet  in  length ;  and  such  any  of  the  old  caper  bushes  or 
trees,  as  they  are  sometimes  called,  growing  in  the  congenial  climate  of 
Palestine,  would  be  able  to  supply.  "Ibi,  [that  is,  in  Egypt]  et 
capparis  firmioris  ligni  frutex.''  Plin.  xiii.  c.  23.  The  prickly  nature 
of  the  stem,  moreover,  would  better  fit  it  for  the  purpose  of  having  the 
sponge  affixed  to  it.  The  caper  plant  was  not  only  a  plant  growing 
wild  on  the  rocks  and  walls  of  Jerusalem,  no  doubt,  in  ancient  times  as 
at  the  present  time,  but  one  which  seems  from  the  earliest  times  to 
have  been  valued  as  a  medicine,  and  its  flower-buds  employed  as  an 
article  of  diet,  or  rather  as  a  condiment.  If  it  was  allowed  to  hazard 
u  conjecture,  we  might  say  that  a  notched  stick,  or  a  cleft  reed,  might 
have  been  employed  in  gathering  the  caper  buds  from  off  the  extre- 
mities of  the  branches,  and  to  this,  the  name  of  hyssop  stick  might 
<jorrectly  be  applied.  This  employment  of  ,capers  is  further  interest^ 
ing  as  explaining  in  some  mea^sure  the  presence  of  the  vessel  full  of 
vinegar  (ofow  ficcrroi/).  The  word  o^s,  which  is  translated  '*  vinegar" 
in  the  English  version,  and  aodwm  in  the  Latin,  is  sometimes  translated 
"sour  wine,"  and  is  supposed  to  have  been  there  for  the  refreshment  of 
tjoldiers.     it  may  have  been  so;  but  it  .is  curious  that  vinegar,  (whicli 

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OF   SCRIPTURE.  211 

was  ako  called  o$os  by  the  Greeks,  as  we  may  see  in  a  nearly 
contemporary  author,  that  is,  Dioscorides,  lib.  v,  c.  xxii,  wept  ofovy,) 
should  have  been  required  for  preserving  different  parts  of  the  caper 
plant  in  those  days  as  at  the  present  time.  For  wQ  learn  from  Pliny^ 
who  says  of  fruits  eaten,  "  In  fruticoso  genere,  cum  caule  capparis," 
lib.  XV.  c.  28.  Again,  xiii.  c.  28.  "  Ibi  et  capparis,  firmioris  ligni  frutex, 
seminisque  et  cibi  vulgati  caule  quoque  una  plerumque  decerpto." 
f'  Likewise  in  Egypt  groweth  capparis,  a  shrub  of  a  harder  and  more 
woodie  substance :  well  knowne  for  the  seed  and  fruit  that  it  carrieth, 
commonly  eaten  with  meats,  and  for  the  most  part  the  capers  and  the 
stalke  are  plucked  and  gathered  together."  (Holland's  Pliny,  xiii.  c.  23, 
and  in  other  places.)  "  Tritum  ex  aceto  semen  decoctiam,"  &c.  ''The 
seed  of  capres  sodden  in  vinegre,  bruised  and  applied  to  the  teeth,  &c. 
It  cureth  also  the  infirmities  of  the  liver.  The  manner  is  to  give  the 
same  in  vinegre  and  honey.  Boiled  in  vinegre,  it  is  singular  for  the 
cankers  or  exulcerations  within  the  mouth."  (Lib.  xx.  c.  15.)  The 
caper  plant,  though  wild  in  so  many  parts  of  the  Roman  Empire,  wa^ 
yet  cultivated  even  in  that  age.  ''Quippe  cum  capparis  quoque 
seratur,  sice  is  maxime,  area  in  defossu  cavata,  ripisque  undique 
circumstructis  lapide :  alias  evagatur  per  agros  et  cogit  solum  steri- 
lescere.  Floret  aestate,  viret  usque  ad  Vergiliarum  occasum,  sabulosis 
familiarissimum."  (xix. c.8.)  Ray  describes  the  process:  ''Gemmas 
fiorumadultas — coUigunt, — Tum  vasi  immittunt,  et  aoetum  super  affun- 
dunt."  Hist.  Plant.  1629. 

The  caper  plant  is  however  supposed  by  many  to  be  mentioned  in 
Scripture  by  the  name  aidt/onah,  in  Eccles.  chap.  xii.  v.  5,  which  in  thQ 
Septuagint  and  Vulgate  has  been  translated  capparis.  This  is  not 
admitted  by  others,  as  in  the  authorized  English  version,  where  abir 
yonah  is  translated  "  desire."  "  When  the  almond  tree  shall  flourish, 
and  the  grajBshopper  shall  be  a  burden,  and  desire  (abiyonah)  shall 
fail."  As  the  name  abionoth  was  applied  to  the  small  fruits  of  trees 
and  to  berries,  so  it  has  been  thought  to  be  the  same  word  as  abi- 
yonah, and  to  indicate  the  caper  bush.  This  plant  may  have  had  two 
names  in  the  Hebrew  language,  as  indeed  it  has  in  the  Arabic,  and 
we  may  suppose  it  to  be  particularly  adduced  as  growing  especially 
on  old  walls  and  tombs.  Further,  if  we  suppose,  as  is  natural,  that 
the^figurative  language  employed  by  Solomon  is  carried  on  throughout 
the  sentence,  it  appears  to  me  appropriate.  For  the  caper  plant,  like 
most  of  its  tribe,  is  conspicuous  for  its  long  flower-stalks,  which  are 
erect  when  the  plant  is  in  flower  and  the  fruit  young,  but  which  bend 
and  hang  down  as  the  fruit  ripens.  ''As  the  flowering  of  the  almond 
tree  has  been  supposed  to  refer  to  the  whitening  of  the  hair,  so  the 

._..,P..2,. ^ie 


213  ON    THE    HYSSOP   OF    SCRIPTURE. 

di'Mfplng  of  the  ripe  frdt  of  a  plant  which  is  conspicuous  on  the  walls 
of  hizildiflgs  and  on  tombs,  may  be  supposed  to  typify  the  hanging 
down  the  bead  before  'man  goeth  to  his  long  home.'"  CycL  of  Biblical 
Lit  Art*  Ahiyfmah. 

The  oape^  plant  is  too  well  known  to  require  a  description,  espe- 
eially  ais  so  many  dettuls  hare  already  been  given  respecting  its  habit. 
We  hflre  seen  in  the  first  place,  that  it  has  a  name,  azuf,  in  Arabic, 
Stlffiei^tly  similar  to  the  Hebrew  esofor  egobh.  It  is  found  in  Lower 
Elgyptj  in  the  desefts  of  Sinai,  and  in  Palestine.  Thus  it  is  found  in 
idl  the  places  whe^  the  esobh  must  hare  been  indigenous,  for  the 
Israelites  to  have  been  able  to  obtain  it  for  their  religious  ceremonies. 
Ite  habit  is  to  grow  upon  the  most  borfen  soil,  or  rocky  precipice,  or 
the  side  of  a  wall>  and  this  is  also  essential;  for  it  is  said,  that 
Solomon  knetr  all  plants,  from  the  cedar  of  Lebanon  to  the  hyssop 
that  groweth  on  the  wall.  It  h6s  moreover  always  been  supposed  to 
be  possessed  of  cleansing  properties;  hence,  probably,  its  selection  in 
the  ceremonies  of  purification,  or  its  employment  in  these  may  have 
led  to  the  supposition  of  its  possessing  the  power  of  curing  disea^ee 
like  leprosy.  Finally,  the  caper  plant  is  capable  of  yielding  a  stick 
to  which  tiie  aponge  might  have  been  afiixed,  as  we  learn  from 
St.  John  was  done  with  the  hyssop,  when  the  sponge  dipped  in  vinegar 
Was  raised  to  the  lips  of  our  Saviour.  A  coitnbination  of  circumstances 
and  some  of  them  apparently  too  improbable  to  be  united  in  one 
plant,  I  cannot  believe  to  be  accidental,  and  have  therefore  considered 
myself  entitled  to  infef,  what  I  hope  I  have  now  succeeded  in  proving 
t»  the  Mitisfaction  of  others,  that  the  Caper  Plant  is  the  Hyssop  of 
Soripture. 


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Saadi,  Auteur  des  Premieres  Po^es  Hindoustani.  Par 
M.  Garciu  de  Tassy.    8vo.    Paris,  1843 

Lettre  k  M.  Garcin  de  Tassy,  au  sujet  de  sa  Notice 
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Fasc.  prior.    Text,  Sanskrit    8vo.    Bonnss,  1840) 

The  Naishada-Charita ;  or,  Adventures  of  Nala  Raja  of| 
Naishada;  a  Sanskrit  Poem.  Part  L  8vo.  Cal-> 
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vati,  attribue  k  Cagkara  Atcharya.  Traduit  en!^ 
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being  a  Rejoinder  to  the  Reply  of  a  Pnndit  to  the  ; 
Mata  ParikshA.    8vo.        -  -  -  -| 

The  Way  to  Happiness;  a  Sketch  of  the  tme  Theoiy  of 
Human  I^fe.  In  Sanskrit  verse.  8vo.  Ixmdon,  I 
1841 i 

Christa  SangftH;  or,  the  Sacred  History  of  Our  Lord\ 
Jesus 'Christ.  In  Sanskrit  verse.  With  an  Eng-i 
lish  Introduction.  By  the  Rev.  W.  Mill,  D  J).  | 
8vo.    Calcutta,  1842  .  .  .  .J 

The  Vendidid  Sdd^,  Yagna,  and  Vispard  of  the  P^rsfs. 
In  the  Zend  language,  but  Gujarati  character,  with 
Gujarati  translation,  paraphrase,  and  comment, 
according  to  the  traditional  inteipretation  of  the 
Zoroastrians.  By  the  late  Framji  Aspandiaiji,  and 
other  Dasturs.     6  Vols.  8vo.     Bombay,  1842—43  - 

Gujarati  Bibla    3  Vols.  4to.    Surat,  1828 
„      Testament    8vo.  (no  title  page)- 


DOMORS. 


J.    MWITy    £t^ 


TheAuihar. 


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JR.  A.  S. 


~  ']  Captain  T.  Postans, 

Tamil  Regulations  of  the  East  India  Company,  from  18021     r>  r>t    i,    w?^ 
to  1825.    4  Vols.  Folio      -  -  -  J    -«•  Ctor**,  ifig. 


"-     Dr.  F.  Erdmann, 


The  Author. 


The  Editor. 


The  Editors. 


The  Koran.    2  Vols.  4to.     Kasan,  1843   - 

Concordantiffi  Corani  ArabicsB.  Ad  literarum  Ordineml 
et  Verborum  radices  diligenter  disposuit  Gustavus> 
FlligeL    4to.    LipsisB,  1842  -  -  -.I 

Book  of  Religious  and  Philosophical  sects,  by  Muhammad) 
al  SharisUCni.  Part  I.  Edited  by  the  Rev.  W.V 
Cureton,  M.A.    8vo.    London,  1842         -  -I 

Habicht's  Arabian  Nights.  Arabic.  Vols.  IX.,  X.,) 
XI.,  XII.     12mo.    Breslau,  1843  -  -f 

Pars  reliqua   Libri   As-Sojutii   de  Nominibus  relativis,] 

inscripti     ^^LJJJ  ^    4to.    Lug.  Bat,  1842        .\  Lepden  Univermty. 

C.  J.  Tombergi  Annates  Regum  MauritanisB  ab  Abul 
Hasan.  Ali  ben  Abdallah  ibn  Abu  Zer.  Arab. 
Text    Tom.  I.  4to.    Upsaliffi,  1843 

The  Old  Testament  transUted  into  Persian.  By  the  Rev.1 
Thomas  Robinson.    3  Vols.  8vo.    London,  1839   -j 

The  George-Nilmeh  of  Mnlla  Feruz  bin  K^wus,  Chiefs 
Priest  of  the  Parsi  Kadmis  of  Bombay.  Edited  I 
by  his  Nephew,  Mulli  Rustum  bin  Kaikobdd.| 
3  Vols.    8vo.     Bombav.  1837        -  -  -' 


The  Editor, 


The  Translator. 


The  Editor, 


TheEAior. 


3  Vols.    8vo.    Bombay,  1837 

Shdhih,  or  the  First  Chapter  of  the  Atesh  Kedah.    Text  1 
Edited  by  N.  Bland,  Esq.    8vo.    London,  1844    -[ 

History  of  Bahramgur  and  the  Daughter  of  tlie  Emperor) 

of  Russia.    (From   the  Haa  Paiker  of  Nizami.)    Dr.F.  Erdmann. 
8vo.     Kasan,  1844  .  ,  .  .) 

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Extracts  from  some  of  the  Persian  Poets.  Edited  from  | 
MSS.  in  the  Library  of  the  East  India  Company.) 
By  F.  Falconer,  M. A.    8vo.     London,  1843         -I 

Chrestomathies  Orientales.  Vol.  I.  Edited  by  M.  JanbertI 
and  M.  Quatrem^re.    8to.    Paris,  1841  -I 

Chrestomathie  en  Turk  Oriental,  contenant  plusieurs  ou-| 
YTBges  de  FEmir  Ali-Schir,  &c.  &c.  Par  M.  Qua-> 
trem^re.    Prem.  fasc.    8vo.    Paris,  1841  -I 

Thebat  ul  Ajezin ;  the  Strength  of  the  Feeble.  Turkish. 
Kasan,  1841 

Yibuf  and  Zuleikha.    Turkish.    Kasan,  1841 

Seif  ul  Mulk.    Turkish.    Kasan,  1841 

Turkish  Calendar.    4to.    Kasan,  1843 

A  Chinese  Chrestomatliy  in  the  Canton  Dialect.  By  E.1 
C.  Bridgman.    4to.    Macao,  1841  -  -I 

Spelling  Books,  &c.  in  Armenian.  Printed  at  Calcutta.  1841 

A  MS.  Copy  of  the  Sacred  Book  of  the  Sikhs,  called 
the  '*  Granth,**  which  had  been  presented  to  Sir 
C.  M.  Wade  by  Jowahir  Singh,  a  descendant  of 
the  Ten  Priests  of  the  Sikhs.    Folio 

Two  Persian  MSS.  irom  Herat,  containing  the  Pand) 
Nameh,  &c.  -  -  -  -  -) 

list  of  Malay  Manuscripts.    MS.        *    - 

Malay  Fragment  on  Charms  and  Spells.    MS. 

Persian  Fragment  on  Astrology.    MS.    - 

Fragment  on  Persian  Prosody.    MS. 

Select  Pi4>yri,  in  the  Hieratic  Character,  in  the  British) 
Museum.  Part  II.     Folio.    London,  1842  -j 


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1230  jusqu'a  Pan  1640  de  notre  ^re. 
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Twelve  images  of  Hindu  deities,  in  steatite 

Clay  pigments,  and  stone  stamps,  nsed  by  pilgrims  to  the 
great  temple  of  Jagganath,  at  Pooree,  for  marking 
their  arms,  foreheads,  &a 

Six  shells  purchased  of  pilgrims  to  Jagganath 

Specimen  of  building  material  from  the  Kanarak  Temple  - 

An  Indian  box,  containing  twelve  slides,  on  which  are 
painted  various  Hindu  mythological  subjects  by  a 
native  artist ;  with  a  descriptive  catalogue  of  the 
paintings,  written  by  a  native       ... 

A  letter  or  document  on  yellow  paper,  bearin<;  the  Auto-^ 
graph  of  His  ACajesty  Taou  Kwang,  in  vermilion 
letters.  The  document  is  inclosed  in  an  envelope 
of  piHP^y  covered  with  yellow  silk ;  on  the  latter 
is  written,  in  Chinese  characters,  "The  lieut.- 
Govemor  of  Keangsoo,  the  Minister  Lin  Tseih  sen, 
kneeling,  wishes  the  sacred  person  of  the  august 
Dmperor  all  repose;'*  under  which  His  Majesty 
has  written,  with  his  own  hand,  CMn  dn,  i,  e,  "We 
enjoy  repose.*'       -  -  -  -  . 

An  Afighan  Chiefs  Cloak  of  Cashmere  Goat  Skins,  richly  i 
embroidered  -  -  •  -  .(': 

A  smaller  fur  Coat  .... 

An  Indian  Battle  Axe     -  -  -  -  .      R,  Clarkey  Esq. 

Specimens  of  Doodah  and  Gangajelly  Wheat,  from  samples] 
of  cargoes  imported  into  Engkind  from  Calcutta,  in 
June,  1842  -  -  -  .  J 

Two  Specimens  of  Sculptured  Bricks  from  the  Ancient) 
Ruins  of  Gour       -  -  -  .  .j 


^E^  C.  Bndgman^Esq. 


T.  T.  MardoH,  Esq. 


M.  Martin^  Esq. 


CapL  Kiitoe. 


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XVI  DONATIONS   TO   THE   MUSEUM. 

Donors. 
Two    Specimens   of  small   Mummied    Crocodiles,  from] 

Maabdeh,  in  Egypt  (supposed  to  be  the  site  of  the>     Mr»,  Posiatu, 
ancient  Crocodilopolis).     .  .  .  .j 

A  Hindu  Astronomical  Instrument,  in  brass,  after  an)   ^         ,^     ,^  ., . 
ancient  model       -  .  .     ^-  ,]  General  CauffeUd. 

Miniature  Portraits,  by  a  Native,  of  the  present  Nizam  of)  ^    j  *»i  f  »r 

Hyderabad,  and  of  his  ex-Minister,  Chundoo  U\    -r*"^'  ^"''  ^^*^'^^' 

A  Riding  Whip,  made  of  the  Concrete  Milk  of  a  Tree,^ 
indigenous  in  Singapore,  called  Gueta  Pereha  by  I 
the  Malays ;  also  a  specimen  of  the  Concrete  Milk  \Don  Joze  tP Almeida. 
in  the  Lump :  it  is  made  ductile  by  being  placed  in  | 
hot  water  -  -  -  -  -J 

Specimens  of  a  small  Cocoa  Nut,  from  the  Malabar  Coast ) 
A  Cap  of  Needlework,  worn  by  the  Moplas  of  Malabar!     *  * 

A  Singhalese  Scroll,  from  the    Collection    of  General  | 

Brownrigg,  and  taken  by  him  in  the  Eandyanl     B.  Hertz,  Bag. 
war  from  the  palace  of  the  king    -  -  -| 

A  Jmb  Diagram  -  -  -  -  -  Capt.T.J.NewboU. 

Six  Silver  and  Seven   Copper  Coins,  supposed   to   be^ 
Bactiian,  procured  by  the  Donor  in  A£fghanist^ 
Two  Affghani  Snuff  Bottles         ... 
A  Russia-leather  Water-Bag^  used  by  the  Affghans 

A    Pair   of  Winter-Hose  of  Sheep-skin,  worn  by  the 

Afighans  -  -  -  .  . 

A  small  piece  of  Petrified  Wood,  from  the  Desert  between 

Cairo  and  Suez     -  -  -  -  - 

Two  Silver  Coins  of  Tiberius  Csdsar,  found  in  Coimbatorej 

(with  some  hundreds  of  others),  in  an  eajr\heii\Capt,T.J.Netdbol(L 
pot,  in  the  earth  .  -  .  .J 

A  Hindu  Tamba  patra,  on  which  is  inscribed  a  Grant  in)  ^         ,  r,    i^  -u 
the  Sanskrit  hmguage       .  -  .  -/  Getkend  CatafeUd. 


>  Lieta^'Col.  Smyth. 


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CONTENTS  OF  N?  XVI. 

Part  I. 


Art.  XI. — Snmmaiy  of  tbe  Geology  of  Southern  India.  By 
X^APTAiN  Nbwbold,  F.R.S.9  Scc.,  Assistant  Commissioner 
for  Knmool  ......  213 

Art.  XII. — Tlie  Chencliwars;  a  wild  Tribe,  inhabiting  the  Fo- 
rests of  the  Eastern  Ohaats.  By  Captain  Newbold, 
F.R.S.,  See,,  Assistant  Commissioner  for  Knmool  .  .  271 

Art.  XIII. — Acoonnt  of  Aden.     By  J.  P.  Malcolmbon,  Eso., 

Ciyil  and  Staff  Snrgeon  .27:9 

Art.  XIV. — Narrative  of  an  Ezoorsion  from  Pesh&wer  to  Shih- 

Bd2  Ghari.     By  C.  Masson,  Esq.  .  .293 

Art.  XV. — On  the  Kapnr-di-Giri  Rock  Inscriptions.     By  Mr.  E. 

NoRRis      .......  303 

Note  by  the  Director         ....  308 

Notes  on  the  Geology  of  Southern  India  .315 


TO  the  binder. 

The  Lithograph  of  the  Mound  of  Scorias  was  intended  to  illustrate  a 
paper  by  Captain  Newbold,  which  appeared  in  the  7th  volume  of  the 
Society's  Journal,  p.  129.  The  Drawing  had  been  mishiid  when  the 
MS.  was  transmitted  to  this  country,  and  has  only  recently  been 
received. 


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213 


Akt.  XL  —  Summary  of  the  Geology  of  Southern  India.  By 
Captain  Newbold,  F.R.S.,  &c.,  Assistant  Commissioner  for 
KurnooL 

[Continued  from  p.  171.] 


PART  IV. 

FOSSILIFEROUS   LiMESTOKE  OF   PoNDICHEBRY. 

Geographical  Position. — About  nine  miles  inland  of  Pondicherry  on 
the  Coromandel  coast,  Lat.  11°  56'  N.,  are  beds  of  limestone  rising 
in  gentle  undulations,  and  running  in  a  S.E.  by  E.  direction,  almost 
parallel  with  the  coast,  for  a  distance,  as  far  as  I  was  able  to  trace,  of 
about  four  or  five  miles.  Of  these  strata  no  detailed  account  had  been 
published  up  to  the  date  of  my  yisit  in  March,  1840.  They  are  seen 
to  crop  out  near  the  Tillages  of  Sydapett,  Carassoo,  Coolypett,  and 
Vurdavoor,  from  a  superincumbent  tertiary  lateritic  grit  imbedding 
large  quantities  of  silicified  wood,  and  of  which  a  description  has  been 
given  by  Lieutenant  Warren:  who  has,  however,  overlooked  the  fossil 
limestone.  The  beds  of  the  latter  dip  very  slightly  easterly.  The 
greater  part  of  the  surface  of  the  limestone  is  concealed  by  the  soil 
and  vegetation.  A  short  distance  further  towards  the  west  it  is  again 
covered  by  beds  of  the  silicified  wood  deposit,  and  both  are  underlafd 
by  plutonic  and  hj^ogene  rocks,  which  crop  out  near  the  village  of 
Trivicary,  and  form  the  western  boundary  of  the  fossiliferous  beds* 
Rolled  and  angular  fragments  of  the  hypogene  rocks  are  scattered 
here  and  there  over  the  limestone,  as  well  as  fragments  from  the  sili- 
cified wood  beds,  and  from  the  limestone  itself;  the  surface  of  the  latter  • 
has  evidently  been  exposed  by  the  denudation  of  the  superincumbent 
beds.  It  appears  in  surface-worn  tables  traversed  iby  innumerable 
fissures. 

LUhologic  character. — It  is  usually  of  light  brownish  or  grey 
colour;  texture  subcrystalline, graduating  into  earthy;  tough  under  the 
hanmier,  and  interstratified  with  argillaceous  and  ferruginous  beds  of  a 
looser  structure,  which  often  abound  with  fossil  shells.  Some  parts  of 
the  rock  are  so  speckled  with  a  dark-coloured  sand  as  to  resemble  a 
peperino,  though  the  nature  of  the  sand,  whether  volcanic  or  not, 
cannot  be  safely  pronounced  upon.  Other  varieties  are  hard  and 
compact  enough  to  bear  as  fine  a  polish  as  many  of  our  mountain  lime- 
stones. It  has  been  long  used  for  the  steps  of  doors,  and  in  some  of 
the  pavements  and  old  fortifications  at  Pondicherry;  the  remains  of 
the  old  quarries  are  still  to  be  traced  though  choked  up  by  rubbish. 

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214 


SUMMARY   OF   THE    OFOL06T 


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OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  215 

It  will  be  ohserved  in  this  section  tHat^  though  the  limestone  has 
not  been  obserired  in  contact  with  the  hypogene  and  plntonic  rocks^ 
yet  it  is  evident  that  it  is  of  more  recent  origin,  by  the  nnconform- 
ability  of  the  stratification. 

The  shells  are,  with  few  exceptions,  pelagic :  they  occur  distributed 
confusedly  in  the  rock:  the  biyalves  often  vertical,  and  sometimes 
with  their  hinges  uppermost.  The  valves  of  some  are  half  opened :  in 
others  closed.  Some  have  been  deprived  of  one  of  their  valves. 
Many  have  been  compressed  and  flattened;  and  the  exterior  of  a  few 
exhibit  distinct  and  beautiful  impressions  of  smaller  shells.  The  cavi- 
ties of  others  again  are  filled  with  crystallized  carbonate  of  lime; 
which  may  be  received  as  an  indication  of  the  shell's  being  tenanted  at 
the  time  of  its  entombment. 

Since  the  period  of  my  visit  a  large  collection  has  been  made  of 
these  fossils  by  Messrs.  Cunliffe  and  Kaye,  of  the  Madras  Civil  Ser- 
vice, most  of  which  have  been  named  as  follows  by  Dr.  McLelland; 
whose  list,  as  it  comprises  all  the  fossils  discovered  by  myself,  and 
many  other  species  besides,  will  be  adhered  to,  (merely  arranging  them 
after  Lamarck,)  until  a  more  minute  examination  is  made  of  them  in 
Europe,  whither  a  collection  has  been  already  transmitted  for  the  pur- 
pose of  a  careful  comparative  scrutiny  and  classification.  This  they 
well  merit,  considering  these  beds  and  those  of  Trichinopoly  are 
almost  the  only  marine  deposits  that  occur  over  the  great  extent  of 
Southern  India. 

Claas  ANNBLmn, — ^Fam.  S9rpulao$a. 
Serpulft  recta. 

Claas  CovcKvnoLAf — Fanu  Arcaeea*'' 
CncnUa  cruaatiiia  (?)  Deah. 
Aiea  CunliffeL 

oraaBatina. 

Nuenla  peetiiiata. 

Fam.  MaUeaeea, 
InooeramuB. 

Fam.  CMrao§a, 
Oatrea  trabeenlata. 
Giyphiea. 

Claas  MoLLUBCAy^Fain.  Cafypiraaa, 
Pitiopaia  plana.    Same,  or  allied  to  a  aheU  in^  the  eoal  formatioii 
at  Cherra. 
■       '  ™  rotunda. 

Fam.  CoUmaeea* 
Bulimua  Indicua. 
— ^^«  Pondicerianns. 

Q2 


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216  SUMMARY   OF  THE   GEOLOGY 

Fam.  MeUmiona* 
Melania  (f)  impeifeet. 

Fam.  Peritiomata. 
Paludinai,  allied  to  Paludina  Bemiourinata,  Brand.  Daah.  Ooq. 
Fob.  PL  xt.    SpeciM  of  this  genua  existing  in 
India  and  elsewhere. 

Fam.  Neriiaeetk 
Nerita  traosYersaria.    Single  ipecimen,  imperfect. 
Natica  sulculosa. 
Nerita  spedoaa  (?) 

Fam.  Scalariana, 
Sealaria  annulata. 

—  aonata. 

—  tiicoetata. 
■  bieortata. 

■  Eayeii. 

Fam.  TurHnaosa. 
Trochns  Unedria. 

Fkm.  CanaUfsnu 
Murex  leyis. 

Fam.  Orthoeerita. 
Baenlitesy  compreaaedi  tapering,  and  eensiating  of  short  joints* 
Mu^^  onequal,  both  somewhat  flattened. 

Fain.  ^auHtdeea. 
Nautilus,  three  distinct  species. 

Fam.  Ammonaoetu 
Ammonites. 

Echini,  fishes'  teeth,  and  Hiimites^  eorallines  Of  the  Titrbinalia  species,  and 
others  of  a  pyriform  shape.  There  are  also  shells  of  the  families  Myaria,  Nymph- 
acea  (Astarte),  Cardiacea,  Mytilacea,  Pectinides,  'Ostraeea  (resembling  Exogyra), 
Torbinaoea  (Turritella  ?),  Canalifera  (Pyrula  ?)  Alat»  (Roetellaria?)  Parpa- 
rifera  (Bncdnum  ?)  ConyolnteB  (Voluta),  Ammonacea  (Orbnlltes  and  Criocera- 
tites).  A  number  of  snlcated  cylindrical  bodies,  not  exceeding  the  thickneas  of  a 
quill,  of  different  lengths,  but  generally  from  two  to  three  inches  long,  and  in  all 
cases  broken  off,  are  scattered  in  the  substance  of  the  rock.  They  resemble  some- 
what the  spines  of  echinides.  There  was  also  found  the  vertebra  of  a  fossil  which 
Professor  Owen  pronounces  to  resemble  that  of  Mososaurus. 

Mr.  Mnrchidon  states  in  his  Anniyersaiy  Discourse,  p.  136,  there 
baa  be  no  doubt  that  these  foflsik  belong  to  the  Cretaceous  system. 

1  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  the  only  specimen  in  the  collection  is  not 
sufficiently  perfect  to  allow  of  the  species  to  which  it  belongs  being  accurately 
determmed ;  but  the  presence  of  a  freshwater  shell  is  important,  as  tending  to 
show  the  deposit  to  haye  taken  place  near  the  mouth  of  a  river,  or  in  a  basin  alter- 
nately subject  to  salt  and  Dcesh-water. 

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OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA,  31^ 

3iQ0^  ih^n  ^ey  have  been  ascertained  hj  Pro|essor  Fq^bea  io  b^lo^j; 
to  the  Lo^er  Gxeensand^  and  Neocomian  beds. 

In  a  J^aper  bj  Mr.  Kaje,  in  the  Madras  Jonmal  of  fiiteratux^ 
and  Science,  for  June,  1844,  p.  151,  that  gentleman  sajs,  ''In  a 
former  number  of  this  Journal  Lieutenant  Newbold  suggested  that 
the  fossiliferous  beds   of  Pondicheny  probably  extended  into   the 
Verdachellum  ta^ook  of  South  Arcot^    It  was  long  before  I  was 
enabled  to  obtain  any  positive  evidence  of  this  fact;  and  it  proves 
how  little  dependence  can  be  placed  on  native  evidence,  that  all 
inquiiy  among  those  who  ought  to  have  been  best  acquainted  Tf^ith 
local  circnmstancea  fiiiled  to  elicit  the  required  informatiop.     Acci- 
dent, however,  subsequently  established  the  correctness  of  Lieute- 
nant Newbold's  views.  *  *  *  Mr.  Murray,  the  Sub-Collector  of  South 
Arcot,  in  the  course  of  a  ride,  about  six  or  seven  miles  from  Verda- 
chellum, observed  that  the  surface  of  the  rock,  by  the  side  of  the  road, 
was  marked  with  shells;  and  was  kind  enough  to  send  me  a  few  spe- 
cimens, chiefly  pectens."    Mr.  Kaye  subsequently  visited  the  locality 
himself:  the  fossiliferous  limestone  he  found  to  appear  first  at  the 
bottom  of  a  valley  near  the  village  of  Paroor,  seven  niiles  from  Verda- 
chellum, and  forty  from  the  coast :  the  high  ground  between  it  and 
Verdachellum  coQsists  of  the  red  sand  (resembling  the  red  sandstone 
of  Pondicheny,)  in  which  was  found  a  fragment  of  silicified  wood;  but 
the  limestone  rises  into  small  hills  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  valley. 
Mr.  Kaye  found  in  this  limestone,  Rostellaria,  Area,  Pecten,  Exogyra, 
Cardium,  Lima^  Terebratula,  and  other  shells,  which  identify  it,  he 
thinks,  completely  with  the  Ootatoor  beds  near  Trichinopoly,  which 
will  be  described  presently;  and  in  addition  a  large  number  of  Ammo- 
nites, of  three  or  four  different  species,  dissimilar  to  those  of  the  Pondi- 
cheny beds :  also  portions  of  Nautili,  and  a  Spatangus,  similar  to  those 
of  Pondicheny.     Mr.  Cunliffe,  Mr.  Kayo's  zealous  coadjutor  in  these 
most  interesting  discoveries,  states  that  the  genus  Gidaris  was  numer- 
ous at  Verdachellum,  or  rather,  Paroor,  though,  as  yet,  undiscovered 
in  the  Pondicheny  beds;  and  the  Baculites  of  the  latter  were  wanting 
at  Paroor :  and  not  a  single  chambered  shell,  save  the  cast  of  a  single 
chamber  of  a  large  Ammonite,  has  been  found  in  the  Trichinopoly 
deposit  at  Ootatoor.     Among  the  Verdachellum  fossils  were  the  bones 
of  an  ophiura,  or  star  fish,  which  Professor  Forbes  pronounced  to  be 
the  best  preserved  specimen  he  ever  saw  from  the  cretaceous  beds. 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  attached  to  the  indefatigable  exer- 
tions, zeal,  and  acumen  of  Messrs.  Kaye  and  Cunliffe,  who  have  thus 

'  It  18  probable  that  these  foteiliferoiiB  beds  may  be  traced  still  further  soafh.— 
T.  J.  N.  r^  T 

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218  SUMMARY  OF  TH£   GEOLOGY 

established  the  intereeting  fact  of  the  ezistenoe  of  eietMeoiui  amis 
in  Southern  India  by  a  series  perhaps  of  the  most  beautifnllypieserrad 
fossils  that  were  ever  laid  before  the  geological  world,  embracing  many 
new  forms,  and  some  of  Cypnea,  Cerithinm,  &c.,  which  were  supposed 
to  be  peculiar  to  tertiary  strata,  but  were  doubtlessly  formed  in  a 
cretaceous  sea. 

The  Neufchatel  beds,  Terrain  Niocomieny  and  the  Neocomian 
strata  of  the  Crimea,  have  been  referred  to  the  Wealden  of  British 
geologists ;  but  by  Mr.  Murchison  they  are  considered  to  be  the  equi- 
valent of  the  lowest  green  sand  of  England,  and  of  the  ffiU4hon 
of  Rbmer  in  Hanover.  The  fossils  of  the  Pondicherry  beds  will 
probably  throw  additional  light  on  this  qtuMtio  vexata. 

Trighinopoly  Fossil  Limestone. 

About  seventy-eight  miles  inland  from  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  in  the 
vicinity  of  Trichinopoly,  Lat.  10°  52'  N.,  and  Long.  78°  4^  E.,  beds 
of  a  marine  limestone  occur,  the  geognoetic  position  of  which  has 
not  hitherto  been  described :  though  it  is  supposed  they  rest  imme- 
diately on  the  plutonic  and  hypogene  rocks  which  surround  it. 

The  fossils  brought  thence  are  pelagic,  comprising  members  of  the 
families  Seipulaoea,  Nymphacea  (Tellina?  Venus?),  Cardiacea,  and 
Arcacea,  some  of  which  are  identical  with  those  of  the  Pondicherty 
beds;  also,  Scalarias,  Rostellarias  and  Turritellas.  No  Baculites, 
Hamites,  or  Nautili  have  hitherto  been  discovered,  or  other  shells  suf- 
ficiently characteristic  to  identify  this  deposit  with  the  Pondicherry 
beds,  from  which  they  are  distant  about  100  miles  to  the  S.W.  The 
cast  of  part  of  an  Ammonite,  and  a  piece  of  silicified  wood,  resembling 
that  of  the  lateritic  deposit  covering  the  marine  limestone  of  Pondi- 
cherry, pierced  by  Teredines,  have  been  found  on  the  Trichinopoly  beds. 

The  imbedding  limestone,  though  bearing  a  general  resemblance  to 
that  of  Pondicherry,  is  usually  less  crystalline,  looser  in  texture,  and 
darker  in  colour  than  that  of  Pondicherry :  and  the  organic  remains  in 
a  better  state  of  preservation,  and  more  numerous. 

Until  more  information  be  obtained,  the  geognostic  place  here 
assigned  to  the  Trichinopoly  beds  must  be  merely  considered  as  provi- 
sional. 


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OF  SOUTHBRN  INDIA.  219 

PART  V. 

Fresh-water  Limestones  and  Cherts. 

Wb  are  now  arrived  at  deposits  which  I  hare  little  hesitation  in 
referring  to  the  tertiary  epoch.  Although  the  deficiency  of  rocks  of 
this  age,  and  of  the  secondary  period,  forms  a  remarkahle  feature  in 
the  geology  of  Southern  India,  yet  that  of  the  former  is  not  so  great  as 
has  hitherto  heen  generally  supposed. 

Nirmvl  Beds, — In  the  route  from  Hydrahad  towards  Nagpore,  on 
the  north  hank  of  the  Godavery,  among  the  Nirmul  Hills,  and  thence 
across  the  Wurda  to  Hingan-ghaut  heyond  the  limits  of  our  area, 
Mr.  Malcolmson  discoyered  detached  heds  of  chert  and  limestone,  con- 
taining shells,  the  general  character  of  which  Mr.  Lonsdale  considers 
to  he  that  of  ^sh-water.  The  fossils  were  first  found  at  Munoor,  and 
between  this  village  and  Hutnoor,  which  is  near  the  top  of  the 
Mucklegundi  Ghaut,  and  in  different  parts  of  this  pass  leading  into  the 
valley  of  Berar.  Mr.  Malcolmson  describes  ^  the  bed  in  which  they 
were  first  observed  to  be  a  band  of  a  singular  quartz  rock,  projecting 
about  two  feet  from  the  surface,  half-way  up  the  escarpment  of  the 
principal  mountain,  ascending  the  steep  pass  leading  up  the  south  side 
of  the  Nirmul  Hills,  and  which  is  composed  of  concentric  nodular 
basalt  imbedded  in  a  soft  greenish  wack^. 

The  quartz  rock  is  remarkably  scabrous,  of  various  shades  of  white 
and  red,  and  has  cavities  on  its  surface  covered  with  fine  silky  crystals. 
Mr.  Malcolmson  observes,  that  it  had  every  appearance  of  having  been 
forced  into  its  present  position,  when  the  basalt  covered  and  partially 
melted  the  bed  to  which  it  belonged.  Many  fragments  of  this  rock 
were  found  below  with  the  shells ;  and  it  was  again  met  with,  together 
with  the  same  and  other  fossils,  imbedded  in  basalt,  near  Hutnoor. 
The  specific  gravity  of  this  rock  is  2*473,  and  some  of  the  specimens 
effervesced  feebly  in  acids,  a  portion  of  lime  being  dissolved. 

The  rock  in  which  the  fossils  occur  varies  in  different  places: 
some  of  the  finest  specimens  were  obtained  from  a  red  chert  with 
scabrous  surface,  having  silicified  shells  distributed  throughout  its  sub- 
stance, or  projecting  from  its  surface.  Besides  testacea,  this  red 
chert  contained  small  portions  of  silicified  wood,  and  what  Mr.  Mal- 
colmson considered,  though  he  states  at  the  same  time  that  the  speci- 
mens were  too  imperfect  to  admit  of  any  certainty,  to  be  the  fragment 
of  a  bone^  and  of  the  tooth  of  a  mammiferous  animal. 

1  GeoL  Trans.,  Vol  V.,  Second  Series,  pp.  649,  650. 

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220  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

The  finest  Unios  occur  in  a  beautiful  grey  chert,  imbedded  in  the 
basalt,  or  resting  immediately  on  it.  Some  parts  of  the  rock  exhibit  a 
mixture  of  sand,  clay,  and  fragments  of  shells,  of  very  moderate  hard- 
ness, but  the  greater  part  consists  of  chert,  the  9iaterials  of  which  are 
occasionally  arranged  in  a  beautiful  light  blue  enamel-like  substancp, 
around  irregular  cavities  containing  crystals  of  purple  quartz.  Some 
portions  also  exhibit  a  minute  vesicular  structure.  Some  are  com- 
posed of  a  tough  white  clayey  stone  so  soft  as  to  stain  the  fingers : 
these  contained  PhysaB,  PaludinaB,  and  Limnese,  mostly  converted  into 
caloedony ;  but  others  retained  their  original  structure,  and  effervesced 
with  acids.  Portions  of  charred  vegetable  matter,  resembling  small 
fragments  of  grasses  and  weeds,  occur  in  these  and  in  the  harder 
cherts.  Other  specimens  are  composed  of  a  greenish-blue  crystalline 
mass  resembling  an  ore  of  copper,  (but  it  is  of  low  specific  gravity^ 
and  contains  no  trace  of  that  metal,)  and  the  imbedded  shells  are  con- 
verted into  the  most  beautiful  crystalline  quartz,  retaining  the  form  of 
every  convolution  of  the  PhysaB  and  PaludinsD.  Masses  of  a  hard 
coarse  chert  consist  almost  entirely  of  Gyrogonites,  but  contain  many 
of  the  same  Physse  and  Paludinse.  This  rock  appears  to  have  formed 
beds  of  about  half  a  foot  in  thickness ;  but  it  was  not  discovered  in 
dtu,  k  stratified  rock  was  however  found  in  the  vicinity,  consisting 
of  a  compact  whitish  chert,  which  contained  PaludinaB  and  the  finest 
specimens  of  Gyrogonites.  Night  prevented  the  connexions  of  thi§ 
rock  from  being  determined ;  the  strata  were,  however,  ascertained  to 
be  of  considerable  extent,  and  to  be  much  buried  in  the  soil :  there 
were  also  numerous  fragments  of  a  siliceous  rock,  partly  converted  into 
black  bituminous  flint,  or  a  coarse  quartzose  rock,  partially  altered  into 
calcedoi^y,  by  which  most  of  the  shales  were  also  replaced. 

After  descending  the  second  terrace  a  bed  of  white  horizontally- 
stratified  limestone,  almost  wholly  composed  of  large  bivalved  Unios 
(named  Deccanensis  by  Mr.  J.  de  Carle  Sowerby,  4  to  8  of  descrip- 
tion), is  met  with.  The  shells  are  not  in  very  good  preservation.  Their 
edges,  decomposing  more  slowly  than  the  cement,  jut  out  in  relief. 
Hence  the  name  of  Mucklegundi,  or  Bukre  he  panw  ha  puUhur, 
"sheep's  feet  stone,"  applied  by  natives  to  the  pass  and  the  rock,  from 
the  resemblance  the  shells  are  thought  to  possess  to  the  impressions 
of  the  feet  of  these  animals  in  clay.  The  Unios  found  in  this  bed  have 
been  identified  with  those  in  the  chert  at  Munoor.  It  also  contains  a 
species  not  yet  discovered  elsewhere,  viz.,  the  Unio  tumida?  (11  and 
12).  At  the  bottom  of  the  little  cliff,  where  the  granite  is  seen  to 
underlie  the  fossils,  very  perfect  MelanisB  were  found  in  a  fragment  of 
a  compact  argillo-calcareoas  stone,  identical  with  those  in  the  lime- 


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OF  SOUTHBRN   INDIA.  221 

stone.  The  shells  are  fossilized  hj  poinpa.ct  limestone,  imbedded  in  a 
matrix  consisting  of  calcareous  matter  mixed  with  small  fragments  of 
granite,  and  of  a  friable,  grey,  cellular  substance  resembling  ashes, 
which  occurs  in  situations  where  the  limestone  becomes  concealed  in 
the  basalt,  and  is  apparently  imbedded  in  both  rocks.  The  thickness 
of  this  fresh-water  limestone  bed,  in  one  place  where  it  is  inf^ersected 
by  a  torrent,  is  twelve  feet,  and  it  rests  directly  on  red  granite.  The 
cherts  all  rest  on,  or  have  been  entangled  in  the  basalt,  and  are  doubt- 
less nothing  more  than  the  metamorphosed  limestone ;  even  the  calca- 
reous walls  of  the  shells  have  been  converted  into  silex.  The  basalt 
comprising  the  higher  portions  of  the  Nirmul  Hills  rests  on  this 
granite. 

I  have  already  transgressed  my  limits  in  tracing  the  course 
northerly  of  this  interesting  series  of  deposits,  which  were,  probably, 
once  continuous,  until  broken  up,  altered,  and  scattered  by  that  pro- 
digious eruption  of  trap  which  covers  the  greater  portion  of  the 
Deccan :  but  I  cannot  refrain  from  quoting  Mr.  Malcolmson's  interest- 
ing account  of  the  Chicknee  and  Hingan-ghaut  deposits  which  lie 
between  the  Mucklegundi  Pass  and  Nagpore,  separated  by  tracts  of 
granite,  blue  limestone  and  sandstone,  resembling  those  of  Cuddapah 
and  basalt :  inasmuch  as  a  brief  description  of  the  manner  in  which 
these  fresh-water  patches  are  distributed  over  the  great  overlying 
trap,  will  conduce  more  than  anytl^ing  else  to  a  true  conception  of 
their  origin. 

Near  Chicknee,  the  schist  (viz.,  the  red  schist  found  above  the 
limestone  south  of  the  Ui^'nnah  hot  springs,  and  in  various  places  of 
the  diamond  districts  of  the  south,)  rises  slightly  towards  a  basaltic 
ridge,  in  which  the  fossiliferous  chert  is  likewise  imbedded.  The 
fossils  occur  on  the  surface,  or  are  imbedded  in  nodular  basalt,  over 
several  miles,  being  found  in  blpcks  of  indurated  clay,  chert,  and 
flinty  slate.  The  appearance  of  the  indurated  clay  is  the  same  as  in 
some  of  the  specimens  from  the  Sichel  (Nirmul)  Hills,  but  the  clay  is 
harder,  full  of  cavities,  and,  in  some  cases,  passes  into  perfect  chert, 
or  has  waved  lines  of  quartz  or  opalized  matter  diffused  through  the 
substance  of  the  mass.  Many  Phys®,  Paludins,  and  a  few  Limnes,  of 
the  same  species  as  those  abeady  noticed,  are  found  in  this  indurated 
clay,  or  imperfect  chert.  Some  of  them  are  entirely  converted  into 
calcedony;  others  have  the  lime  replaced  by  quartz,  which  is  finely 
crystallized  and  covers  the  surface  of  the  convolutions;  or  the  colu- 
mella only  is  preserved,  passing  across  an  empty  cast  of  the  shell.  In 
some  cases,  however,  the  structure  of  the  fossil  is  unaltered,  and  it 
effervesces  in  acids. 

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222  SUMMARY   OP   THE   GEOLOGY 

Flinty  slate  without  organic  remains  occurs  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  these  amorphous  musses^  and  many  fragments  of  the  same  kind, 
containing  large  compressed  bivalves,  are  scattered  about.  In  one 
block  of  this  kind,  portions  of  palm  wood  mineralized  by  black  flint, 
intersected  by  fine  veins  of  a  light  blue  opal  [of  the  same  kind  as 
occurs  in  some  of  the  specimens  of  fossil  wood  from  Antigua,  by 
Mr.  Stokes],  was  found  associated  with  compressed  very  thick  bivalve 
shells,  probably  referable  to  the  same  species  as  those  of  Munoor. 
At  Hingan-ghaut,  a  few  miles  further  to  the  north,  considerable 
fragments  of  silicified  palms  and  other  plants  were  found  in  a  black 
chert  lying  on  the  basalt,  and  similar  masses,  but  without  fossils,  were 
imbedded  in  it.  No  organic  remains  were  met  with  between  this 
place  and  Nagpoor,  the  whole  of  the  country  being  covered  with  a 
rich  black  soil,  from  which  insulated  bajsaltic  hills  with  flattened 
summits  rise  abruptly. 

In  examining  with  the  microscope  sections  of  some  of  the  silicified 
wood  from  the  chert  of  Hingan-ghaut,  one  appeared  to  Mr.  Malcolm- 
son  to  be  bone,  which  was  examined  by  Professor  Owen,  who  gives 
the  following  note : — "A  section  of  this  fossil  waa  prepared  sufficiently 
thin  to  allow  of  its  being  examined  by  transmitted  light  under  a  high 
magnifying  power,  when  it  was  found  to  possess  the  structure  cha- 
racteristic of  bone.  Sections  of  ^  Haversian  Canals,'  with  their  con- 
centric lines,  were  everywhere  present,  interspersed  with  numerous 
Purkingian  cells,  or  corpuscules :  the  size  and  disposition  of  these  cha- 
racteristic parts  of  the  osseous  structure  agreed  with  those  of  the  bones 
of  the  mammalia.  It  was  highly  satisfactory  to  find  the  microscopic 
test  as  available  in  demonstrating  the  presence  of  bone,  when  ordi- 
nary characters  and  the  unassisted  eye  would  have  left  the  matter 
doubtful,  as  it  is  in  reference  to  the  determination  of  the  teeth.'* 

The  silicified  wood  of  these  deposits  appears  to  be  chiefly  palms; 
no  specimens  of  dicotyledons  are  mentioned.  The  shells  and  chara 
have  been  engraved  and  described  by  Mr.  J.  de  Carle  Sowerby  as 
follows : — 

1.  Chara  Malcolmsonii, — Oblong,  spheroidal,  with  ten  ribs;  three 
of  the  ribs  are  produced  at  the  apex.     Natural  size,  and  magnified. 

This  capsule  is  composed  of  five  tubes,  each  of  which  is  curled 
twice  round.  The  figures  represent  a  cast  of  the  interior,  the  tubes 
being  split  down,  and  the  outer  halves  broken  away  and  left  in  the 
chert.  The  specimens  are  silicified,  and  constitute  almost  the  entire 
mass  of  the  rock,  in  which  they  occur  associated  with  Physsd  and 
Paludinee. 

2.  Cyprii  cylindrica.'^Twice  as  wide  as  long,  almost  cylindrical ; 


OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  223 

front  veiy  slightly  concave ;  the  outer  surface^  which  is  very  rarely 
obtained,  is  punctured. 

3.  CypriM  Afft^MoM.  ^< Subglohose,    triangular,    inflated;    front 


The  outer  surface  of  this  crustacean  is  punctured  as  in  C  cyHai^ 
drica. 

Both  species  occur  abundantly  in  grey  chert,  with  the  Unio  Deo- 
eanensis  and  other  shells;  and  in  various  specimens  of  cheit  and  indu- 
rated clay,  containing  Gyroganites,  Faludinoe,  Phyice,  and  LimnecB^ 
from  the  Siehel  (Nirmul)  Hills.  The  fossils  are  converted  into 
calcedony. 

4  to  10. — Unio  i>0coa7t«nn«.— 'Transversely  oblong,  rather  com- 
pressed; margin  internally  waved;  shell  very  thick;  surface  finely 
striated.  Fig.  6  is  in  limestone  horn  the  northern  descent  of  the  Siehel 
(Nirmul)  HiUs ;  the  others  are  in  chert  from  Munoor.     Natural  size. 

This  species  has  often  a  ridge,  which  bounds  the  posterior  portion, 
and  is  variable  in  size  and  elevation.  It  is  most  conspicuous  in  the 
limestone  specimen,  fig.  6,  and  in  a  cast  in  chert  from  Munoor,  fig.  7. 
Fig.  8  is  possibly  a  very  young  individual,  before  the  margin  had 
assumed  its  wavy  form.  Fig.  9  is  from  a  part  of  a  group  of  many 
individuals  of  nearly  one  size,  badly  preserved  in  the  same  limestone 
as  fig.  6;  but  as  they  are  generally  oval,  and  do  not  show  a  waved 
margin,  they  may  belong,  as  well  as  ^g,  10,  which  is  in  grey  chert 
from  Munoor,  to  a  species  distinct  from  Unio  Deccanenns.  Some 
flattened  specimens  from  this  limestone  are  two  and  a  half  inches 
broad. 

11  and  12.  Unio  tumida. — Transversely  obovate,  smooth,  gibbose; 
posterior  extremity  rather  pointed;  beaks  near  the  anterior  rounded 
extremity.     Natural  size. 

The  section  of  the  two  valves  united  is  regularly  heart-shaped. 
The  shell  is  rather  thin,  and  it  has  something  of  the  contour  of 
Cyrena,  It  occurs  in  the  same  limestone  with  fig.  6,  and  the  substance 
of  the  shell  is  replaced  by  calcareous  spar,  which  cannot  be  broken  so 
as  to  show  the  hinge. 

13.  Limnea  subulata, — Subulate,  elongated,  smooth;  spine  equal 
in  length  to  the  body;  whorls  ^y^.  In  a  nearly  white,  soft,  siliceous 
stone,  from  Munoor  and  Chicknee.     Natural  size. 

14,  15  and  16.  PhyM  Frinsepii  (so  named  after  the  lamented 
J.  Prinsep). — Ovate,  rather  elongated,  smooth,  spire  short;  body 
whorl  largest  upward.  Fig.  16  in  a  soft  siliceous  stone  from  Munoor. 
Fig.  14  in  chert  from  Munoor,  and  fig.  15  in  chert  from  Chicknee; 
the  drawing  represents  the  shell  as  wider  than  it  is.    Many  of  the  , 

ie 


224  SUMMARY   OF  THE   GBOLOGY 

specimens  are  crushed.    The  largest,  fig.  15,  arq  two  an^  a  half 
inches  long  and  upwards  of  an  inch  hroad.     Natural  size. 

17  to  19.  Melania  quadri-Uneata. — Subulate,  whorls  about  eight, 
with  four  striae  upon  each ;  aperture  nearly  round.  Fig.  17,  in  grey 
limestone  from  the  same  locality  as  6  and  11.  Fig.  19,  in  softish 
chert  from  Chicknee,  associated  with  Fhym  Prinsepii.  Fig.  19,  in 
fine  reddish  grey  chert,  protruding  from  basalt  near  Mnnoor,  appears 
rather  shorter  in  form  than  the  others,  but  the  spire  is  not  perfectly 
exposed  nor  entire.     Natural  size. 

20  to  23.  Palvdina  Deccanensis, — Short,  conical,  pointed,  rounded 
at  the  base ;  whorls  ^ve  or  six,  slightly  convex,  aperture  round.  Fig.  21 
is  in  chert  from  Munoor;  q,nd  figs.  20  and  22  in  indurated  clay  from 
between  Munoor  and  Hutnoor,  the  oayity  of  the  shells  being  filled 
with  calcedony.  The  young  shell  has  a  slight  carina,  shown  in  fig.  20. 
Fig.  23  appears  to  be  a  crushed  specimen ;  it  is  in  laminated,  indu- 
rated clay,  Munoor.  This  shell  occurs,  with  PAyscp  PWtw^h,  in  a 
beautiful  green  siliceous  mineral  at  Munoor,  at  Chicknee,  and  at  the 
bottom  of  the  Nirmul  Pass.    All  the  specimens  natural  size. 

These  shells  all  belong  to  fresh- water  genera,  and  to  species  which 
have  not  yet  been  discovered  recent.  The  char»,  too,  have  not  yet 
been  found  in  the  fresh-waters  of  India. 

Similar  beds  of  limestoue  and  chert  are  scattered  over  the  whole 
of  the  overlying  trap  region,  and  on  its  borders,  in  thin  and  circum- 
scribed patches,  and  separated  by  distances  often  considerable,  but 
imbedding  similar  fresh- water  shells.  Voysey^  observed  a  stratum  of 
earthy  clay  of  different  degrees  of  induration,  twenty  yards  in  length, 
and  about  two  feet  thick,  containing  a  great  number  of  entire  and 
broken  shells. 

Near  the  summit  of  the  table  land  of  Jillan,  in  a  pass  ascending 
from  the  valley  of  the  Taptee,  or  Berar,  which  separates  the  Gawilghur 
trap  ranges  from  those  of  Nirmul,  or  Sichel,  the  shells  are  mucH 
compressed,  and  their  structure  seemed  to  Voysey  to  have  been 
depressed  by  an  overlying  mass,  fifteen  feet  thick,  of  the  nodular 
basalt  or  wacke  on  which,  too,  this  shell  deposit  rests.  The  vertical 
fissures,  so  remarkable  in  trap  rocks,  are  prolonged  from  both  the 
upper  and  lower  rocks  into  the  shelly  stratum,  although  there  is  no 
intermixture  of  substance.  The  casts  and  fragments  of  the  shells 
resemble  those  of  the  PaludinsB  and  other  shells  of  the  Nirmul  Hills 
already  described.  Voysey  discovered  shells  in  an  indurated  fossili- 
ferous  clay  near  Nirmul  and  others  in  a  siliceous  rock  containing  lime, 

*  Am&tic  Researchefl,  Vol.  XVIII.,  page  192,  and  Journal  of  iu^tio  Society 
ofBengal,  Vol.  II.,  p.304. 

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OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  225 

Teeembling  iti  every  respect  tbe  fbesiliferons  cherts  of  the  Nirmul 
Hills,  and  like  them  imbedded  in  basfdt;  on  the  insulated  hills  of 
Hedcondah  and  Shivalingapah^  which  rest  on  granite,  sonth  of  the 
Godaverj,  near  the  soath  border  of  the  great  overlying  trap^  and 
also  in  the  hills  of  Bicknoor-pett  and  Nngger. 

Mr.  Malcolmson^  found  in  a  specimen  of  the  chert  from  Med- 
condah,  in  the  Museum  of  the  Geological  Society,  a  Gyrogonite  of  the 
same  kind  as  those  of  Nirmul^  and  halves  of  a  species  of  Cypris 
associated  with  shales. 

Dr.  Spilsbury  found,  eighteen  miles  from  Jubbulpoor,  in  the  valley 
of  the  Nerbudda,  blocks  of  "indurated  clay,"  associated  with  the  trap, 
containing  casts  of  fossil  shells,  for  the  most  part  siliceous,  and 
lesembUng  those  found  by  Dr.  Voysey  in  the  Gawilghur  range  on  this 
side  the  valley.  At  Sanger,  nearly  one  hundred  miles  to  the  north- 
west, reversed  shells,  stated  to  be  exactly  the  same  as  those  of  Jubbnl- 
poor,  were  discovered  by  Dr.  Spry  in  a  bed  of  limestone  covered  by 
seventeen  feet  of  basalt,  and  resting  on  a  coarse  siliceous  grit,  under- 
lying which  the  basalt  again  occurs.  Fine  specimens  of  silicified  palm 
wood  occur  in  the  vicinity,  as  well  as  fossil  bones  of  mammalia  in  a 
limestone  capped  by  basalt.  The  drawings  of  the  shells,  Mr.  Mai- 
colmson  observes,  differ  a  little  from  each  other,  but  the  fossils  are 
stated  to  be  the  same;  and,  as  far  as  Mr.  Sowerby  could  judge,  they 
dd  not  differ  from  the  Phym  Prinsepii.  The  similarity  was  more 
obvious  in  other  specimens  left  in  India. 

Sotlth  of  the  Nerbudda,  fossils  are  again  met  with  in  the  moun- 
tainous country  north  of  the  sources  of  the  Taptee,  at  a  place  called 
Jirpah,  near  to  which  trap  hills  have  broken  through  the  sandstone. 

Hydrahad  Beds, — Between  Beder  and  Hydrabad,  on  the  south  edge 
of  the  overlying  trap,  I  found,  in  1839,  loose  blocks  of  a  greyish  white 
limestone  imbedding  a  few  fragments  of  univalve  and  bivalve  shells 
in  so  comminuted  a  state  as  not  to  be  recognizable.  The  limestone  in 
lithologic  character  closely  resembles  some  varieties  of  the  fresh-water 
limestone  of  Nirmul,  and  is  equally  broken  up  by  the  overlying  trap. 
The  blocks  were  partially  converted  into  chert,  and  half  buried  in 
the  soil  covering  the  trap  on  which  they  rested.  Thence,  following 
the  edge  of  the  overlying  trap  in  a  south-westerly  direction  towards 
Bijapore,  as  it  skirts  the  plutonic  and  hypogene  rocks  of  the  south 
to  the  valley  of  the  Bima,  between  Muctul  and  Gulberga,  another 
bed  of  fresh-water  limestone  occurs,  extending  from  the  vicinity  of 
Koolkoondah  northerly  to  Digaye,  where  it  rests  on  blue  non-fossili- 
ferous  limestone,  which  disappears  under  a  great  coulee  of  trap  on  the 

>  Transactioiu  Geological  Society,  Vol  V.,  Second  Series,  pp.  670  and  67L    . 


226  SUMMARY   OF   THE    OEOLOOY 

opposite  bank  of  the  Bima,  between  it  and  Golberga.  The  speoimenB 
brought  me  by  my  friend  Captain  Wyndham  contained  only  one 
description  of  shell,  the  Paludina  Deccanentis.  Still  further  to  the 
west  and  near  Ingliswara  large  blocks  of  the  whitish  grey  siliceous 
limestone  occur  entangled  in,  and  broken  up  by  the  trap,  but  I  did  not 
find  they  contained  any  fossils.  It  has  in  many  situations  been  con- 
yerted  into  chert  and  jasper,  it  is  harsh  and  trachytic  to  the  feel,  and 
has  an  irregular  sparry  fracture;  it  usually  appears  on  the  sides  and 
summits  of  hills,  projecting  in  rough  scabrous  masses  from  the  surface, 
easily  distinguished  from  the  dark  trap.  A  similar  limestone  is 
noticed  by  Captain  Coulthard*,  on  the  north-east  side  of  the  great 
trap  region. 

The  only  other  described  deposit  of  fresh-water  shells  is  that  about 
fiye  miles  south-west  of  Puddpungallee,  which  is  ten  miles  south-west 
from  Rajahmundry  on  the  Godavery,  a  little  aboye  its  delta.  They 
occur  in  limestone,  both  underlain  and  capped  by  trap,  eyidently  an 
outlier  of  the  continuous  trap  formation  so  often  alluded  to  in  the 
account  of  ^these  beds.  Here,  howeyer,  the  deposit  must  haye  been  in 
an  estuary,  or  lake  communicating  with  the  sea;  since  Dr.  Benxa 
states*  that  among  the  Limas  and  Melanioe  he  found  oysters.  They 
occur  in  a  hill  eleyated  about  300  or  400  feet  aboye  the  plain  in  which 
it  is  situated,  about  fifty  miles  inland  from  the  present  coast  line.  The 
base  of  this  hill  as  well  as  of  the  plain  is  of  a  red  conglomerate  sand- 
stone, (eyidently  identical  with  the  diamond  conglomerates  of  Mala- 
yelly,  Cuddapah,  &c.,)  resting  on  a  grey  non-fossiliferous  limestone, 
seen  in  a  lower  situation  nearer  the  Godayery;  oyer  the  conglomerate 
is  a  layer  of  wacke  with  jasper,  which  continues  about  midway  up  the 
hill,  where  it  is  succeeded  by  a  thick  bed  of  the  shell  limestone  capped 
by  wack^  and  basalt.  According  to  Dr.  Benza,  the  limestone  pro- 
trudes in  a  little  ridge,  a  foot  or  two  raised  aboye  the  side  of  the  decli- 
yity,  running  some  hundred  yards  east  and  west,  and  cutting  the  hill 
in  a  direction  parallel  to  its  base,  appearing  to  be  yertically  situated. 
The  outgoings  of  this  bed  are  tufaceous,  as  well  as  the  surface  of  the 
implanted  blocks  all  around  it,  and  in  which  the  fossil  shells  were 
clearly  distinguishable ;  but  when  fractured  deep  exhibits  a  compact 
texture,  a  whitish  colour  yerging  to  yellow,  and  a  fracture  semi- 
conchoidal  and  glimmering,  on  account  of  the  numerous  crystals  of 
carbonate  of  lime,  into  which  all  the  fossil  shells  are  conyerted.  It 
sometimes  abounds  with  small  cayities  lined  with  calc-spar,  and  exhi- 
biting only  the  impression  of  the  shells,  their  substance  haying  been 

»  Afliatic  Researohes,  Vol.  XVIII.,  Part  I.,  p.  59. 
*  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science  for  January,  1837)  pp.  50,  51. 

..tized  by  Google 


OF    SOUTHERN   INDIA.  227 

absorbed.  Loose  blocks  of  the  shell  limestone  are  scattered  about  the 
nallahs  and  on  the  declivity  of  the  hill ;  others  implanted  in  the  soiL 

The  basalt  is  both  compact  and  yesicnlar;  sometimes  approaching 
amygdaloid,  the  cavities  often  lined  with  calo-spar;  the  wack6  under- 
lying the  limestone  is  veined  with  jasper,  occurring  also  in  beds  and 
thin  ramifications,  which,  in  consequence  of  the  wack^'s  easily  wea^- 
thering,  are  scattered  about  the  surface.  These  jaspers  and  wack6s 
exactly  resemble  those  of  the  overlying  trap.  Most  of  the  shells  have 
evidently  undergone  violence,  or  compression,  being  fractured,  and 
many  of  them  reduced  to  small  fragments.  Some  of  the  masses  of  the 
limestone  are  entirely  composed  of  shell,  converted  into  brilliant  and 
sparry  crystals  of  carbonate  of  lime. 

The  top  of  the  hill  forms  a  kind  of  table  land  capped  with  globular 
basalt  decomposing  in  concentric  layers,  and  extends  apparently  a  few 
miles  eastwardly.  The  loftier  hills  to  the  east  of  this,  according  to 
General  CuUen,  are  of  a  similar  formation;  and  as  they  present  deeper 
nuUahs,  vertical  escarpments  and  precipices,  better  opportunitieB 
would  be  afforded  of  observing  the  geological  position  of  the  strata. 
But  of  this  interesting  range  no  published  account  has  been  yet  given. 
General  Cullen  has  the  merit  of  having  discovered  this  deposit. 


PART  VI. 

Laterite. 

Oeographioal  Position  and  Extent, — Laterite  occupies  a  larger  por- 
tion of  the  superficies  of  Southern  India  than  has  been  commonly  sup- 
posed. The  western  coast  is  almost  continuously  covered  by  a  sheet 
of  this  rock,  extending,  usually,  inland  to  the  very  base  of  the 
Ghauts;  and  from  the  south  of  Bombay  to  Cape  Comorin.  Thence 
along  the  east  or  Coromandel  coast  it  occurs  in  detached  beds;  the 
most  considerable  of  which  are  those  composing  the  Red  Hills  near 
Madras,  Nellore,  vicinity  of  Rajahmundry,  Samulcotta,  and  into 
Guttack. 

It  is  found  capping  the  loftiest  summits  of  the  Eastern  and  Western 
Ghauts;  and  of  some  of  the  isolated  peaks  on  the  intervening  table 
lands.  On  those  of  the  northerly  parts  of  our  area  it  appears  in  more 
continuous,  and  extensive  sheets ;  often  forming  long  low  ranges  of 
flat-topped  hills,  resembling  in  contour  those  of  the  horizontal  sand- 
stone and  overlying  trap  formations.  The  laterite  bed  of  Beder,  in 
Lat.  XT'"  5S  N.,  and  Long.  IT  34'  E.,  is  about  twenty-eight  miles 


Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


228  SUMMARY   OF   THE   OEOLOGY 

long  from  W.N.  W.  to  E.S.E.;  and  twenty-two  miles  broad.  It  fomis 
a  table  land^  elevated^  according  to  Vojsey,  at  2359  feet  above  the 
sea's  level ;  and  terminating  to  the  north  in  precipitous  facades,  form- 
ing salient  and  re-entering  itngles^  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Monjera. 
The  average  thickness  of  the  bed  is  about  100  feet:  its  maximum 
200  feet 

ITie  Calliany  Bed,  about  forty  miles  westward  from  that  of  Beder^ 
is  of  still  greater  extent;  and  the  intervening  space  has  all  the  appear- 
ance of  having  been  covered  with  a  continuous  bed  stripped  off  by 
denudation,  and  exposing  the  subjacent  trap,  amygdaloid,  and  wack^. 
It  extends  southerly  to  the  confines  of  the  valley  of  the  Bhima,  about 
sixteen  miles;  and  is  upwards  of  forty  miles  in  length,  running  nearly 
east  by  south.  This  sheet  is  not  quite  continuous;  thelaterite  ranges, 
which  are  low  and  flat-topped,  being  separated  by  narrow  valleys 
with  flat  bottoms  based  on  trap. 

Niear  Ingleswara,  in  the  South  MiLhratta  country,  are  some  laterite 
ranges,  the  extent  of  which  has  not  been  exactly  ascertained. 

Farther  south  are  beds  of  smaller  extent  oil  the  table  land  around 
KuUadghi,  Bagulcbta,  and  Belgaum ;  and  still  further  south  at  Ban- 
galore and  Bunwassi  in  Mpore.  That  at  Bangalore  is  supposed  to 
extend  northerly  towards  the  vicinity  of  Nundidroog.  Laterite 
occurs  also  in  scattered  patches  over  the  country  below  the  high  table 
lands  of  Mysore,  south  of  the  Salem  break,  throughout  Salem,  Coim- 
batoor,  South  Arcot,  the  Camatic,  Tanjore,  and  Madura;  and  ooTars 
a  considerable  portion  of  Travancore. 

It  is  also  found  capping,  in  beds  of  considerable  thickness,  both 
the  summits  of  continuous  ranges, — such  as  those  of  Sdndoor,  Bellaiy, 
Eupputgode,  south  of  Cuddapah,  &c.,  and  df  isolated  peaks, — the 
Nilgherry  and  Coorg  Mountains.  It  occurs  in  more  circumscribed 
and  detached  patches  on  the  Eastern  Ghaut  line,  and  the  beds  are 
seldom  continuous  on  broken  ranges,  as  in  the  vicinity  of  Samulootta^ 
Chicacole,  Bunlipatam,  ahd  in  various  localities  in  Goomsur  ^ 

In  the  hilly  region  bounding  the  Mogulbundi  to  the  westward,  from 
the  Chilka  Lake  to  the  Subanrekha,  the  laterite  lies  in  beds  of  con- 
siderable thickness  on  the  feet  of  the  granite  hills,  often  advancing 
out  for  a  distance  of  ten  or  fifteen  miles  into  the  plains,  where  it  forms 
gently  swelling  rocky  elevations,  but  never  rises  into  hills;  sometimes 
it  is  disposed  in  the  manner  of  fiat  terraces  of  considerable  dimensions, 
which  look  as  if  they  had  been  constructed  with  much  labour  and 
skill.  The  granite  appears  to  burst  through  an  immense  bed  of  the 
laterite  rising  abruptly  at  a  considerable  angle.     This  singular  rock, 

1  Stirling's  Account  of  Cuttack,  pp.  15  and  16. 

.,t  zed  by  Google 


OF   SOUTHERN   INDIA.  229 

nnknown  in  Europe^  is  not  confined  to  the  Eastern  peninsula  of  India, 
bat  extends  as  a  fringe,  with  more  or  lees  interruption,  to  the  shores  of 
Birma,  Malacca,  Siam,  capping  many  of  the  granitic  mountains  in  the 
interior.  I  hare  seen  it  on  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  and  on  many  of  the 
islets  in  the  Straits  of  Malacca,  invariably  occupying  the  same  oyer- 
lying  position.  It  occurs  also  in  Malwa^  many  parts  of  Bengal,  and 
in  Ceylon. 

Fhydcal  ai^pec^.-— Lateritic  districts  hare  frequently  been  reproached 
for  the  sterile  aspect  they  usually  present.  This  arises  chiefly  from 
the  too  ferruginous  or  siliceous  character  of  the  rock,  Its  porous  struc- 
ture, which  does  not  admit  of  retention  of  moisture,  and  the  property 
it  possesses  of  hardening  on  exposure  to  the  atmosphere.  The  soils 
formed  by  the  weathering  of  the  soft  and  argillaceous  varieties  of 
laterite  are  fertile,  and  produce  abundant  crops  of  rice,  and  of  the 
dry  grains  that  ripen  in  the  early  part  of  the  season.  Hills  of 
laterite  are  usually  distinguished,  as  before  observed,  by  their  long, 
low,  flat-topped  character,  assimilating  those  of  the  trap  and  hori- 
zontal sandstone  formations.  The  lands  they  support  are,  however, 
not  so  much  furrowed  as  those  of  the  sandstone  by  water  chan- 
nels, a  circumstance  ascribable  to  the  drainage  passing  rapidly  off 
through  the  pores  of  the  rock.  When  capping  detached  rocks,  the 
laterite  usually  imparts  to  the  whole  mass  a  dome-shaped  or  mammi- 
form outline,  or  that  of  a  truncated  cone. 

^the  sur£EU3e  of  table  lands  it  is  spread  out  in  sheets,  varying 
from  a  few  inches  to  about  250  feet  in  thickness,  terminating  on  one 
or  two  sides  in  mural  escarpments. 

Immense  detached  blocks,  generally  of  a  cuboidal  shape,  are  often 
seen  occurring  on  the  flanks  of  the  Western  Ghauts,  and  on  the 
southern  slopes  of  the  Sondur  hills,  often  separated  and  dislodged;  the 
-valleys  intervening  between  ranges  of  laterite  hills  are  generally 
winding  like  those  formed  by  the  course  of  a  stream,  and  flat-bot- 
tomed ;  particularly  in  districts  where  it  overlies  the  newer  trap. 

From^a  general  survey  of  its  localities  and  position  on  the  super- 
fices  of  Southern  India>  it  seems  probable  that  the  laterite  extended 
over  it  ixt  more  continuously  than  at  present ;  and  that  it  owes  much 
of  its  frequently  insulated  position  to  denudation, — ^the  vestiges  of 
which  are  clearly  traceable  in  extensive  tracts  of  lateritic  gravel  and 
debris,  which  are  often  re-aggregated;  and  it  requires  great  care  and 
observation  not  to  confound  such  deposits  with  the  true  laterite  beds 
from  which  they  have  been  derived.  As  the  land  slowly  emerged 
from  the  waters  of  the  ocean,  the  process  of  denudation  went  on  hand 
in  hand  with  that  of  upheaval  m  laying  bare  the  subjacent  plutonic, 


VOL.  VIII. 

Digitized 


>d  by  Google 


230 


SUMMARY  OF  THB   GEOLOGY 


hjpogene^  and  trappean  rocks.  From  the  contour  of  the  peninsula^ 
and  its  general  slope  to  the  east^  it  b  evident  that  the  Western  Ohants 
mnst  have  first  appeared  above  the  surface^  and  the  land  to  the  east 
of  this  great  chain  by  subsequent  gradual  efforts;  the  Coromandel, 
or  eastern  coasts  probably  appearing  last.  Hence  the  continuity  of 
the  lateritio  zone  is  much  more  interrupted  on  this  than  pn  th^ 
western  coast^  where  the  elevation  was  at  a  much  greater  angle;  as 
the  course  of  the  retiring  waters  of  denudation  must  have  foUowed  the 
easterly  direction  of  the  present  great  lines  of  drainage. 

Natural  sections  often  remind  one  forcibly  of  that  striking  instance 
of  denudation  of  the  red  sandstone  on  the  north-west  coast  of  Ross- 
shire^  given  by  McGulloch\  The  following  section^  No.  1,  is  taken 
on  the  western  coast  of  India,  between  Honawer  and  Se^ashegur. 
No.  2  is  from  the  cliffs  of  Beder,  on  the  table  land  of  the  Deocan. 

No.  1. 


A  ▲  Beds  of  laterite  once  continnous,  capping  b  b. 
B  B  B  Gneiss  and  hornblende  schist 
c  c  Penuded  space. 

No.  2. 


0  C   C 


A  ▲  are  cliffs  of  laterite  from  90  feet  to  120  feet  high,  once  continaons. 

B  B  Overlying  trap  and  amygdaloid. 

c  c  c  Hard  ferraginous  masses  of  laterite:  though  eyidently  much  water-worn, 
they  have  successfolly  maintained  their  position  against  the  transporting  effects  of 
the  stream,  which  not  only  stripped  off  the  laterite,  and  denuded  the  subjacent 
trap,  but  excavated  the  latter  to  the  depth  of  many  feet,  leaving  the  hard  mass  of 
trap  B^  in  the  centre,  and  the  valley  of  denudation  and  excavation  o  d. 

The  valley  runs  east  by  south,  and  over  the  plain  at  its  eastern  e;ctren4ty  are 
scattered  the  hard  noduUr  fragments  of  the  stripped-off  laterite  from  o  n,  mingled 
with  regur  and  the  recent  alluvium  of  the  laterite  rocks.  No  causes  now  in  action 
could  have  effected  these  denudations. 

1  Western  Isles,  Vol  IL,  page  93,  plate  31,  fig.  ^  i 


OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA,  231 

StrcUifMion  and  D^.— *Laterite  usnally  occurs  lu  tabular  masses^ 
wbiab  like  thq  thick-bedded  sandstones  present  no  appearance  of  strati- 
iSoation.  Where,  however,  the  laterite  loses  its  cellular  structure,  and 
takes  the  character  of  a  sandstone  or  conglomerate,  its  true  bedded 
structure  is  obvious.  I  have  never  seen  its  dip  vary  much  from  the 
horizontal. 

LWudogk  Character. — This  rock  derives  its  name  LaterUis,  (be- 
stowed on  it  by  Francis  Buchanan,)  from  its  b^ing  cut  into  the  form 
of  bricks,  and  used  as  such  by  the  natives,  who  term  it  often  in  their 
own  dialects  the  brick-stone.  Buchanan*  identifies  it  with  the  ArgiUa 
lapidea  of  Wallerius. 

The  laterite  varies  much  in  structure  and  composition ;  but,  gene- 
rally speakiug,  it  presents  a  reddish  brown,  or  brick  coloured,  tubular, 
and  cellular  clay,  more  or  less  indurated,  passing  on  the  one  hand  into 
a  liard,  compact,  jaspideous  rock,  and  on  the  other  into  loosely  aggre- 
gated grits  or  sandstones,  as  at  Beypoor  near  Calicut,  Pondicherry, 
&c.,  and  into  red  sectile  clays,  red  and  yeUow  ochre,  and  white  por- 
celain earth,  plum-blue,  red,  purplish^  and  variegated  lithomarges. 
Sometimes  it  presents  the  character  of  a  conglomerate  containing 
ftagments  of  quartz,  the  plutonic,  hypogene,  and  sandstone  rocks,  and 
nodules  of  iron  ore  derived  from  them,  all  imbedded  in  a  ferruginous 
clay. 

The  cavities  are  both  vesicular,  tubular,  and  sinuous;  sometimes 
empty,  but,  in  the  lower  portions  of  the  rock,  usually  filled,  or  par- 
tially filled  with  the  earths  and  clays  above-mentioned,  or  a  siliceous 
and  argillaceous  dust  often  stained  by  oxide  of  iron.  A  species  of 
black  bole,  carbonized  wood,  and  carbonate  of  lime,  sometimes  occur, 
but  rarely,  in  these  cavities.  Minute  drusy  crystals  of  quartz  not 
uncommonly  line  the  interior. 

The  walls  separating  the  cavities  are  composed  of  an  argillo- 
siliceous  paste,  often  strongly  impregnated  with  iron,  and  frequently 
imbedding  gritty  particles  of  quartz.  The  oxide  of  iron  prevails, 
sometin^es  to  such  an  extent  as  to  approximate  a  true  ore  of  iron,  and 
the  nodules  are  often  separated  and  smelted  by  the  natives  in  pre- 
ference to  using  the  magnetic  iron  ore,  which  is  more  difficult  to  reduce, 
from  its  greater  purity.  When  the  whole  mass  is  charged  with  iron, 
aj>d  very  vesicular,  (not  unfrequently  the  case,)  it  might  easily  be 
mistaken  for  iron  slag.  The  colour  of  the  parietes  separating  the 
tabes  and  cells,  which  in  the  less  ferruginous  varieties  is  a  light  brick 
red  or  purple,  changes  into  a  liver  brown;  having  externally  a  vitri- 

>  Journey  through  Mysore,  Canara,  and  Malabar,  Vol.  II.,  pp.  436  and  440. 


232  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

fied  or  glazed  aspect;  while  the  snrface  of  the  interior  cavities  puts 
on  iridescent  hues.  The  walls  of  these  cells  are  sometimes  distinctly 
laminated. 

The  specific  grayitj  varies^  as  may  be  supposed  from  what  has 
jost  been  said.  Many  average  specimens  of  the  laterite  of  the  Ma- 
labar coast  I  foand  to  range  between  2*  and  3*2;  that  of  the  laterite 
of  the  Malay  peninsula  was  found  by  Dr.  Ward  to  be  2-536. 

Before  the  blow-pipe  the  walls  of  the  cavities  melted  into  a  black 
shining  glass  powerfully  attracted  by  the  magnet.  The  brown  paste 
and  ochreous  dust  contained  in  the  cells  did  not  fuse,  but  were  con- 
verted into  a  cineritious  slag  less  powerfully  attracted,  whilst  the 
reddish  and  purplish  portions  hardened  and  remained  almost  un- 
changed beyond  exhibiting  scattered  minute  magnetic  globules^  having 
a  dark  metallic  lustre. 

The  air  exposed  surfaces  of  laterite^  as  previously  remarked,  are 
usually  hard,  and  have  a  glazed  aspect,  and  the  cavities  are  more 
empty  than  those  in  the  lower  portion.  A  few  inches  or  more  below 
the  surface  the  rock  becomes  softer,  and  eventually,  as  it  descends,  so 
sectile  as  to  be  easily  cut  by  the  native  spades,  but  hardens  after 
exposure  to  the  atmosphere.  Hence  it  is  used  largely  as  a  building 
stone  in  the  districts  where  it  prevails,  and  to  repair  roads.  From  its 
little  liability  to  splinter  and  weather,  (time  appears  to  harden  it,)  it  is 
a  good  material  in  fortifications ;  for  which,  and  in  the  construction  of 
their  early  churches,  it  has  been  largely  used  by  the  Portuguese  on  the 
western  coast,  and  in  their  settlements  to  the  eastward.  The  Ar- 
caded  Inquisition  at  Goa  was  built  of  it,  and  the  old  fortress  of 
Malacca.  The  angles  of  the  blocks  of  laterite  in  the  remaining  por- 
tions of  these  massive  structures  are  as  sharp  and  perfect  as  though 
the  block  had  been  separated  from  the  rock  but  yesterday,  although 
upwards  of  three  centuries  have  elapsed. 

The  accumulation  of  the  clays  and  lithomargic  earths  in  the  lower 
portions  of  the  rock,  which  absorb  some  of  the  moisture  percolating 
from  above,  renders  the  mass  soft  and  sectile.  These  earths,  doubt- 
less, existed  once  in  the  upper  cavities  of  the  rock,  firom  which  they 
have  been  gradually  removed  ^to  the  lower  strata  by  the  downward 
action  of  the  water  of  the  monsoon  rains.  They  accumulate  at  various 
depths  from  the  surface  and  form  impervious  beds,  on  the  depressions 
of  which  he  water  collects,  forming  the  reservoirs  of  the  springs 
we  often  ,see  oozing,  as  at  Beder,  and  many  localities  on  the  Malabar 
coast,  from  the  bases  and  sides  of  lateritic  hills  and  clifis.  Some  of 
the  tubes  and  cavities  are  culs  de  sac,  and  do  not  part  with  their  con- 
tents, but  the  generality  have  communication  with  those  below  them. 

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OF   SOUTHERN   INDIA.  233 

either  directly  or  indirectly.  The  downward  action  of  the  water,  by 
working  through  the  thinner  parietes,  has  tended  to  improye  this  com- 
munication :  for  we  find  in  the  laterite  cliffs  of  Beder,  where  a  hori- 
zontal layer  of  impervious  matter  occurs  in  the  substance  of  the  rock, 
that  the  sinuous  tubes  in  the  laterite  immediately  aboye  it,  hare  been 
diyerted  from  their  usual  obliquely  downward  direction,  to  one  nearly 
horizontal,  showing  that  the  water,  on  arriving  at  this  obstruction  to 
its  progress  downwards,  spread  itself  laterally  and  horizontally  over 
its  surface. 

In  the  same  cliffs  empty  sinuous  tubes,  having  a  generally  ver- 
tical direction,  are  observed,  varying  from  a  few  lines  to  two  inches  in 
diameter,  and  passing  from  the  surface  of  the  rock  to  considerable 
depths  in  its  substance.  One  was  traced  thirty  feet  until  it  dis- 
appeared in  a  projecting  portion  of  the  cliff. 

They  occur  on  a  still  greater  scale,  forming  caverns  of  great  extent, 
if  we  believe  one  tenth  part  of  the  native  traditions  regarding  them. 
Such  is  the  cave  shrine  of  Sheikh  Furreed  at  Guddry,  about  two  miles 
from  Mangalore^  This  is  a  hole  in  the  centre  of  the  side  of  a  per- 
pendicular rock  composed  of  laterite,  which  is  said  to  lead  all  the  way 
to  Hydrabad,  450  miles  1  The  opening  is  square,  about  six  feet  above 
the  ground,  ascended  by  a  flight  of  stone  steps,  just  large  enough  to 
allow  a  person  to  crawl  in.  The  cavern  is  very  dark,  and  no  one 
knows  the  exact  size  of  it.  Adjoining  is  a  chasm  in  the  rock,  and  of 
inconsiderable  size,  which  at  its  entrance  has  been  built  up  with  stone, 
and  an  opening  left  for  people  to  creep  in  by,  as  in  the  other;  but  this 
is  found  open  within  (or  exposed  to  the  air)  after  it  is  once  entered. 
More  than  a  century  ago,  a  Mahomedan  recluse,  named  Sheikh  Fur- 
reed, took  up  his  abode  in  the  cave,  and  at  the  expiration  of  twelve 
years  disappeared,  and  has  never  been  heard  of  since.  The  popular 
tradition  is,  that  he  tried  to  get  to  Mecca  by  this  subterraneous  route ! 

There  is  another  cavern  of  considerable  size,  in  the  laterite  cliffs 
cresting  the  Sondur  Hills,  on  the  table  land  of  the  Ceded  Districts, 
into  which  I  penetrated  a  considerable  distance;  but  not  being  pro- 
vided with  torches  was  compelled  to  return.  The  entrance  was  of  an 
irregular  oval  form,  not  exceeding  six  feet  in  height,  and  bifurcating  a 
few  paces  from  the  entrance  into  two  winding  galleries,  leading  ob- 
liquely downwards  into  the  bowels  of  the  rock.  The  floor  is  broken 
by  rugged  step-like  descents.  The  cavern  drips  with  water,  and 
swarms  with  bats,  hosts  of  which  were  disturbed  by  my  intrusion. 
Its  floor  is  formed  of  lateritic  detritus,  covered  with  the  filth  of  bats, 

>  Dr.  HerUot's  Qanoon-i-IalAiii.    Olomiy^  pp.  hxn^  imd  lzs. 

.,t  zed  by  Google 


234  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

into  which  I  dbg  for  several  feet  in  the  hope  of  finding  fossil  honhB^ 
bat  was  disappointed.  The  natives  aver  the  cavern  was  the  abode  of 
a  giant  of  old;  and  that  it  is  of  incredible  exteht. 

There  is  a  similar  cavern  in  the  laterite  hills  of  liigleswara,  in  thb 
Southern  Mahratta  country,  (of  the  extent  of  whibh  the  natives  have 
the  same  extravagant  traditions^)  and  said  to  )^olilmunicate  witU  ano- 
ther cavern  at  Nagarhal.  In  the  laterite  cliffs  bf  Beder,  it  harrotr 
winding  cavern,  about  sixty  yards  in  length,  foinls  the  outlet  bf  the 
fine  spring  of  the  Farabagh.  The  Brahmans,  ever  vigilant  iti  tiihlihg 
the  phenomena  of  nature  to  extending  their  ddnitiliotL  bt^r  the  niinds 
of  thb  superstitious  Hind6,  have  seized  on^both  these  last  caverHs, 
hitte  converted  them  to  places  of  idol  worship,  and  guard  theiir  eii-^ 
trances  with  Cerberean  pertinacity. 

In  the  lateritic  belt  running  west  of  Indore^  Objein^  Mahidpdr^; 
and  Barode,  I  perceive  Captain  Dangerfleldi  has  ihatkbd  dbwH  ih  his 
map  the  site  of  some  caves  at  Doomnar. 

The  crater  that  |>ercolates  through  the  roof  bf  these  caves  in  the 
laterite  is  often  charged  with  iron,  which  it  deposits  in  staliuH^itic,  or 
botryoidal  iUcmstations.  The  same  occurs  oU  a  much  nlbre  ininuti 
scale  in  the  smaller  tubular  and  vesicular  cavities.  Curious  sphe- 
roidal, reniform,  and  cylindrical  bodies,  often  as  large  as  a  coboa-nui, 
have  been  found  in  the  laterite  and  mistaken  fot  fossil  seeds.  Their 
parietes  are  usuaUy  composed  of  gritty  particles  of  4ttartz,  bfien 
stained  by  iron,  cemented  by  a  ferruginous  matter:  thbir  cavities; 
often  etnpty,  usually  contain  an  ochreous,  siliceous,  and  aigillaceoua 
dust  j  as  at  Stripermatoor,  and  Pondicherry. 

AstociaUd  Minerals, — Nodular,  reniform,  and  pisiform  clsky  iroii 
ores  occur  pretty  generally  distributed.  I  have  discovered  veins  and 
nests  of  black  manganese  in  the  laterites  of  Beder,  Calliany,  Inglid^ 
wara^  &c.,  also  alum,  and  muriate  of  soda,  in  that  of  the  Ceded  Dis- 
tricts near  Bellary;  large  beds  and  nests  of  lithomargic  earths,  and 
white  porcelain  earths,  are  not  uncommon.  General  Cullen  infomm 
me  he  found  a  layer  of  lignite  in  the  laterite  of  the  western  coast  at 
KorkuUy,  about  fifteen  miles  south  of  Quilon,  imbedded  in  a  stratuni 
of  dark  shales  and  clays.  The  bed  was  quitd  insulated,  slightljr 
inclined,  aad  of  a  lenticular  form,  ^^e  or  six  feet  thiok  at  the  moM : 
the  upper  portion  of  the  cliff,  which  is  about  eighty  feet  high,  coUsists 
of  the  indurated  dark  red  laterite,  gradually  changing,  9s  the  dbpth 
increases  from  the  surface,  into  bright  and  various  colours :  ill  tfaeto 
lower  portiOtts  the  bed  of  lignite  oecurs. 

'  Maloobn's  Centnl  India,  Yol  IL,  Oeolog.  ICap. 

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OF   SOUTHERN   INDIA. 


235 


General  Cnllen  recently  writes  me  that  lignite  occurs  in  other 
loealities  in  the  laterite  of  Trarancore,  and  that  graphite  in  scales 
seems  to  be  rather  common  in  it;  chiefly  conspicuous  in  the  laterite 
^ut  Tritandrum  and  Quilon.  It  'occurs  still  further  south  in  lirge 
and  thick  scales,  AnA  disseminated  yery  generally  also  in  a  kind  of 
laterite  close  to  the  fbot  of  the  mountain,  about  twenty-fire  miles 
east  of  Triyandram. 

In  1840, 1  discovered  a  bed  of  lignite  with  resinasphalt,  sulphur, 
alum,  (the  result  of  decomposing  iron  pyrites,)  and  mineral  copal,  near 
Beypoor  in  the  ticinity  of  Calicut  on  the  Malabar  coast,  in  a  bed  of 
loose  sandstone,  into  which  the  latidrite  passes,  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
river^  immediately  imbedded  in  layers  of  black  carbonaceous  and  alu- 
minous shales  and  blays  containing  scattered  spangles  of  mica. 

The  foUowing  is  a  section  of  the  beds,  which  rise  about  forty  feet 
abote  the  river  s  then  level. 


A  Sandy  aHuyiai  soiL 

B  Loooe  UteriUc  sandstone  with  beds  of  ochreous  earth. 
c  Oritty  sandstone  passing  into  laterite;  variegated  in  its  lower  portions  with 
red  and  yellow  bands. 

0  Stratum  of  black  aluminous  shale  and  clay  imbedding  the  lignite,  &c. 

1  Level  of  the  river. 

The  beds  dip  conformably  at  an  angle  of  four  degrees  towards  the 
ndHh-east.  The  lignite  bed  can  be  traced  about  half  a  mile  easterly 
up  the  river  where  it  dips  below  the  river's  level.  Its  structure  is 
obscurely  stratified,  crossed  by  vertical  fissures,  surfaces  of  i^hich  are 
frequently  covered  with  a  yellowish  efflorescence,  consisting  of  sulphur, 
iron,  and  alumina ;  sulphur,  and  oxide  of  iron,  also  occur  unoombined. 
The  carbonized  branches,  leaves,  and  trunks  lay  horixontally  in  the 
black  shale.  Some  were  fibrous,  toughish  when  struck  by  the 
hammer,  and  heavy,  resembling  wood  recently  charred:  others  were 

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236  SUMMARY   OF  THE   GEOLOGY 

brittle  with  a  resinous  fracture  and  lustre,  resembling  bitumen.  Many 
fragments  were  penetrated  with  water,  holding  iron  and  alum  in  solu- 
tion :  the  former  of  which  appeared  on  their  surface  as  a  glittering 
reddish-brown  coating.  The  woody  structure  was,  in  general,  suffi- 
ciently distinct  to  show  that  the  principal  trees  imbedded  were  dicoty- 
ledonous. Impressions  of  leaves  and  stems  of  plants  were  abundant 
between  the  layers  of  shale;  but  I  did  not  observe  any  of  the  dicoty- 
ledonous seeds  which  occur  in  the  lignite  beds  of  Travancore.  Some 
were  perfectly  black;  others  of  different  shades  of  brown  exhibiting 
different  degrees  of  carbonization.  A  portion  of  a  black  carbonized 
leaf  burnt  slowly  with  a  slight  flame  into  a  reddish  ash,  white  on 
the  edges.  .  This  being  subjected  to  the  reducing  flame  melted  on 
its  edges  partly  into  a  greenish  enamel,  and  partly  into  a  dark  slag 
affected  by  the  magnet. 

The  imbedding  black  shale  decrepitated  slightly  before  whitjf nees, 
emitting  an  odour  like  that  of  burning  coal.  It  finally  fused  on 
the  edges  into  a  light  greenish-grey  enamel,  slightly  magnetic.  The 
most  resinous  portions  of  the  carbonized  wood  burned  with  a  dear 
flame  and  bituminous  odour,  into  a  white  ash:  while  those  in  which 
the  elasticity  of  the  woody  fibre  was  less  impaired,  scarcely  gave  out 
any  flame  at  all,  burning  into  a  reddish-brown  cinder.  The  odour 
emitted,  however,  resembled  that  of  coal  more  than  that  of  burning 
charcoal.  The  cinder  fused  before  the  blow-pipe,  after  giving  out  two 
or  three  bubbles  of  gas,  into  a  black  slag  readily  attracted  by  the 
magnet.  The  yellowish  cauliflower-like  efflorescence  on  the  sur£Aoe 
of  the  carbonaceous  bed  emitted  distinct  fumes  of  sulphur  on  being 
subjected  to  the  oxidizing  flame ;  melting,  after  considerable  gaseous 
extrication,  into  a  dark  cinnabar-red  globule,  which,  on  being  sub- 
jected to  the  reducing  flame,  was  converted,  with  diminution  of  bulk, 
into  a  black  magnetic  slag. 

The  change  of  colour  and  driving  off  the  carbonaceous  matter  by 
heat,  tended  greatly  to  develope  vegetable  character,  fibre,  &c.,  where 
none  was  before  apparent,  or  very  obscurely  so.  The  specific  gravity 
of  the  heavier  portions  is  1*270,  slightly  exceeding  the  average  specific 
gravity  of  coal,  which  is  1  '250.  This  deposit  of  vegetable  matter  has 
evidently  been  made  tranquilly,  from  the  flat  horizontal  position  of  the 
layers  of  leaves  and  stems. 

Since  writing  the  above.  General  CuUen  informs  me  that  he  now 
sees  much  of  the  carbonaceous  deposit  in  Travancore,  and  that  it  is 
very  extensive.  It  exhibits  itself  in  beds  of  black  clay  and  lignite,  of 
from  fifty  to  sixty  feet  thick,  in  some  places  200  feet,  along  the 
laterite  cliffs  at  Venkully,  for  a  distance  of  three  miles;  in  fact,  all 

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OF   SOUTHERN   INDIA. 


237 


along  the  coast  from  Qnilon  to  Venknlly.  Deposits  of  the  same  kind 
oecnr  about  the  same  levels  at  the  distance  of  two  or  three  miles 
inland.  A  similar  deposit  is  seen  on  the  sea  shore,  about  thirty  miles 
soath  of  Triyandrum.  The  trunks,  or  rather  their  fragments,  were 
both  of  monocot jledonous  and  dicotyledonous  wood  in  a  state  of  perfect 
carbonization^  and  abounded  with  sulphuret  of  iron. 

Oriffin, — ^Writers  on  Indian  geology  are  divided  in  opinion  as  to 
the  origin  of  laterite.  With  regard  to  the  igneous  theory  a«  ori- 
ginated by  Voysey,  taken  up  by  Calder,  and  put  forth  by  Mr.  Cony- 
beare,  it  must  be  remarked  that,  hitherto,  no  decided  volcanic  product 
luus  been  discovered  in  laterite,  no  crater  or  other  proof  of  such  origin. 
It  is  true,  it  is  frequently  seen  overlying  trap  rocks;  but  it  also  over- 
lies granite,  hypogene  strata,  sandstone,  and  limestone,  and  in  none  is 
it  ever  seen  as  a  dyke ;  nor  are  there  any  signs  of  forcible  intrusion  or 
alteration.  In  one  hand  specimen  that  fell  under  my  observation,  the  ' 
laterite  appeared  to  have  intruded  into  and  shattered  the  sandstone; 
but  in  every  instance  where  I  have  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing  veins, 
if  they  may  be  so  termed,  of  the  laterite  in  other  rocks,  in  sku,  they 
have  occurred  as  deposits) /rom  above,  into  pre-existing  chinks  of  the 
subjacent  rocks,  like  the  conglomerate  which  fills  fissures  in  the  lime- 
stone of  Petit  Tor;  and  never  injected  from  below,  as  is  the  case  with 
Yolcanic  rocks. 

The  following  section  exhibits  the  laterite  filling  a  chink  in  the 
cubjacent  sandstone  of  Granjicotta,  in  the  Cuddapah  district. 


A  Laterite  capping  tandstone. 

B  Sandstone. . 

c  Chink  in  sandstone  filled  by  laterite  from  above. 

Fragments  of  trappean,  and  other  rocks,  occasionally  are  imbedded 
in  the  laterite;  as  ako  in  the  subjacent  sandstone,  and  in  other  rocks 
confessedly  of  aqueous  origin.  Cases  occur  where  basalt  underlying 
the  trap  as  at  Beder,  has  the  appearance  of  passing  into  it:  but  this, 


238  SUMMAttY    OF  THE   GEOLOGY 

on  tniiltite  Examination,  turns  ont  to  be  a  confiised  blending  of  th^ 
debris  bf  both  rocks  near  their  janction ;  from  which  distinct  and  tin- 
mixed  fragments  of  either  sort  could  be  separated,  like  bits  of  granitic 
&oiii  the  breccias  that  are  usually  found  near  the  junction  of  the  latter 
with  sahdstohe.  In  many  localities,  however,  the  iihb  of  demarcatibh 
between  the  laterite  ^d  overlying  Mbp  is  clear  and  decided. 

Some  geologists  suppose  that  laterite  is  nothing  more  than  granitic, 
hypogene,  arid  trappean  rocks  weathered  in  bUu,  the  facts  bf  its 
imbedding  erratic  fragments  bf  saiidstone,  at  the  Red  Hilhl  ne&r 
Madras,  whbre  it  rbsts  on  granitb,  and  its  interstratified  beds  of  lignite 
find  silicified  wood;  inilitate  strongly  ag£i,inst  this  theory.  Besides^ 
nothing  is  mbre  common  in  lateritio  tracts  than  to  see  a  hill  of  granitli^ 
thlp,  or  hypogene  rock,  capped  #ith  a  thick  crUst  of  laterite;  whilb 
the  adjacent  hills,  composed  of  an  exactly  similar  rock,  and  fbrmiiig  a 
continnation  of  the  same  bed,  equally  exposed  to  the  action  of  the 
weather,  are  quite  bare  of  laterite.  t  have  examined  many  beds  of  it 
resting  on  trap,  and  amygdaloid  imbedding  calcedonies,  heliotropi$, 
and  jasper,  but  have  not  hitherto  detected  in  the  upper  or  middlb  beds 
of  the  former,  any  fragments  of  these  hard  siliceous  minerals^  which 
are  found  to  resist  successfully  the  attrition  of  the  most  rapid  streams 
of  mdia^  and  have  been  carried  by  them  across  the  peninsula  to  the 
ocean. 

I  have  seen  laterite,  too,  resting  oil  limestone,  without  any  trace- 
able lime  in  its  composition:  and  containing  veins  of  mangan.e84»> 
when  resting  on  a  trap  in  which  hitherto  the  existence  of  this  mineral 
has  not  been  detected :  facts,  proving  that  the  overlying  laterite  was 
not  the  upper  portions  of  these  rocks  weathered  in  situ. 

I  have  often  observed,  particularly  in  the  Western  Ghauts,  and  on 
the  Malabar  and  Concan  coasts,  where  the  rains  fall  heaviest,  those 
granitic,  hypogene,  and  trappean  rocks,  which  contain  most  iron, 
weather  into  ferruginous  and  coloured  clays,  that  sometimes  litho- 
logically  speaking,  resemble  laterite;  and,  when  that  rock  is  near, 
have  the  appearance  of  passing  into  it.  I  have  also  observed  large 
beds  in  gneiss  and  hornblende  schist,  of  an  impure  oxide  of  iron, 
assume  a  cellular  and  pisiform  aspect;  but  such  must  not  be  mistaken 
for  the  true  laterite,  nor  yet  the  beds  of  re-aggregated  gravel  derived 
from  the  laterite. 

When  we  look  up  from  the  microscopic  view  afforded  by  these 
slowly  irbathering  blocks  of  rock  and  beds  of  ore,  ahd  ca«t  our  eyes 
upon  even  the  present  extent  of  laterite  over  the  surface  of  India,  the 
thickness  of  its  beds,  its  flat-topped  ranges  of  hills^  and  the  gaps 
effected  in  their  continuity,  evidently  by  aqueous  causes  no  lon^  in 


OF   SOUTHERN   INDIA.  239 

action,  its  bccasioliallj  imbedding  wat^rwbm  {)ebbles  of  distant  tochs, 
its  bftett  blevaled  |)bsiiion  ^bdve  tUe  present  drainage  level  bf  thh 
country,  iis  beds  of  lignite  and  silicified  wood,  we  find  no  mor^ 
reasoh  for  attributing  its  origin  to  the  weathering  of  rocks  in  iU4^  or 
to  their  detritus  transpoHed  by  causes  How  in  action;  than  for  attri- 
buting the  formatibh  of  the  older  sandstones  to  the  present  disint<»- 
gratibn  bf  Ihb  grsLnitic  and  hjpbgene  i*ocks,  of  the  detrittis  bf  which 
they  were  doubtless,  as  well  as  the  laterite,  formed  originally. 

'the  supposed  hon-fossiliferous  character  bf  this  rock,  which  has 
ptizzled  many  geologists,  dnd  inblined  others  to  the  theory  of  its  ancient 
or  yblcaiiid  origin,  may  in  some  me&sure  be  attributed  to  its  highly 
fblriferous  nature,  often  approaching  that  of  an  oxide  of  iron.  It  is  a 
genehd  fact,  and,  as  Lyell  observes,  one  not  yet  accounted  for,  that 
scarcely  any  fbssil  remains  are  preserved  in  stratified  rocks  in  which 
the  oxide  of  iron  (derived  from  the  disintegration  of  hornblende  br 
mica)  abounds:  and  when  we  find  fossils  in  the  new  or  old  red  sand- 
stones of  England^  it  is  in  the  grey,  and  usually  calcareous  beds  that 
they  occur.  It  is  well  known,  too,  that  some  of  the  more  recent 
tertiary  deposits  of  tlurope  are  entirely  diviested  of  fossils. 

As  this  singular  variety  of  ferruginous  clay  and  sandstone  has  not 
been  mentioned  by  geological  writers  on  other  countries  than  those  t 
have  dluded  to,  it  may  be  presumed  that  laterite  either  does  hot  exist 
under  this  form  at  all,  or  in  such  small  patches  as  not  to  have  attracted 
remark.  The  question  naturally  suggests  itself,  why  this  cellular  rock 
should  be  confined  to  India,  &c.  The  solution  may  be  in  the  highly 
ferriferous  nature  of  the  plutonic,  trappean,  and  hypogene  rocks,  froni 
which  the  laterite  has  confessedly  been  derived,  and  in  the  supposition 
of  a  segregation  and  subsequent  re-arrangement  of  the  different  mi- 
neral particles  in  the  substance  of  the  rock  itself,  by  a  process  in 
nature's  laboratory,  approaching  to  brystallization,  better  known  than 
explained  or  understood.  If  electricity,  which  is  probable,  has  any 
share  in  exciting  this  movement  and  attraction  in  the  mineral  particles 
of  the  rock,  its  metallic  nature  affords  a  favourable  condition  for  the 
active  development  of  this  powerful  agent.  The  structure  of  the  rock 
haa  received  some  modification  from  the  action  of  water,  in  emptying 
its  cells  and  carrying  their  contents  tb  the  lower  parts  of  the  beds. 

Age, — Having  said  thus  much  to  warrant  the  clajssification  of  laterite 
among  rocks  of  an  aqueous  and  mechanical  origin,  I  shall  proceed  to 
remark  that  in  age,  relatively  to  other  irocks  of  Southern  India,  it  is 
older  than  the  regur  and  kunkur,  which  it  nnderiies,  iM  bf  liiore 
recent  origin  than  the  overlying  trap,  the  shell  limestone  of  Pondl* 
cherry^  and  the  diamond  sandstone  and  limestone;  on  all  of  which  it  is 


240  SUMMARY   OF  THIS   GEOLOGY 

superimpoeed.  It  hajs  heyer  been  invaded  by  the  dykes  of  trap  that 
penetrate  the  latter  rocks — ^the  hypogene  and  plutonic  rocks^ — ^frag- 
ments of  all  which  it  sometimes  imbeds,  bnt  is  eyidently  contem- 
poraneous with  the  efforts,  or  series  of  efforts,  by  which  the  Western 
Ghants  were  lifted  aboye  the  waters ;  since  it  is  seen  capping  their 
summits,  often  shattered  into  large  irregular  blocks,  and  stretching 
more  continuously,  and  with  less  signs  of  disturbance,  from  their  base 
to  the  sea. 

From  the  non-altered  state  of  the  laterite  at  its  junction  with  the 
granite,  and  the  imbedded  fragments  of  the  latter  rock,  as  weU  as  of 
fragments  of  the  trap  dykes,  it  may  be  inferred  that  both  granite  and 
the  associated  trap  dykes  were  eleyated  in  a  solid  state.  I  haye  classed 
the  laterite  as  more  recent  than  the  Nirmul  fresh-water  cherts  and 
limestones,  on  account  of  the  latter  rocks  haying  been  inyaded  and 
altered  by  trappean  intrusion. 

PONDICHERRY  SiLICIFIED  WoOD  DEPOSIT. 

A  short  distance  inland  from  Pondicherry  beds  of  a  loose  ferru- 
ginous grit  rise  into  a  low  range  of  hills,  called,  from  the  colour  of 
the  rock,  the  Red  Hills.  They  run  in  a  north-north-east  direction, 
almost  parallel  with  that  of  the  coast.  They  are  about  two  miles  in 
breadth,  and  about  eight  or  nine  in  length.  The  deposit,  probably, 
extends  further  in  a  southerly  direction  than  the  north  bank  of  the 
Ariacoopang  riyer,  to  which  I  traced  it  from  the  yicinity  of  Camlaput 
on  the  north.  The  locality  where  the  silicified  wood  is  found  in 
greatest  abundance  is  in  the  vicinity  of  Trivicaiy,  about  fifteen  miles 
west  of  Pondicherry.  Between  the  Red  Hills  and  the  sea  extends 
a  plain  covered  with  an  alluvial  sandy  soil,  and  underlying  it  a 
greyish-black  or  dark  clayey  loam,  resembling  that  of  Madras,  im- 
bedding fragments  of  grit  and  recent  pelagic  shells.  The  descent  from 
the  hills  towards  Pondicherry  is  gentle,  but  steeper  on  the  western 
flank,  where  the  strata  have  been  evidently  stripped  off,  and  the  sub- 
jacent fossiliferous  limestone  denuded',  leaving  a  shallow  valley^ 
marking  the  discontinuity  of  the  strata,  between  this  point  and  where 
the  beds  again  appear  in  the  vicinity  of  Trivicary,  on  the  opposite  or 
western  side  of  the  valley. 

Here  they  form  a  low  broken  range  of  hills,  not  rising  higher  than 
from  fifty  to  one  hundred  feet  above  the  general  level  of  the  plain, 
having  a  parallel  direction  with  the  beds  on  the  eastern  side,  and  slo- 
pii^  gently  towards  the  east.     The  western  flank  is  rugged  and  preci- 

'  Vide  Section  accompanying  description  of  the  shell  limestone  of  Pondicheny, 
p.  214. 


OP   SOUTHERN   INDIA.  241 

pitoQB  wherey^r  it  meets  the  hornblende  schist,  which  flanks  it  to  the 
west^  near  the  yiUage  of  Trivicarj.  A  narrow  valley  marks  the 
junction  line,  coyered  with  the  detritus  of  both  rocks.  Here  silicified 
tmnks  of  trees  haye  been  imbedded  in  the  grit  in  a  nearly  horizontal 
position.  The  stems  are  both  strait  and  crooked,  generally  without 
roots  or  branches;  though  the  former  haye  been  found,  and  the  places 
of  the  insertion  of  the  latter  are  frequently  strongly  marked  on  the 
stem.  They  are  monocotyledonous,  and  dicotyledonous;  coniferous, 
and  non-coniferous.  Dicotyledonous  wood  is,  howeyer,  most  abundant. 
One  of  the  trunks  I  found  to  measure  twenty  feet  in  length,  and  from 
one  to  two  and  a  quarter  feet  in  diameter. 

Lieutenant  Warren,  in  the  Asiatic  Researches,  describes  a  trunk 
about  sixty  feet  long,  and  from  two  to  eight  feet  in  diameter :  but  this 
has  been  broken  up  by  the  native  collectors  of  petrifactions.  The 
organic  and  microscopic  structure  of  the  wood,  in  many  specimens,  is 
beautifully  preserved.  The  siliceous  matter  of  petrifiEustion  is  often 
semi-transparent,  like  chert,  or  calcedony,  or  opalized,  or  striped  with 
lively  bands  of  red,  like  jasper.  It  varies  in  colour  and  texture  from 
an  opaque  whitish  chalk-like  stone,  to  a  red  and  white  camelian, 
giving  fire  with  steel;  the  prevailing  tints  are  delicate  shades  of  brown 
and  grey.  The  inner  portions  of  the  tree  have  been  usually  more  per- 
fectly fossilized  than  the  exterior;  which  appears  to  have  been,  in 
many  specimens,  bruised  as  if  by  drifting,  and  deprived  of  its  bark. 
The  outer  portions  usually  exhibit  the  most  lively  colours.  Drusy 
crystals  of  quartz  sometimes  line  their  cavities.  The  carbonaceous 
matter  of  the  wood  has  entirely  disappeared,  and  nothing  but  silica 
and  iron  left. 

The  fossil  trunks  and  fragments  of  silicified  wood  occur  partly 
imbedded  in  the  rock,  and  partly  scattered  over  the  soil  and]  detritus. 
Numbers  have  been  broken  and  destroyed  by  the  natives  to  sell  to  the 
stone  polishers,  who  manufacture  the  most  attractive  fragments,  under 
the  name  of  petrified  tamarind  wood,  into  brooches,  seals,  beads,  studs, 
bracelets,  boxes,  &c. 

Although  fragments  of  silicified  wood  are  found  scattered  here  and 
there  over  the  whole  extent  of  this  lateritio  grit,  yet  the  space  into 
which  the  largest  fossil  trunks  at  Trivicary  are  crowded  does  not  occupy 
an  area  of  two  square  miles.  There  are  no  signs  of  any  bed,  like  the 
Portland  dirt-bed,  in  which  they  formerly  grew,  and  no  carbonaceous 
matter;  and  I  have  little  doubt  the  trunks  were  drifted  to  the  situsr 
tion  where  they  are  now  found  at  the  edge  of  a  granitic  shore,  and 
covered  with  sand  and  pebbles :  it  is  veiy  clear  that  they  did  not  grow 
on  the  spot  where  they  are  now  found  petrified,  mutilated,  and 
prostrate,  as  supposed  by  many  travellers.  .  ,  ^     .  ^  ^Ogle 


242 


SUMMARY   OF  THB   PE0L06Y 


Litkohgic  charader  of  ike  Mock. — The  imbedding  lock  is  for  thq 
most  part  composed  of  angular  grains  of  quartz,  often  stained  with 
iron,  and  loosely  cemented  together  by  dark  red  and  whitish  clays, 
passing  into  a  conglomerate,  and  into  a  tubular  and  cellular  rock,  dif- 
fering in  no  respect  from  some  varieties  of  laterite.  The  latter  U 
seen  at  intenrals  ocoupjring  an  exactly  equiy^ent  position  along  the 
coast  to  the  northward.  It  imbeds  similar  layers,  and  nests  of  litho- 
margic  earth.  The  singular  hollow  spheroids  and  tubular  bodies, 
already  described,  are  common  to  it  and  to  the  beds  to  the  north  in 
the  vicinity  of  Madras.  They  have  been  mistaken  for  petrified  fruit 
and  seeds,  but  possess  no  traces  of  organic  structure;  and,  in  many 
cases,  have  originated  from  the  action  of  water  on  the  porous  structure 
of  the  rock.  The  imbedded  pebbles  are  both  rounded  and  angular, 
the  former  predominating, — and  are  for  the  most  part  of  quartz  and 
chert,  with  a  few  pebbles  of  trap  and  the  hypogene  rocks. 

The  beds  near  Trivicary  are  shattered  by  deep  vertical  fissures. 
Their  (surface  presents  strong  traces  of  watery  erosion  in  a  number  of 
channel-shaped,  sinuous,  and  basin-like  cavities,  some  in  situations 
^bove  the  influence  of  present  drainage.  Many  of  them  contajx^  sand 
and  water-worn  pebbles,  similar  to  those  in  the  subjacent  rocks. 
Among  the  gravel  scattered  on  the  surface  I  found  a  pebble  of  the 
subjacent  limestone,  and  several  of  greenstone. 

The  following  presents  a  section  afforded  by  some  cliffis  near  the 
south-west  extremity  of  the  Red  Hills. 


A  Surface  gravel,  about  2  feet  thick. 

B  Loose  red  grit,  about  4  feet 
,  c  Grit  with  fngtnents  of  weathered  quartz  and  felspar,  8  ieet 

p  Re4  grit  with  rounded  pebbles  of  greenstone  and  qi^t^,  P^^B^i^lg  if  it^  lower 
portions  into  a  variegated  red  and  yellpw  grit,  6  feet. 

B  Variegated  red  and  yellow  grit,  4  feet. 

All  the  beds  below  the  gravel  are  interstratified  with  thin  layers  of  purplish  and 
white  lithonuurglc  clays,  resembling  those  in  the  laterite.  ^  ,  __  , ,  _  _  _ 


QF  S0UTHER19   INDIA.  243 

The  fiilicified  wood  of  the  Egyptian  desert  closely  Tesembles  that  of 
BQudicheriy;  a^  also  the  rook  in  which  it  is  imbedded  at  t)^e  ^'Fossil 
fpTpstj"  near  Cairo,  not  only  petrologically,  but  in  gisemerU.  Botb 
occupy  overlying  situations  covered  with  gravel,  sand,  and  other 
d<^tritus,  and  rest  on  a  marine  limestone  in  strata  but  little  inclined 
from  the  horizontal.  Both  have  suffered  from  aqueous  denudation 
exposing  the  sul^acent  Umestones.  I  could  not  discover  tb^  feast 
trace  of  extinct  volcanos,  or  of  volcanic  substances,  in  the  vicinity  of 
eitlier. 

I  am  noj;  aware  of  any  other  places  in  Southern  India  whpre  fossil 
WQpd  is  found  except  Mungapett^  and  fi  few  other  locf|lit;es  on  \l\^ 
banks  of  the  Godavery  and  Wurda,  where  silicified  coniferous  W904 
occifrs  in  very  small  quantities,  i^nd  at  Hinga^-ghaut,  on  the  north 
bank  of  the  river,  where  silicified  branches  of  dicotyledon<^iis  tre^^ 
and  a  very  perfect  portion  of  a  palm,  were  found  in  loose  blocks  of  a 
bl^k  and  red  chert  resting  on  the  newer  trap  formation :  I  am  i^^e^ 
inclined  to  refer  this  to  tlie  fresh-watpr  chariferous  limesto^p  and 
chert  formation,  than  to  the  laterite  and  Pondicherry  beds. 

'Marine  Sandstone  Beds  of  Ramnad  and  Cape  Comorin. 

On  the  eastern  coast,  near  the  southern  extremity  of  the  peninsula, 
are  some  beds  of  sandstone.  The  shells  they  imbed  (as  far  as  their 
fractured  state  would  admit  of  their  being  recognised,)  are  of  species 
existing  in  the  adjacent  sea;  they  are  tertiary,  and  may  be  classed, 
for  the  pr<)sent,  with  the  laterite  and  Pondicherry  eandstpne.  ^he 
rock  'm  of  a  less  ferruginous  character  than  either,  and  consists  of  a 
i^arine  sand,  rather  loosely  aggregated. 

It  occurs  in  some  cliffs  on  the  co^t  of  Ran^nad  and  stretches  across 
t^Q  straitGi  to  Ceylon,  as  a  fo^  interrupted  ridge,  partially  covered  at 
higfi-water  mark,  and  known  \}j  the  name  of  Adam  s  Bridge. 

Some  of  the  more  solid  portions  of  this  ridge,  or  reef,  still  remai|i 
in  an  insulated  position,  considerably  elevated  above  the  water  s  edge : 
ioj  instance,  the  two  )iills  on  the  island  of  Ramisseram,*  and  the  island 
of  Manar.  The  intervening  portions,  and  the  direction  of  the  ipidgej 
are  marked  by  a  chain  of  sand  banks;  based,  there  is  reason  to  believe, 
on  the  same  sandstone  which  is  found  below  the  water  level  in  the 
Panmbam  passage. 

This  singular  barrier  of  rocks,  through  which  Government  has  suc- 
ceeded in  blasting  a  narrow  passage,  and  partially  opening  the  navi- 

1  Malcolmson,  Sfftdraa  Journal  of  Litentoro  and  Science,  Jnly  1836^ 
p.  816. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


244  SUMMARY   OP  THE   GEOLOGY 

gation  of  the  Manar  Straits  to  steamers  and  other  vessels  of  small 
draught,  formed  once  the  bed  of  the  sea;  and  was  subsequently  ele- 
vated to  its  present  position,  probably  at  the  same  period  with  the 
laterite. 

The  strata  are  perfectly  horizontal,  and  rest  on  a  bed  of  gravel  in 
some  places  consolidated  into  a  conglomerate'.  Similar  strata  form 
the  geological  structure  of  the  southern  portion  of  Ramnad  and  Tinni- 
velly. 

Near  Cape  Comorin  similar  beds  of  marine  sandstone  are  said  to 
occur.  Dr.  Davy*  notices  identical  beds  of  sandstone  on  the  opposite 
coast  of  Ceylon,  which  he  describes  aa  being  composed  of  siliceous 
sand,  and  minute  fragments  of  shells:  he  considers  it  recent,  and  the 
process  of  consolidation  still  going  on.  It  has,  he  observes,  formed  in 
many  places  below  high-water  mark. 

Captain  Jenkins,  of  the  Quarter-Master-General's  department, 
informs  me  that  the  natives  have  a  tradition,  that  the  low  country  of 
Ramnad,  as  far  as  Madura,  was  once  covered  by  the  sea. 


PART  VIL 


Older  Alluvium;  Changes  in  Level  of  the  Land  and  Rock 

Basins. 

The  rarity  of  beds  and  scattered  boulders  of  true  drift  in  Southern 
India^  may  be  considered  to  add  to  the  evidence  already  accumulated 
in  favour  of  the  theory,  that  icebergs  floating  in  the  ocean  have  been 
mainly  instrumental  in  the  transport  of  the  vast  masses  of  rock  and 
detritus,  principally  granitic,  which  cover  tracts  of  land  in  the  higher 
latitudes  of  Europe  and  North  America;  indicated  chiefly  by  their 
prevalence  in  northern  regions,  and  rarity  in  those  bordering,  and 
within  the  tropics,  and  their  recurrence  in  high  southern  latitudes;  for 
instance,  in  Chili  and  Patagonia,  where  they  appear  with  precisely 
the  same  unstratified  aspect,  the  same  mixture  of  vast  rolled  and 
angular  blocks  transported  to  great  distances,  over  chains  of  hills, 
rivers,  &c.,  from  their  original  sUtis. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  usual  course  taken  by  icebergs  from  the 
confines  of  the  polar  circles  of  eternal  congelation  is  towards  the  tem- 

^  Madras  Almanac,  1841,  p.  47;  Account  of  Ramiaseram^  by  Amtt^Satgoon 
J.  Eellie. 

*  Trans.  Geol  Soe.,  VoL  V.,  Fart  II.,  p.  326. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OP   SOUtHERN   INDIA4  246 

pemt6  liititiidei^.  These  ideWgn^  as  we  know  from  the  Writings  of 
Scoresby^  and  other  nftrigators^  hare  been  seen  drifting  from  the 
arctic  regions  freighted  with  beds  of  rock  and  earthy  the  weight  of 
which  was  conjectured  to  be  from  50,000  to  100,000  tons.  These  icy 
vehicles,  long  before  arriving  at  equatorial  regions,  melt  and  shower 
down  their  rocky  burthen  on  th6  bed  of  the  ocean,  or,  stranding  on 
some  coast,  gradually  dissolve  and  deposit  the  blocks  and  sand  in  one 
confused  heap. 

Brogniart,  apparently  on  the  authority  of  M.  de  Luc,  has  given 
his  opinion,  that  the  blocks  of  granite  around  Hydrabad  are  real  boul- 
ders; but  after  a  careful  examination,  I  feel  convinced  that  these 
masses  are  m  sUH^  and  resting  on  a  granite  and  its  detritus  perfectly 
identical  with  that  of  which  they  are  composed.  They  owe  their 
globular  shape,  their  scattered  and  isolated  position,  to  such  a  pro- 
cess of  weathering  and  spontaneous  concentric  exfoliation  as  I  have 
attempted  to  describe  in  a  previous  and  separate  paper,  on  the  subject 
of  the  Oranites  of  India  and  Egypt. 

As  the  tettns  "drift,"  "boulder  formation/'  afad  "dUtirium,"  have 
been  latterly  almost  exclusively  applied  to  the  detritus  supposed  to 
have  been  deposited  by  the  thawing  of  glaeiers  or  loebefgs,  I  have 
thought  it  requisite,  to  avoid  any  mistake  as  to  their  origin,  to  apply 
the  designation  of  alluvium,  in  its  extended  se&sei  to  cel*tain  beds  of 
gravel  and  sand  that  are  occasionally  found  covered  by  the  regur 
deposit,  and  which  occur  in  such  situations  as  not  to  be  accountable  fot 
by  the  agency  of  existing  transporting  poWdfs;  simply  prefixing  the 
term  "older^  to  distinguish  it  from  the  alluvium  now  forming  from  the 
disintegration  of  rocks  washed  down  by  the  fhm  and  springs^  and 
transported  by  rivers  and  local  inundations. 

The  beds  of  older  alluvium  have  been  little  attended  16  by  Indian 
geologists;  and  few  have  therefore  been  described.  Future  inves- 
tigation, I  have  little  doubt,  will  disclose  to  us  many  more  deposits 
than  those  now  about  to  be  pointed  out* 

Diamond  Gravbl  of  Cubdapab. 

At  Condapetta,  in  the  Guddapah  diamond  district^  underlying  a 
bed  of  regur  in  some  places  twenty  feet  thick^  is  found  a  gravel  bed, 
which  I  found  to  cover  an  area  of  several  miles^  from  two  to  six  feet 
thick,  resting  upon  the  diamond  limestone.  I  saw  no  pebbles,  (with 
the  exception  of  a  few  nodules  of  hunker  which  may  have  been  re- 
cently formed  in  it,)  of  more  recent  origin  than  the  diamond  sandstone 

^  Voyage,  1828»  p.  388. 

TOL.  VIII.  S    ^  1 

Digitized  by  LjOOQIC 


246  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGIT 

and  limestone.  It  was  principally  composed  of  rounded  firagments  of 
trap,  granite,  and  the  hypogene  schists,  which  must  haye  been  trans- 
ported from  the  distance  of  twenty  or  forty  miles,  intermingled  with 
pebbles  of  quartz,  jasper,  and  chert,  and  others  from  the  adjacent 
sandstone  and  limestone.  In  this  gravel,  intermixed  with  knnker 
and  iron  ore  (the  oxide),  the  diamond  is  found  as  a  transported  crystal 
or  pebble,  often  fractured,  and  with  slightly  worn  edges.  The  diamond 
grarel  near  Parteal^  consists  of  a  bed  two  feet  thick,  composed  of 
pebbles  of  sandstone,  homstone,  quartz,  jasper,  and  flint,  with  frag- 
ments of  occasional  rocks,  epidote,  and  abundant  ferruginous  sand, 
lying  under  a  layer  of  tufaceous  carbonate  [of  lime  (kunker)  cementing 
similar  gravel,  but  in  which  the  diamond  never  occurs.  Both  deposits 
are  covered  to  the  depth  of  fifteen  feet  by  the  recent  alluvium  of 
Ellora>  which  overspreads  the  space  between  the  deltas  of  the  Kistna 
and  the  Godavery. 

Wakoory  Bone  DeposU, — In  the  Nizam's  territories '^  at  Wakoory, 
about  twenty-two  miles  south-east  from  the  cantonment  of  Hingoli,  is 
a  bed  of  gravel,  cemented  by  kunker,  which  appears  to  underlie  the 
whole  valley  of  the  Baingunga;  and  there  is  reason  to  suppose  that 
the  same  stratum  underlies  the  alluvial  black  soil  of  the  valleys  in 
the  vicinity  of  Hingoli.  In  1837  the  river  at  Wakoory  rose  to  an 
unprecedented  height;  the  stream  left  its  own  bed;  and,  in  falling 
into  the  Baingunga  river,  about  a  mile  from  Wakooiy,  washed  away 
much  of  the  black  soil  from  the  right  bank,  thus  exposing  the  sub- 
stratum of  gravel  cemented  by  kunker.  A  considerable  portion  of  the 
latter  was  also  cut  away,  by  the  force  of  the  water  in  its  fall  of  about 
forty  feet  into  the  Baingunga. 

During  the  process,  the  tusks  and  bones  of  a  large  animal  were 
washed  bare,  at  a  depth  of  from  forty  to  fifty  feet,  imbedded  in  the 
gravel.  The  village  cow-herds,  it  is  said,  broke  the  bones,  and  other- 
wise destroyed  the  skeleton,  before  it  was  known  at  Hingoli  that  such 
discovery  had  taken  place.  Steps,  however,  were  taken  to  prevent 
further  destruction,  and  all  that  appeared  were  secured;  viz.,  three 
pieces  of  the  tusks  (there  were  two  tusks  distinct,  in  situ,  in  the  gravel 
forty  feet  below  the  surface,)  and  one  long  fragment  of  bone ;  all  the 
other  large  bones  had  disappeared.  A  mass  about  five  feet  long  and 
two  feet  broad  of  jumbled  bones  and  gravel,  remained. 

Part  of  the  tusk,  half  fossilized  by  carbonate  of  lime,  I  took  to 
England  in  1841,  and  showed  it  to  Professor  Owen,  who  immediately 
pronounced  it  to  be  fossil  ivory;  probably  a  Mastodon's  tusk. 

'  Captain  Macphereon,  Asiatic  Researches,  Vol.  XVIIL,  pp.  llfl  and  110. 
«  Madras  Joomal  of  Literature  aud  Science,  for  April,  183H,  p.  477. 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  247 

The  large  collections  of  fossil  bones  from  the  basin  of  the  Jumna', 
were  found  under  the  kunker  clays  of  the  Dooab,  150  feet  below  the 
snrfaoe,  but  the  sand  and  gravel  of  the  Sewalik  and  Nerbudda  bone 
beds  were  cemented,  like  the  grayel  bed  of  Wakoory,  by  calcareous 
infiltration. 

Daring  the  boring  experiment  at  Calcutta  in  1887,  a  fossil  bone, 
— 4he  fractured  lower  half  of  a  humerus  of  some  small  animal  of  the 
canine  species, — ^was  brought  up  by  the  auger  from  a  depth  of  350  feet 
below  the  surface  of  Calcutta,  in  a  bed  of  quartzose  and  micaceous 
sand,  about  250  feet  below  the  eztensiye  alluvial  deposits  of  the  yellow 
kunkeiy  clay,  which  entirely  cover,  or  rather  form,  the  Gangetic 
Plain.  The  sand  bed  was  underlain  by  a  bed  of  black  peat  clay,  im- 
bedding black  carbonized  wood,  between  peat  and  lignite,  and  per- 
fectly carbonized  wood,  resembling  the  Assam  coal,  in  rolled  lumps. 
The  last  were  found  at  the  depth  of  392  feet.  Two  fragments  of 
fossil  Testudo,  and  a  rolled  fragment  of  vesicular  basalt,  were  brought 
up  from  the  great  depth  of  450  feet. 

Western  Coast  DepovUe, — Professor  Orlebar  informs  me  that  under- 
lying the  regur,  at  Baroche,  on  the  western  coast,  are  beds  of  a  yel- 
lowish-brown micaceous  sand  imbedding  nodules  of  kunker,  extending 
so  far  inland  as  Ahmednugger  and  Deera.  They  rest  on  trap,  gra- 
nite, and  a  sandstone  resembling  that  of  Badami.  No  organic  exuviss 
were  found  in  these  deposits. 

Deposits  in  the  Valleys  of  the  Bima,  KistnOy  Tumbuddra,  d:c. — 
In  the  valleys  of  the  Bima^  the  Kistna,  and  the  Tumbuddra>  and  other 
laige  rivers,  are  occasionally  seen  beds  of  alluvial  gravel  elevated 
beyond  the  highest  existing  inundation  lines.  Some  of  these  deposits 
may  be  ascribable  to  shifts  from  time  to  time  in  the  course  of  the 
river's  bed ;  a  few  to  the  action  of  rain  in  bringing  down  aJluvium 
from  the  mountain  sides  ;.^but  the  majority  appears  to  have  been  accu- 
mulated under  conditions  not  now  in  existence ;  probably,  during  the 
slow  upheaval  of  the  Western  Ghauts  and  plateau  of  the  Deccan, 
when  the  water  occupied  a  much  greater  extent  than  at  present.  In 
many  places  the  rivers  have  cut  their  way  through  these  deposits;  in 
others,  channels  exist  of  rivers,  where  now,  as  in  the  Bahr  Ula  maieh, 
in  Egypt,  no  water  flows,  or  but  a  diminutive  streamlet. 

Captain  AUardyce,  a  most  intelligent  and  accurate  observer,  in- 
forms me  that  the  Moyar  valley,  which  runs  along  the  table  land  of 
Mysore  by  the  base  of  the  Nilgherries,  diflers  entirely  from  a  common 
mountain  glen.  Though  a  mile  or  more  in  breadth  at  some  points, 
yet,  it  is  rather  a  ravine,  or  fosse,  cut  in  the  plain  and  not  hemmed  in 

1  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  for  April,  1838,  pp.  475  and  476. 


248  SUMMARY    OF  THE   GlSOLOGY 

by  mountains.  It  opens  out  into  the  loirdr  plain  of  the  CaiH&ttc,  at 
the  Gujulhutty  Pass:  the  sides  B/te  precipitous,  and  its  bed  veiy  touch 
like  the  deserted  channel  of  a  rivei'.  The  only  stream  now  flowing  in 
it  is  the  Moyar;  which,  eren  in  the  monsoon,  does  not  fill  one  hun- 
dredth part  of  its  breadth  and  heighth :  yet,  this  singular  ezcaration^ 
extending  some  thirty  miles  in  length,  ial  Unquestionably  a  waterworn 
channel.  It  is  no  fissure ;  for  its  bed  is  quite  solid  and  connected^  and 
composed  of  strata  of  the  hypogene  rooks. 

Gravel  on  mtnmit  of  Nilgherries.-^On  the  summit  of  the  l^ilghe^- 
ties,  at  an  elevation  of  above  6000  feet  from  the  sea's  level.  Captain 
Allardyce  informs  me  that  he  observed  traces  of  a  dilurial  current. 
He  states  that  the  gravel  and  loam  there  aJre  arranged  in  such  a  manner 
an  could  only  take  place  by  deposit  from  water;  the  gravel  being 
lowest,  in  a  thin,  distinct,  and  separate  stratum,  with  the  lighter  loam 
covering  it  to  the  thickness  of  several  feet.  Benza  mentions'  having 
picked  up  at  the  baae  of  these  mountains,  near  MotipolliUm,  a  frag^ 
ment  of  black  mountain  limestone,  a  rock  which  is  not  to  be  found  in 
HtH  within  hundreds  of  miles.  The  brooks,  even  on  the  summits  of 
the  Koondahs,  are  seen  threading  their  way  through  beds  of  alluvium 
which  they  could  not  hare  deposited  under  existing  conditions. 

NeUore,  Pondicherry,  and  Madras  Marine  ilWtiwttm.— Pondi- 
cherry  stands  upon  an  alluvium  resting  on  beds  of  dark  blue,  or  grey 
marine  clay,  which  extend  inland  nearly  to  the  base  of  the  Red  Hilld. 
The  following  is  a  section  afforded  by  ft  recently  sunk  well  in  the  town. 


A  Is  a  layer  of  a  reddish  brown  sandy  soil  two  feet  thick, 
n  A  bed  five  feet  thick  of  a  blackish  day  mingled  with  a  small  quantity  of 
grit,  and  containing  existing  marine  shells. 

o  Bed  of  black  day  almost  pure,  also  five  feet  thick. 
D  Beds  of  reddish  qnartzose  sand,  about  ten  feet  thick. 

'  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Scienee^  Vol.  IV.>  p.  27*  • 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Sections  of  Two  Eaf)erim£ntcd  Borings  oftheEartfi  al  ^  Lwid 

Custamjlousej  MadniS.  Ex^ujUdfy  Order  of  Government  uv  OctVScNovK  2&SZ 


Second  Boring. 


6*^  SlnUutn. 


J 
14 //^^i^ 


-  7, 

S^Stratuni 


I 

a'^StmlMrn 
2/t.  6\'n. 

Sfeel. 


\l\h^k  ClcLy&'Sand. 
River  Sand 


\ 


V 


Bhrcfi  Clay 


i 


Si^mJ  Midd£.  (jUuy 
mix^wiiA 
Scu'ii-ScLutvA. 


^Li^UBltuaay 
€Uui/  SaJ7ft. 


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f/iSu 


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\  wiBt  white9r 

\  red-Vcou*. 


XOxLyScGTweL 
\mJu 


,  nujMci  witft  piece* 
\  of  broken  OnmUx.. 


Gnuutc. 


3it  Om. 


r 


4  ^  Stnil 


^ft  Oin, 


20fefir 


6^^  SfTTlUUtt 


I2t(  ////I. 


/'- 


St^ 


vSl^Oay. 


T 


Ri^'erStutd^ 


A_ 


\  Bitot  Clay  mijced 

^  wM  S€tfut  irJjime. 

\  ci mi  pieces  </' 

\    Iron  Slt^ns^. 


OrtoujbOj, 


D*  edbyGoOQl^ 

Granitr . 


OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  249 

Near  Cottapuram  and  Kistnaporam  south  of  Nellore  I  found 
similar  beds  of  marine  clay  underlying  the  alluvial  sand.  The  water 
percolates  through  the  loose  texture  of  the  arenaceous  stratum  and 
collects  in  hollows  in  this  impervious  clay  bed  below,  forming  the 
reservoirs  down  to  which  the  generality  of  the  wells  are  sunk.  As 
might  be  expected,  the  water  is^  in  general,  slightly  brackish. 

I  have  obserred  in  other  localities  on  the  Coromandel  coast  beds 
of  this  dark  clay,  at  depths  of  from  twelve  to  twenty  feet  below  the 
present  sands  an4  alluyium,  imbedding  existing  iparine  shells,  and 
extending  inland,  sometimes  two  or  three  miles.  On  the  alluyium 
covering  them,  stand  Hindu  villages,  pagodas,  and  ruins  of  high  anti- 
quity. Over  one  of  these  marine  beds  the  greater  part  of  the  Euro- 
peaji  portion  of  the  city  of  Madnis  is  situated,  separated  by  a  bed  of 
sand,  cby>  and  soil,  lirom  five  to  fifteen  feet  thick.  South  of  Madras, 
beyond  the  Adyar  river,  this  dark-coloured  clay  abounds  so  much  in 
large  and  thick  beds  of  marine  shells,  that  it  is  covered  with  exca- 
vations made  by  the  ohunam-getters  of  Madras,  who  use  the  shells  to 
bum  into  that  beautiful  marble-like  lime,  so  great  an  ornament  to 
the  churches  and  other  buildings  at  Madras.  These  shells  are  pre- 
ferred to  those  at  present  thrown  on  the  sea  l^e^eh,  as  freer  from 
saline  impregnation  which  makes  the  chunam  liable  to  crack  in 
drying. 

The  saline  matter  has  evidently  been  carried  off  for  the  most  part 
by  the  fresh-water  springs  or  rivulets  of  the  marshy  grounds  under 
which  the  deposit  lies,  and  which  was  probably  a  small  estuary  or 
inland  lake;  the  surface,  even  now,  is  so  low  as  to  be  mostly  under 
water  during  the  monsoon.  Small  rolled  fragments  of  carbonised 
wood  between  peat  and  lignite,  occur  in  it. 

The  lithographed  drawing  exhibits  two  sections  of  the  beds  on 
which  the  city  of  Madras  stands,  down  to  the  granite  which  is  found 
in  the  deepest,  No.  2,  at  the  depth  of  fifty-five  feet,-T.«fforded  by 
borings  near  the  land  Custom-house,  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
inland  from  the  sea.  Intervening  between  the  black  clay  and  the 
granite,  will  be  found  first  a  bed  of  blue  clay  mingled  with  sand, 
lime,  and  pieces  of  "  ironstone-'  (lateritet)j  and  resting  immediately  on 
the  granite,  a  bed  of  clay  and  gravel  mixed  with  broken  granite, 
quartz,  &c.  It  does  not  seem  at  all  improbable  that  the  dark  clay  is 
identical  with  the  regur.  No  organic  remains,  except  marine  shells, 
have  hitherto  been  discovered  in  it. 

These  marine  deposits  were  elevated  evidently  during  the  Post- 
Pliocene  period,  by  forces  which  it  would  appear  are  not  at  rest ;  and 
perhaps,  like  those  affecting  some  tracts  along  the  shores  of  the  Baltic, 

.,.„_..„,  ,^ lie 


250  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

cause  an  undulating  movement^  raising  some  parts^  and  depressing 
others,  while  some  rest  stationary. 

Of  the  elevatory  movement  on  the  Coromandel  coast  there  can  be 
little  doubt,  from  the  decisiye  evidence  of  the  raised  inland  marine 
beds;  and  it  is  stated  that  Masulipatam^  once  close  to  the  sea,  is  now 
nearly  a  mile  inland.  The  Pnranajs  ajssert  that  the  whole  of  this  coast 
has  been  raised  from  the  bed  of  the  sea.  With  regard  to  the  last  fact, 
and  to  the  sinking  of  the  coast  in  certain  places,  it  must  be  borne  in 
mind  that  alterations  in  the  configuration  of  a  coast,  caused  by 
storms,  unusually  strong  swells,  and  partial  elevations  of  the  sea's  bed, 
will  affect  other  portions  of  the  same  coast  to  which  the  current  may 
be  deflected. 

We  have  now  arrived  at  the  traditional  and  historical  period,  and  I 
shall  proceed  to  state  a  few  of  the  cases  where  what  was  formerly  said 
to  be  land  is  now  covered  by  the  ocean. 

MaJuxbalipur, — It  is  stated  in  Brahmanical  writings  that  the  an- 
cient city  of  MahabaJipnr,  (now  termed  the  Seven  Pagodas,)  about 
forty  miles  south  of  Madras,  was  anciently  overwhelmed  by  the  sea^ 
which  now  rolls  over  the  greater  portion  of  the  submerged  ruins.  It 
is  supposed  by  some  to  have  been  the  Palibothra  of  Ptolemy,  a  place 
of  considerable  commerce.  I  was  informed  by  Lord  Elphinstone  and 
Mr.  W.  Elliot,  that  whenever  a  storm  took  place  from  the  seaward, 
Roman,  and  occasionally  Chinese  coins  were  cajBt  upon  the  beach. 
One  of  the  former,  according  to  Mr.  Norton,  is  of  the  reign  of  Valen- 
tinianus.  General  Fraser  informs  me  that  south  of  these  ruins,  at 
Ariacoopang  and  Cuddalore,  pieces  of  brick,  tiles,  and  pottery  are 
taken  up  from  the  bed  of  the  sea  at  considerable  distances  from  shore, 
beyond  the  recoil  of  the  tidal  wave.  Still  further  south,  near  the  em- 
bouchure of  the  Cauvery,  the  Brahmans  point  out  the  submerged  site 
of  another  ancient  city.  At  Madras,  from  all  I  can  collect  from  the 
oldest  inhabitants  and  survey,  the  sea  has  certainly  encroached  latterly 
on  the  ground  it  formerly  occupied:  while  St.  Thome,  an  ancient 
Portuguese  settlement,  a  little  south  of  Madras,  is  traditionally  said 
to  have  stood  twelve  leagues  inland  ^ 

AdarrCs  Brid^e.^The  celebrated  ridge  of  rock  called  Adam's 
bridge,  which  the  Brahmans  (confirmed  by  the  records  of  the  Pagoda 
at  Ramisseram)  assert,  formerly  connected  Ceylon  with  the  peninsula 
of  India,  and  believe  to  have  been  miraculously  constructed  by  Rama, 
is  now  submerged  at  high  water,  having  been  broken  through  by  a 
storm  in  the  fifteenth  century.     The  rock  of  which  this  ridge  is  com- 

'  Souaa's  Portuguese  Asia,  Tom.  I.,  p.  2701 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  251 

posed  is  of  a  loose  sandstone^  imbedding  fragments^  apparently  of 
existing  marine  shells,  and  formed  at  no  distant  period  part  of  tlie  bed 
of  the  sea.  It  is  connected  with  beds  of  a  similar  rock  on  the  con- 
tinent, and  on  Ceylon.  The  natiyes  believe  that  the  whole  of  the 
adjacent  low  country  of  Ranmad  has  risen  from  the  ocean,  to  the 
extent  of  seyenty  miles  inland. 

Malabar  Coast, — Indications  exist  of  the  sea  haying  covered  cer- 
tain parts  of  the  Malabar  coast  to  a  considerable  distance  inland. 
The  present  town  of  Barcoor,  north  of  Mangalore,  supposed  by  Rennell 
and  Robertson  to  have  been  the  Barace  of  ancient  geographers,  and 
which  now  stands  two  or  three  miles  from  the  sea,  is  said  to  have  for- 
merly stood  on  the  shore,  and  its  port  to  have  been  frequented  by 
large  ships  from  various  regions  ^  Some  of  the  cliffs  running  paraUel 
with  the  present  coast,  at  some  distance  inland,  have  every  appearance 
of  having  been  formerly  washed  by  the  sea;  and  the  Brahmans 
assert,  that  the  whole  of  the  Malabar  coast  was  raised  from  the  ocean 
for  their  special  use. 

Frequent  mention  of  earthquakes*  may  be  found  in  the  history  of 
the  Malabar  coast,  which  extends  from  Cannanore  to  Cochin,  about 
forty-two  leagues.  In  1784  a  strong  concussion  was  felt.  '^The 
most  remarkable  changes  are  to  be  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Cochin. 
On  its  north  side  we  find  the  island  Vaypi,  which  was  thrown  up  by 
the  sea  about  the  the  year  1341.  The  soil  upon  this  new  formation 
resembles  that  of  the  flat  districts  of  Malabar,  which  consists  of  sea- 
sand  and  calcareous  matter  combined  with  clay,  said  to  be  washed 
down  from  the  Ghauts. 

''The  production  of  this  island  had  so  strong  an  effect  on  the 
minds  of  the  Hindus,  that  they  marked  the  geological  phenomenon  by 
commencing  from  it  the  new  era,  termed  Puduvepa  (new  introduc- 
tion). Contemporaneous  with  the  appearance  of  the  island  of  Vaypi, 
the  waters,  which  during  the  rainy  season  are  discharged  from  the 
Ghauts,  broke  through  the  banks  of  the  river  Cochin,  and  overwhelmed 
a  village  of  the  same  name,  with  such  impetuosity  as  to  sweep  it  away, 

1  We  learn  firom  Pliny  and  Arrian,  that  Barace  was  the  principal  emporiom 
of  Indian  trade.  It  was  frequented  by  the  ships  of  the  Alexandrine  merchants, 
which  sailed  from  the  port  of  Berenice  in  the  Red  Sea,  during  the  south«west  mon- 
soon, to  Mnziris  or  Mangalore;  but  in  consequence  of  that  place  being  infested 
^  pirates,  they  preferred  staying  at  Barace  till  the  beginning  of  December  or 
January,  when  they  returned  to  the  Red  Sea. 

*  Bartolomeo,  quoted  by  Dr.  R.  Thomson.  Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and 
Science  for  January,  1837,  pp.  176, 177.   : 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


252  SUMMARY   OP  THB   GEOLOGY 

and  fomifid  in  tbat  distriot  a  Hv^ry  i^  lake,  and  a  harbour  bq  spacious, 
that  very  large  ships  can  now  lie  in  sequrity  on  the  north-^east  side  of 
Cochin,  vhere  the  riyer  runs  into  the  sea.** 

SUBMEROEMENT  OP  THB  OlD   CITT  OP  CaLICUT. 

In  some  places,  as  on  the  Coromandel  eoast|  tracts  formerly  inha- 
bited have  disappeared  under  the  sea,  The  bank  on  which  stood  the 
old  city  of  CaJiont  (the  landing-plaqe  of  Albuqnerqae,)  a  little  to  the 
south  of  the  present  site,  is  now  buried  under  the  sea;  but  it  does  not 
appear  at  all  clear  whether  in  this,  or  other  cases  of  submergement,  the 
cause  waa  a  sinking  of  the  land,  or  a  change  in  the  configuration  of 
the  coast  by  a  sudden  rise  of  the  sea.  It  is  said  that  the  remains  of 
an  old  factory  are  to  be  seen  in  the  siirf  off  Purkaad  and  those  of 
Pagodas  in  the  surf  at  Tricanapully  on  the  coast  of  Travanoore, 
The  subject  is  one  of  much  interest*,  and  requires  patient  and  careful 
inyestigation.  What  has  been  stated  above  is  more  with  the  view 
of  eliciting  inquiry  than  affording  solid  material  for  a  theory.  Marks 
on  clifis  washed  by  the  sea,  and  registers  of  the  height  to  which 
it  rises,  as  adopted  on  the  shores  of  the  Baltic,  would  be  of  great 
use, 

Bhocks  of  earthquakes  are  not  unfrequent  in  the  maritime  districts 
of  Nellore  and  Guntoor;  and  I  lately  felt  one  very  distinctly,  attended 
with  a  noise  resembling  the  subterranean  rumbling  of  a  train  of  heayy 
carriages  along  the  gallery  of  a  mine,  on  the  table  land  of  Kurnool. 
No  volcanoes,  either  in  an  active  or  a  dormant  state,  are  known  to 
exist  in  Southern  India,  though  one  occurs  in  the  Andaman  Islands  in 
the  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Regur,  or  Black  Cotton  Clay. 

Geographic  Position,  r— This  singular  deposit  covers,  in  sheets  of 
considerable  thickness,  at  least  one-third  of  Southern  India,  It  occu- 
pies principally  the  elevated  table  lands  of  the  Ceded  Districts,  the 
Hydrabad,  Nagpore,  an4  Southern  Mahratta  countries;  including 
thereby  the  whole  of  the  plateau  of  the  Deccan.  It  is  less  common  in 
Mysore,  but  is  again  seen  in  continuous  sheets  from  six  to  twenty  feet 
thick  below  the  Salem  track,  covering  the  lower  plains  of  Coimbatore, 
Madura,  Salem,  Trichinopoly,  Tanjore,  Ramnad,  and  Tinnevelly,  to 
the  vicinity  of  Gape  Comorin. 

It  is  rarely  seen  on  the  maritime  plains  of  the  Carnatic,  and  I  have 


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OP   SOUTHERN    INDIA,  253 

never  obserred  it  below  the  eeoarpment  of  the  Western  Ghante  on  the 
coasts  of  Malabar^  Canara,  or  TraTancore, 

Fhysical  Aspect,' — The  plains  occupied  by  the  cotton  soil  are  in 
general  marked  by  their  horizontal  sea-like  snrfaoe  and  almost  treeless 
aspect.  The  vegetation  which  almost  characterises  it  is  the  shrub 
Jatraphvs  glandtUifera,  and  the  ntUk  grass.  It  is  often  corered  with 
bushes  of  the  thorny  acacias,  cassia  auriculata»  a«elepias  gigantea, 
butea  frondosa^  &e. 

GeognostiG  P(mt{(m. — It  covers  the  kunker  and  gravel  beds  just 
described,  and  is  generally  seen  as  a  surface  soil ;  but  if  we  examine 
the  edges  of  great  sheets  they  will  generally  be  found  to  dip  for  some 
distance  under  the  recent  alluvium,  which  conceals  and  replaces  them 
as  a  surface  soil.  It  not  only  covers  extensive  plains,  but  the  tubular 
summits  of  hills  overlooking  those  of  the  diamond  sandstone  and  lime- 
stone, newer  trap  and  laterite  formations,  far  above  the  present  drain- 
age level  of  the  country :  it  covers  all  rocks  from  the  granite  to  the 
laterite  and  kunker;  and  often  fills  up  depressions  and  chinks  in  their 
surface,  as  seen  in  the  accompanying  section.  Soundings  on  a  bluish- 
black  clay  are  obtained  in  various  situations  off  the  Coromandel  coast, 
which  closely  resembles  the  r6gur,  as  also  the  blue  olay  imbeddiDg  the 
marine  shells  below  the  cities  of  Madras  and  Pondicherry.  Part  of 
this  deposit,  it  is  not  improbable  to  suppose,  may  have  been  derived 
^m  the  denudation  of  the  r6gnr  that  once  covered  the  maritime  tracts 
of  the  Coromandel  coast. 


AAA  Becent  detritus  and  aUaTiAl  soil. 
9  B  B  B  Eegur. 
c  Kunker. 
D  D  D  Laterite. 


Campositton,  ^c, — The  purest  regur  is  usually  of  a  deep  bluish- 
black  colour,  or  greenish,  or  dark  greyish  black,  fraqture  varjnng  from 
shining  to  earthy,  streak  brownish,  or  greenish  black,  shining;  when 
placed  in  water  it  crumbles  slowly  with  emission  of  air  bubbles,  and 
forms  a  tenacious  paste;  when  moistened  it  gives  out  an  argillaceous 
odour.  Before  the  blowpipe,  per  se^  it  melts  into  a  greenish  glass,  or 
dark  slag.  Mr.  Reid  fused  some  of  it  in  a  large  covered  crucible 
placed  in  a  furnace  into  a  solid  mass,  on  the  surface  of  which  a  crust 

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254  SUMMARY   OF   THE   GEOLOGY 


of  oxide  of  iron  formed.     A  chemical  analysis  made 
Dr.  Macleod  afforded  the  following  result. 

by 

my 

friend 

SUex 

Alumina 

Carbonate  of  lime 
Carbonate  of  magnesia     • 
Oxide  of  iron       .... 
Water  and  extractive      • 

48 
20 
16 
10 

1 

4 

2 
3 
0 
2 
0 
3 

100  0 
The  quantity  of  iron  it  appears  by  this  analysis  is  not  sufficient  to 
account  for  the  black  colour  of  this  soil,  which  may  be  partly  attri- 
buted, as  in  the  case  of  the  Cuddapah  limestone,  to  the  extractive  or 
vegetable  matter  it  contains.  The  regur  of  Trichinopoly,  I  am  in- 
formed by  Captain  AUardyce,  does  not  fuse,  and  contains  imbedded 
crystals  of  pure  mineral  carbon,  which  are  converted  before  the  blow- 
pipe into  a  white  ash.  There  is,  no  doubt,  nearly  as  great  a  diversity 
of  composition  in  the  regur  deposit,  as  we  find  in  other  equally  exten- 
sive aqueous  rocks. 

The  best  kinds  of  this  extraordinary  soil  are  rarely  suffered  to  lie 
fallow,  except  by  accident,  and  never  receive  numure,  which  is  even 
supposed  to  lessen  its  fertility.  It  has  yielded  annually,  crop  after 
crop  for  upwards  of  2000  years  (usually  in  triennial  rotation)  of 
cotton,  juari,  and  wheat,  or  bajri,  without  receiving  any  aid  from 
the  hand  of  man,  except  an  annual  scratching  with  a  small  plough, 
and  a  decennial,  or  still  more  seldom,  clearing  of  the  nuth  grass  by 
means  of  the  large  plough.  It  is  irrigated  solely  by  the  dews  and 
rains  of  heaven. 

The  chemical  composition  of  the  cotton  plant  it  produces,  somewhat 
assimilates  in  its  ingredients  that  of  the  soil,  as  Dr.  Macleod's  ana- 
lysis, subjoined,  shows.  In  addition  will  be  found  the  alkali  of  the 
vegetable,  and  the  muriate  of  soda>  which,  as  well  as  the  carbonate, 
are  frequent  accidental  ingredients  in  the  composition  of  the  regur. 
They  sterilize  it  when  present  in  large  quantities.  The  proportion  of 
silex  in  the  cotton  plant,  as  might  naturally  be  expected,  is  much  lees, 
and  the  alumina  is  altogether  wanting. 

Silex 7  0 

Alumina 0  0 

Carbonate  of  lime          •        •        •  45  6 

Carbonate  of  magnesia      .        .  •  26  0 

Charcoal,  oxide  of  iron,  and  loee    .  6  2 

Carbonate  of  potass  •        •        •  •  10  6 

Muriate  of  potass  and  soda     •       •  6  6 

100    0 


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OF    SOUTHERN    INDIA.  255 

The  regnr  is  remarkably  retentive  of  moisture;  a  property  to 
which  is  ascribable  mach  of  its  fertility,  since  it  has  been  ascertained 
by  the  experiments  of  Sir  Humphry  Davy  that  the  absorbent  power  of 
many  soils  with  respect  to  atmospheric  moisture  are  greatest  in  the 
most  fertile  soils.  He  dried*  1000  parts  of  a  celebrated  soil  from  Or- 
miston  in  East  Lothian,  by  a  heat  amonnting  to  212°  Fahrenheit, 
and  found  that  by  one  hour's  exposure  to  air  saturated  with  mois- 
ture at  a  temperature  of  62°  it  gained  18  grains.  Dr.  Christie 
thoroughly  dried  a  portion  of  r6gur  by  a  heat  nearly  sufficient  to 
char  paper.  He  then  exposed  to  the  atmosphere  of  a  moderately 
damp  apartment  26 15 '6  grains  of  it,  and  found  after  a  few  days  it  had 
gained  147*1  grains.  He  now  exposed  it  to  an  atmosphere  saturated 
with  moisture,  and  found  that  the  weight  increased  dtuly  till  the  end 
of  a  few  weeks,  when  it  was  found  to  be  2828*4  grains.  The  soil  had 
therefore  gained  212*8  grains,  or  about  8  percent 

During  the  dry  season,  when  the  crops  are  off  the  ground,  the  sur- 
face of  regur,  instead  of  presenting  a  sea  of  waving  verdure,  exhibits 
the  black  drear  aspect  that  the  valley  of  the  Nile  puts  on  under  similar 
circumstances,  and  which  powerfully  reminded  me  of  the  r6gur  tracts 
of  India.  Contracting  by  the  powerful  heat  of  the  sun,  it  is  divided, 
like  the  sur&ce  of  dried  starch,  by  countless  and  deep  fissures,  into 
figures  usually  affecting  the  pentagon,  hexagon,  and  rhomboid.  While 
the  surface  for  a  few  inches  in  depth  is  dried  to  an  impalpable  powder 
raised  in  clouds  by  the  wind,  and  darkening  the  air,  the  lower  portions 
of  the  deposit,  at  the  depth  of  eight  or  ten  feet,  still  retain  their 
character  of  a  hard  black  clay,  approaching  a  rock,  nsuaUy  moist 
and  cold;  when  the  surface  dust,  as  I  have  proved,  has  a  temperature 
of  130°.  In  wet  weather  the  surface  is  converted  into  a  deep  tenacious 
mud. 

Over  the  vast  and  fertile  table  lands  where  this  soil  prevails,  rice^ 
the  staple  article  of  food  on  the  maritime  and  low  tracts,  is  no  longer, 
or  but  seldom,  used  by  the  lower  classes,  and  cakes  of  wheaten  flour, 
or  of  that  of  the  juari  and  bajri  are  substituted. 

The  purest  beds  of  regar  contain  few  roUed  pebbles  of  any  kind; 
the  nodules  of  kunker  we  see  imbedded  have  probably  been  formed 
by  concretion  from  the  infiltration  of  water  charged  with  lime;  and  it 
is  only  near  the  surface  that  the  regur  becomes  intermingled  with  the 
recent  alluvium  of  the  surrounding  country,  or  in  its  lower  portions 
where  it  becomes  intermingled  with  the  debris  of  whatever  rock  it 
happens  to  rest  on,^trap  and  calcedonies  in  trappean  districts ;  granite, 

*  Madnw  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science,  for  October,  1836,  p.  472. 

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256  SUMMABY   OF   THE   GEOLOGY 

sandstone,  pisifonn  iron  ore,  and  limestone,  in  the  plutonio  and  dia- 
mond sandstone  areas.  It  sometimes  exhibits  marks  of  stratifioation: 
in  Gujarat,  Professor  Orlebar  informs  me,  the  regur  is  dbtinotly  stra- 
tified; and  a  writer  on  the  Geology  of  the  Hjdrabad  country,  in  the 
Madras  Literary  Transactions,  (Part  I,  p.  82)  obseryei,  that  the  cotton 
soil  there  varies  in  depth  from  a  few  feet  to  many  fethoms;  and  that 
it  is  generally  found  distinctly  arranged  in  strate^  which  are  some- 
times separated  by  thin  layers  of  sand  or  gravel.  These  strata,  he 
observes,  vary  in  thickness;  they  are  sometimes  horisontal^  in  other 
instances  waved,  or  more  or  less  inclined  to  the  horizon. 

Organic  Jtemains^^^'No  organic  remains  have  hitherto  beeu  dis* 
covered  in  the  regur,  except  a  few  fluviatile  exuvi^  on  the  banks  of 
rivers,  and  land  shells,  all  of  existing  species. 

Or^'n. -r-Drs,  Voysey  and  Christie,  chiefly  from  the  oironmntanco 
of  the  regur  fusing  into  a  dark  glass  and  slag  resembling  the  trap, 
and  its  dark  colour,  and  its  embedding  minerals  from  the  trap  for- 
mation, are  of  opinion  that  it  arose  from  the  weathering  of  trap  rocks. 

In  a  paper  read  before  the  Bengal  Society,  in  March,  1838,  I 
stated  my  reasons  for  venturing  to  question  the  accuraey  of  this 
theory.  They  are  briefly  these,-«-*that  the  trap  rooks  of  India  never 
weather  into  a  black  soil,  but  are  seen  every  where  to  diseutegrate 
into  a  red,  brown,  light  or  rust-coloured  earth  and  detritus,  as  the 
protoxide  of  iron  they  contain,  by  exposure  to  the  air,  beeomes  conr 
verted  into  the  peroxide,  like  a  piece  of  iron  which  first  blackens,  and 
then  rusts,  on  exposure. 

The  depth,  extent,  and  situation  of  the  sheets  of  regur,  often  far 
above  the  beds  of  existing  rivers,  and  out  of  the  reach  of  their  greatest 
inundations  capping  both  the  tabular  summits  of  hills,  and  the  plains 
at  their  base,  preclude  the  supposition  of  its  being  a  fluviatile  deposit 
as  thought  by  Voysey.  Besides,  I  found  that  the  deposit  of  the  large 
rivers  running  through  the  great  regur  tracts  of  the  Deccan,  viz.,  those 
of  the*Bima,  the  Kistna,  and  the  Tumbuddra,  differed  widely  from 
the  regur,  consiBting  principally  of  a  reddish-brown  silt,  mud  and  sand, 
containing  calcareous  matter,  partly  deposited  iu  it  by  calcareous 
springs,  and  partly  the  detritus  of  the  beds  of  limestone  and  kunker, 
over  which  the  course  of  the  river  occasionally  passes.  This  silt  and 
sand  deposit  sometimes  acquires  a  dark  hue  from  the  admixture  of  the 
regur  itself,  which  often  forms  the  banks  of  these  rivers,  and  which 
during  the  freshes  are  frequently  undermined,  and  washed  into  the 
stream. 

It  is  evident  from  the  regur's  resting  indiscriminately  on  plutonic, 
hypogene,  trappean,  and  aqueous  rocks  of  widely  dissimilar  chemical 

- '-— oie 


OP   SOtJtilERN    INDIA.  257 

odiiipoieiiiiott^  with  fiomd  of  irhioh  it  dxaoily  agr^s,  thAi  It  t^anllot  be 
the  result  of  the  weathering  of  thede  differetit  rooks,  in  aittl.  nor  ean 
its  present  elevated  sitnation  on  these  rocks  be  accounted  for  bj 
fluviatile,  or  other  transporting  powers  now  in  action.  Its  lying  under 
all  present  allutia  is  indicative  of  its  greater  relative  age. 

Its  mineral  composition,  colour,  the  horicontality  of  iti  sUHace, 
cracked  by  countless  fissures,  aasimilates  more  the  black  vegetable 
deposit  we  often  see  in  the  tanks  of  India,  or  the  dark  flat  mud  depo- 
sits of  the  Nile,  which,  like  the  eotton  soO,  I  found  to  melt  before  the 
blowpipe  into  a  greenish  glaas  or  enamel,  to  fall  to  pieces  in  water 
with  emission  of  air  bubbles,  forming  a  tenacious  clay,  and  to  contain 
a  considerable  quantity  of  calcareous  matter. 

The  oomponents  of  the  Nile  deposit  are  the  same  precisely  as  those 
of  the  tegur,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  subjoined  analysis  by  Regnault, 
but  the  proportiotis  are  different.  That  of  the  lime  is  nearly  the  same 
eame  in  both.  The  mud  of  the  Nile  would  appear  to  contain  much 
more  aluminous  and  less  siliceous  matter  than  the  legur^  but  the  pro<- 
portions  I  found  in  both  deposits  to  differ  in  different  localities. 

Mudo/theMte. 
Silex 4    0 

AlnmitiA     «  .  ,  .  ,  •48      0 

Cftrbonate  of  Lime  «  •  •  18  0 
Cubonafe  of  Magnesia  •  •  .40 
Oxide  of  Iron  •  •  •  •  6  0 
Water  «  *  •  «  •  •  II  0 
Carbon  (or  extraetiTe)  •••90 

100    0 

The  mud  of  the  Nile  is  supposed  to  obtain  most  of  its  vegetable  ot 
carbonaceous  nmtter  from  the  overflowing  of  the  great  marshy  lakes 
that  lie  stagnant  on  the  table  lands  of  Abyssinia  during  great  part  of 
the  year*  I  have  never  been  able  to  discover  organic  remains  in  it) 
nor  have  I  heard  of  such  being  found,  save  pebbles  from  the  subjacent 
shell  limestone^  and  a  few  existing  fluriatile  and  terrestrial  ezuvise. 

That  the  regur  of  India  is  an  aqueous  deposit  from  waters  that 
covered  its  surface  to  a  va«t  extent^  I  have  littie  doubt  i  but  it  would 
be  as  difficult  to  point  oUt  at  the  present  day  the  sources  whence  it 
derived  the  vegetable  matter,  to  which  in  great  measure  it  owes  its 
carbonaceous  colour,  and  the  rocks,  from  the  mins  of  which  its  re* 
maining  components  were  washed,  as  to  indicate  the  locality  of  the 
continent  from  the  vast  debris  of  which  the  Wealden  beds  were 
formed,  and  by  the  drainage  of  which  a  great  rirer  was  supplied. 

Shortly  previous  to  my  leaving  England  in  1842,  I  was  present  at 

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258  SUMMARY   OF   THE   GEOLOGY 

a  Meeting  of  the  Geological  Society,  at  which  a  specimen  of  the  black 
soil,  the  Ohemoi  zem,  that  covers  many  of  the  steppes  of  Rossia,  and 
brought  thence  by  Mr.  Marchison,  was  exhibited,  when  both  Mr. 
Lonsdale  and  myself  were  struck  with  the  external  resemblance  this 
deposit  bears  to  the  regur.  Its  geological  position  and  distribution 
also  appear  to  be  similar. 


KuNKER  Formation. 

It  is  probable  that  the  calcareous  deposit  termed  Kunker,  a  Hin- 
dustani word  (^SjS^9  l>ut  of  Sanskrit  extraction,  signifying  a  nodule 
of  limestone,  or  a  pebble  of  any  other  rock,  had  an  earlier  origin  than 
the  laterite  and  some  of  the  marine  alluvial  beds  just  described :  but 
since  it  has  not,  as  yet,  been  found  underlying  them  as  a  separate 
and  distinct  bed,  without  penetrating  into  their  substance,  it  will  be 
best  for  the  present  to  assign  it  a  place  between  them  and  the  regur — 
that  is,  its  earliest  deposits;  since  the  process  by  which  it  was  ori- 
ginally formed,  although  now  less  active,  perhaps,  than  in  former 
epochs,  has  not  altogether  ceased.  There  will  be  always  some  diffi- 
culty in  distinguishing  between  the  kubkerb  of  different  eras,  the  recent 
deposit  differing  little  from  the  ancient  in  chemical  composition,  but 
being  generally  of  a  whiter  colour,  softer,  and  of  a  more  cancellar 
structure. 

Geographical  Position  csnd  Extent, — The  kunker  formation  is  irre- 
gularly distributed  in  overlying  patches  over  perhaps  one-eighth  of 
our  area.  I  know  of  no  tract  entirely  free  from  it,  with  the  excep- 
tion, it  is  said,  of  the  summits  of  the  Nilgherries.  I  have  seen  it, 
however,  at  the  height  of  4000  feet  above  the  sea  among  the  ranges  on 
the  elevated  table  lands.  It  is  most  abundant  in  districts  penetrated 
and  shattered  by  basaltic  dykes,  and  where  metallic  development  is 
greatest :  for  instance,  in  the  copper  district  of  Nellore,  and  the  chrome 
and  iron  tracts  of  Salem.  It  is,  perhaps,  leajst  seen  in  localities  where 
laterite  caps  hypogene  or  plutonic  rocks. 

Oeognostic  PosUion. — It  occurs  filling,  or  partially  filling,  fissures 
and  chinks  in  the  subjacent  rocks,  in  nodular  masses  and  friable  con- 
cretions in  the  clays  and  gravels  above  the  rocks,  and  in  irregular 
overlying  beds,  varying  from  a  few  inches  to  forty  feet  in  thickness. 
It  has  been  found  at  the  depth  of  102  feet  below  the  surface  of  the 
surrounding  country,  prevails  alike  in  granite,  the  hypogene  schists, 
the  diamond  sandstone  and  limestone,  and  in  the  laterite:  hence,  the 
springs  which  deposit  it  must  bring  up  their  supply  of  calcareous 

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.      OP   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  259 

matter  from  souroes  deeper  beneath  the  earth's  crast  than  the  diamond 
limeBtone. 

Lxtkohgic  Character  and  Imbedded  Organic  Remains, — The  older 
knnker  is  usually  of  a  light  brownish^  dirty  cream,  reddish,  or  cineri- 
tious  grey  tint;  sometimes  compact  and  massive  in  structure,  but 
more  usually  either  of  a  nodular,  tufoceous,  pisiform,  botiyoidal,  or 
cauliflower-like  form.  Its  interior  is  sometimes  cancellar,  or  slightly 
yesicular;  but  compact  or  concentric  in  the  pisiform  and  nodular 
yarieties.  Its  interior  structure  is  rarely  radiated.  When  compact  it 
resembles  the  older  trayertines  of  Rome  and  Aurergne.  It  aggregates 
in  horizontal  overlying  masses,  usually  intermingled  with  the  soil 
without  much  appearance  of  stratification.  It  is  broken  up,  and 
used  as  a  rough  building  stone  in  the  bunds  of  tanks,  walls  of  in- 
closures,  &c.,  by  the  natives,  and  is  universally  employed  to  bum 
into  lime. 

A  specimen  of  kunker,  analysed  by  the  late  Mr.  J.  Prinsep, 
yielded, 

Water  of  alMorption  •  •  .14 
Carbonate  of  lime  •  '  •  .  72  0 
Carbonate  of  magnesia     •        •        .04 

SUex 15    2 

Alumina  and  oxide  of  iron       •        .    11    0 

100    0 

Some  varieties  contain  so  much  silex  as  to  give  fire  'with  steel : 
others  are  almost  entirely  composed  of  earthy  white  carbonate  of  lime, 
and  crumble  between  the  fingers. 

Organic  Remains, — No  organic  remains  have  hitherto  been  dis- 
covered in  the  ancient  kunker  of  Southern  India;  but  in  the  modem 
kunker  I  have  seen  pottery,  bones  of  recent  mammalia,  fragments  of 
wood,  existing  land  and  freshwater  shells,  PaludinsB,.  Helix,  Planorbis, 
and  Ampullaria^  imbedded. 

In  the  banks  of  rivers,  it  is  often  seen  concreting  in  stalactiform 
masses  round  the  stems  and  roots  of  grasses,  which,  decajring,  leave 
casts  of  carbonate  of  lime.  This  lime  held  in  solution  and  suspension 
by  existing  streams,  mingling  with  the  fine  particles  of  sand  and  fer- 
ruginous matter  in  suspension,  sets  under  water  like  pozzolana;  and, 
uniting  the  shells,  gravel,  sand,  and  pebbles  in  the  bed,  and  on  the 
banks,  forms  a  hard  and  compact  conglomerate. 

Origin, — The  kunker,  as  may  have  been  collected  from  what  has 
been  just  stated,  is  not  of  zoophytic  origin  like  coral  reefs ;  nor  does 
it  appear  to  have  been  generally  deposited,  or  chemically  precipitated, 
from  the  waters  of  an  ocean  or  inland  lake ;  but,  like  the  travertines  of 

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260  SUMMAftV   OF   THE   <^EOLOGY 

Italy,  it  may  be  referred  to  thef  adtion  of  fiprin^^  6ftM  thermal^ 
cbarged  with  carbonic  acid,  bringing  np  lime  in  solution,  and  depo- 
siting it  as  the  temperatnre  of  the  water  gradually  lowered  in  rising 
up  to  the  earth's  surface,  or  in  parting  with  their  oorbonio  acid. 

After  depositing  a  portion  of  calcareous  matter  in  the  fissures  of 
the  rocks  by  which  it  found  a  rent;  the  calcareous  watdr  appeaM  to 
hare  di£fiised  itself  in  the  loose  debris,  regur,  gravels,  and  olays 
usually  coreriug  the  rocks;  and,  by  force  of  chemical  affinity,  the  dis^ 
seminated  particles  of  lime  gradually  congregated  into  the  nodular, 
and  other  forms  we  see  them  assume.  These  nodules  are  sometimes 
arranged  in  rows  like  the  flints  in  chalk;  and  from  some  of  them  pro- 
ject delicate  spiculso  of  carbonate  of  lime,  which  would  hare  been 
broken  off  had  they  been  drift  pebbles,  Iks  supposed  by  some. 

If  we  compare  the  calcareous  matter  found  in  the  fissures  of  th« 
rock  with  that  of  the  nodules  abore  deposited  by  the  same  springi 
we  generally  find  the  former  in  a  much  purer  state,  and  more  friable 
than  the  latter,  which,  by  being  disseminated  among  the  detritus 
abore  has,  as  preriously  remarked,  become  mingled  with  such  propor- 
tions of  siliceous  and  ferruginous  matter  as  to  assimilate  in  composition 
some  of  our  hydraulic  cements:  hence  its  disposition  to  consolidate 
and  harden  in  moist  clays,  sands,  and  detritus.  The  dissemination  of 
the  calcareous  particles  among  heterogeneous  earthy  matter  would 
appear  farourable  to  their  aggregation  by  mutual  attraction,  in  a 
nodular  or  concentric  form,  round  the  nucleus  of  a  grain  of  sand,  or 
blade  of  grass.  Some  of  these  nodules  and  spheroids  may  be  re* 
garded,  perhaps,  as  exhibiting  approaches  to  c]iystalli2ation,^n  hd, 
crystalloids :  the  interior  structure,  particularly  of  the  pisiform  tarlety, 
is  frequently  crjrstalllne,  and  exhibiting  no  traces  of  mechanical  oon* 
centric  accumulation  round  a  nucleus. 

The  structure  of  the  kunker  formation  may  be  generally  termed, 
therefore,  concretionary,  like  that  of  some  rarieties  of  magnesian 
limestone.  But  there  is  this  striking  distinction  in  the  kunker,  viz., 
the  absence  of  the  laminie  and  lines  of  original  deposition  that  pass 
uninterruptedly  through  those  of  concretions  in  the  magnesian  llme^ 
stone:  hence  the  inference  that  the  concretionaiy  structure  in  the 
latter  took  place  subsequent  to  deposition ;  and  in  the  kunker  that  the 
deposition  of  the  lime  must  hare  taken  place  under  different  oiroum^ 
stances,  and  that  the  aggregation  of  its  molecules  was  almost  contem-* 
poraneous  with  the  exercise  of  the  force  which  drew  them  into  a  con- 
cretionary structure.  It  is  erident  that  both  mechanical  laws  and 
those  of  crystallization  hare  influenced  the  rarious  aspects  under  which 
VTQ  see  this  singular  rock. 

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OF   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  261 

Dr.  Christie.^,  who  was  of  opiaion  that  the  regax  was  the  result  of 
the  decomposition  of  the  trap  rocks^  as  already  alluded  to^  thought  that 
the  knnker,  from  its  being  often  associated  with  it^  owed  its  origin  to 
the  calcareous  spar  of  the  trap  rocks.  The  kunker,  however,  as  we 
hare  seen,  may  be  observed  in  the  process  of  being  deposited  by 
springs  rising  through  granite,  gneiss,  hornblende,  limestone,  and 
sandstone  rocks,  in  areas  where  not  a  trace  of  the  newest  trap,  or  even 
of.  the  older  trap,  which  rarely  contains  calc  spar,  is  to  be  seen.  The 
small  quantity  of  lime  that  enters  into  the  composition  of  horn- 
blende and  augitic  rocks  la  infinitely  too  minute  to  account  for  the 
prodigious  development  of  this  concretionaiy  limestone  seen  all  over 
India. 

Age, — I  have  already  alluded  to  the  difficulty  of  fixing  the  period 
at.  which  kunker  was  first  deposited ;  and  the  formation  is  still  going 
on,  imbedding  fragments  of  the  oldest  rocks  with  t&ose  of  the  most 
recent,  and  daily  adding  to  the  deposit  both  on  the  land  and  in  the 
bed  of  the  ocean,  into  which  large  quantities  of  calcareous  matters  are 
poured  by  the  springs  which  empty  themselves  into  the  great  lines  of 
drainage. 

The  facts  of  the  kunker  never  having  been  observed  to  form  a 
regular  bed  on  which  another  deposition  has  taken  place  lower  than  the 
regur,  its  never  being  divided  by  any  of  the  veins  or  dykes  in  any  of 
the  rocks  described,  and  being  undisturbed  and  unaltered  by  the  over- 
lying trap,  which  we  have  seen  breaking  up  and  converting  into  chert 
the  freshwater  limestones  of  Nirmul,  and  the  few  shells  it  imbeds 
being  all  of  existing  species,  induce  me  to  place  it  in  the  new  or 
pliocene  epoch,  which  includes  those  of  the  recent,  or  human  period. 
It  is  probable  that  its  earliest  aj^earance  took  place  at  an  era  anterior 
to  this,  but  there  is  no  decisive  evidence  of  its  being  older  than  the 
newer  pliocene  travertins  of  Rome,  which  imbed  the  existing  land  and 
freshwater  shells  of  the  surrounding  country  and  the  remains  of  the 
mammoth. 

JRock  Basins,  dsc. — In  a  Paper  read  before  the  Geological  Society, 
in  1.841-1842,  I  communicated  some  observations  on  the  occurrence 
of  Rock  Basins,  the  Giants'  Cauldrons  of  the  Scandinavian  Mountains, 
in  the  rocks  of  Southern  India,  at  elevations  beyond  the  reach  of 
present  floods;  and  others  in  the  rocky  beds  of  rivers  evidently  eroded 
by  the  action  of  present  streams,  which  closely  resemble  those  de- 
scribed by  M.  Agassiz,  on  the  sides  of  the  valleys  of  the  Alps,  and 
like  them  pass  into  spoon-shaped  excavations,  and  into  successions  of 

i  Madras  Joonud  of  Literature  and  Science,  for  October,  1836,  p.  470. 
VOL.  Vlil.  T  ^  , 

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262  SUMMARY   09  THE  OBOLOOT 

earities  oonnected  by  narrow  channels  in  the  rock.  M.  Agassiz, 
from  the  circumstance  of  many  of  the  cavities  oeoorring  in  rocks 
remote  from  the  inflnence  of  modem  running  waters,  and  observing 
that  similar  cayities  and  channels  are  now  in  process  of  excavation  by 
the  streams  of  water  which  flow  along  the  snrleuses  of  ghuaers;  sad  then 
fall  into  fissures  which  are  open  to  the  bottom,  conceived  them  to  be 
evidences  in  favour  of  his  glacier  theory,  as  confined  to  these  icy 
tracts :  but  in  the  paper  above  alluded  to,  I  think  I  have  satisfiuitorily 
proved  the  fact  of  their  being  caused  in  the  rocks  of  the  Tnmbuddra 
and  other  streams  of  Southern  India,  where  ice  is  unknown,  by  the 
waters  that  now  roll  over  them;  and  consequently,  that  a  glader  is 
not  an  indispensable  condition  to  the  production  of  these  singular  cavi« 
ties,  which  I  have  also  observed  in  the  granite  rooks  in  the  hesiirt  of 
the  desert  of  Mount  Sinai,  and  in  the  limestones  of  Egypt,  Sicily,  and 
Malta,  easily  distinguished  by  their  regular  form  and  contour  from  the 
perforations  of  lithodomi. 

The  parallel  stnm  and  scorings  (diluvicU  ichrammen)  so  remark* 
able  on  the  mountains  of  Northern  Europe,  adduced  by  Sefstrdm  m 
evidences  of  a  vast  ancient  flood,  caused  by  the  abrasion  of  pebUea 
swept  over  the  surface  by  aqueous  currents,  the  polished  surfiftoes  and 
grooves  so  generally  received  in  Europe,  on  the  authority  of  Agassis^ 
Charpentier,  and  others,  as  unquestionable  evidence  of  the  overknd 
march  of  glaciers,  carrying  with  them  boulden,  gravel,  and  sand, 
which  are  often  impacted  in  the  ice,  like  particles  of  sand  in  sand-paper, 
and  scratch  or  polish  the  subjacent  rocks,  have  escaped  the  notice 
of  Indian  geologists.  A  few  grooves  occur  on  the  surface  of  the 
granitic  bosses  that  rise  from  the  surCeuse  of  the  sandy  waste  that 
marks  the  confluence  of  the  Hogri  with  the  Tnmbuddra;  but  these 
have  the  appearance  of  having  been  worn  by  the  action  of  the  present 
floods;  they  are  chiefly  from  one  to  two  inches  in  breadth,  coinciding 
with  the  diameter  of  the  generality  of  the  pebbles  found  in  the  river 
bed,  and  their  direction  runs  parallel  with  that  of  the  stream  by  which 
they  are  covered  during  the  monsoon.  The  depth  of  the  furrows 
varies,  and  in  some  places  has  been  influenced  by  the  hardness  or 
softness  of  the  parts  of  the  rock.  A  few  tough  quarts  veins  have  been 
much  less  worn  than  the  imbedding  rock,  and  are  seen  standing  out^  in 
high  relief,  from  its  surface :  some,  indeed,  have  even  formed  barrien, 
but  slightly  worn,  across  the  furrows. 

Some  grooves  occur  on  the  surface  of  the  limestones  of  Cuddapah, 
Kumool,  &c.,  but  they  appear  to  me  to  have  been  caused  by  the 
unequal  decay  or  weathering  of  the  rock. 

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OF   SOUTHBaN   INDIA.  263 

PART  VIII. 
Modern  Allutia  and  Sand  Dunes. 

Whbbs  regor  does  not  prevul,  the  ordinary  soils  of  Sontheni|  India 
aie  djsiingoished  by  a  reddish  tinge,  owing  to  the  great  prevalence  of 
oxide  of  iron  in  the  rooks  of  which  they  are,  in  great  measure,  the  detri- 
tns.  Patches  of  white  soil  occur,  and  are  usually  the  consequence  of 
the  weathering  of  beds  of  quarts,  or  composed  of  kunker,  which 
abounds  so  generally,  and  enters  into  the  composition  of  almost  every 
variety  of  soil.  These  white  soils,  it  is  almost  unnecessary  to  remark, 
are  characterized  by  sterility. 

In  tracts  of  country  shaded  by  eternal  forests,  for  instance  the 
Ghauts,  and  rab-Ghaut  belts,  a  dark  vegetable  mould  prevails, — ^the 
result  of  the  successive  decay  and  reproduction  of  vegetation  for  a 
series  of  ages,  under  the  stimulating  alternations  of  excessive  heat  and 
moisture;  in  such  regions,  where  unsheltered  by  forest,  and  in  exposed 
situations,  the  soil  is  either  lateritio  or  stony  according  to  the  nature 
of  the  subjacent  rock. 

The  substratum  of  the  modem  soils  of  Southern  India  is  usually 
either  a  bed  of  kunker,  or  the  parent  rock,  with  an  intervening  layer 
of  rubble,  composed  of  its  own  broken  up,  and  angular  fragments  of 
the  subjacent  rock,  often  called  Mhurrum  by  the  natives. 

At  the  bases  of  mountain  ridges  we  usually  find  an  accumulation 
of  large  angular  blocks  composed  of  the  same  rooks  as  the  hills  down 
whose  declivities  they  have  rolled  in  weathering;  at  a  greater  distance 
from  the  base  in  the  plain  these  are  succeeded  by  pebbles,  whose 
reduced  sise,  mineral  composition,  and  worn  angles  proclaim  them  to 
have  travelled  from  the  same  source,  diminishing  in  bulk  the  farther 
we  recede  from  the  mountains,  until  they  pass,  by  the  gradations  of 
grit  and  sand,  into  deposits  of  a  rich  clay  or  loam.  Such  are  the 
gradations  generally  to  be  traced  in  the  modem  rock  alluvia,  and 
which  strikingly  distinguish  them  from  the  vegetable  soil  of  the  forest 
tracts  and  the  regur,  which  are  often  seen  in  the  state  of  the  greatest 
richness  and  fineness  of  composition  at  the  very  bases  of  the  hilL^  and 
resting  immediately  on  the  solid  rock. 

The  alluvia  brought  down  by  the  streams  from  the  Western 
Ghauts,  flowing  easterly  to  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  are  usually  composed 
of  silt,  sand,  and  gravel— detritus  of  the  rocks  over  which  they  have 
passed:  they  almost  always  contain  a  considerable  portion  of  lime 
derived  from  the  springs  which  supply  them>  and  from  the  limestone 


264  SUMMARY   OF   THE    GEOLOGY 

and  kunker  beds  over  which  most  of  them  flow.  The  alluyia  of  the 
rivers  of  the  western  coast  are  of  a  more  carbonaceous^  and  less  calca- 
reous character,  owing  to  the  greater  absence  of  lime  in  the  formation, 
and  the  dense  forests  and  luxuriant  vegetation  which  almost  choke 
their  passage. 

During  the  hot  season,  when  the  surface  of  the  alluvial  sand  in  the 
beds  of  the  rivers  and  rivulets  is  perfectly  dry,  a  stream  of  clear 
water  is  frequently  found  at  various  depths  below  them,  stealing  along 
or  lodging  in  the  depressions  of  some  impervious  layer  of  clay  or 
rock,  to  which  it  has  sunk  through  the  superincumbent  sand.  So  well 
is  this  fact  understood  by  natives,  that  in  arid,  sandy  tracts,  where  not 
a  drop  of  water  is  to  be  seen,  they  will  often  be  enabled  to  water 
whole  troops  of  horse  and  cattle  by  sinking  wells  a  few  feet  deep, 
through  the  sands  of  apparently  dried-up  rivulets.  I  have  observed 
similar  accumulations  of  water  at  inconsiderable  depths  below  the 
surface  of  the  sands  of  the  Eg3rptian  deserts,  which  the  wandering 
Bedouin  is  as  keen  to  take  advantage  of  as  the  vagrant  Brinjari  of 
India. 

The  benefit  resulting  from  the  admixture  of  lime  into  soils  consist- 
ing almost  solely  of  vegetable,  siliceous,  or  argillaceous  matter,  is  too 
well  known  to  be  dwelt  on  here ;  and  it  is  a  remarkable  and  bountiful 
provision  of  nature  in  a  country  like  Southern  India>  where  limestone 
is  so  rarely  seen  in  the  rocks  from  which  a  great  part  of  its  soil  is 
derived,  that  innumerable  calcareous  springs  should  be  constantly 
rising  through  the  bowels  of  the  earth  to  impregnate  its  surface  with 
this  fertilising  ingredient. 

In  many  parts  of  the  Ceded  Districts,  where  the  surface  soil  has 
been  of  a  gravelly  sterile  nature,  I  have  seen  it  covered  with  little 
conical  heaps  of  the  subjacent  rich  black  regur,  thrown  up  there  by 
the  subterraneous  workings  of  a  small  insect  of  the  ant  species. 

The  alluvia  of  Southern  India  are  remarkable  for  their  saline 
nature.  The  salts  by  which  they  are  impregnated  are  chiefly  the  car- 
bonate and  muriate  of  soda,  which  prevail  so  much,  (particularly  in 
mining  districts,)  as  to  cause  almost  perfect  sterility.  The  carbonate 
appears  on  the  surface  covering  extensive  patches,  in  frost-like  efllo- 
rescences,  or  in  moist  dark-coloured  stains,  arising  from  its  deli- 
quescence in  damp  weather,  or  by  the  morning  dews. 

Where  such  saline  soils  are  most  prevalent  there  will  be  usually 
a  substratum  of  kunker,  or  nodules  of  this  substance,  mixed  with  the 
soil :  and  there  can  be  little  doubt,  I  think,  that ,  their  origin  may 
be  referred  to  the  numerous  springs  rising  through  the  fissures  or. 


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OP   SOUTHERN    INDIA.  265 

lamin»  of  the  subjacent  rocks,  some  charged,  as  already  noticed,  with 
carbonate  of  lime,  and  others  with  muriate  of  soda  and  sulphate  of 
lime.  The  carbonate  of  sodia,  like  the  natron  of  Egypt,  is  the  result 
of  a  mutual  decomposition  of  the  muriate  of  soda  and  carbonate  of 
lime,  by  a  natural  chemical  process  so  satisfactorily  explained  by 
BerthoUet.  It  may  be  as  weU  to  remark  that  muriate  of  lime  is  inva- 
riably found  in  the  saline  soils  of  India^  and  which  are  known  to  the 
natives  by  the  terms  of  ^'  soud"  and  '' jairi."  The  soda  soil  is  used  by 
the  dhobis,  or  washermen,  to  wash  clothes  with,  and  hence  called  in 
Hindustani,  dkobi  ki  maUi^  washerman's  earth :  it  is  also  employed  by 
the  natives  in  the  manufacture  of  glass. 

Both  the  carbonate  and  muriate  of  soda  are  found  mingled  in 
varying  proportions,  in  white  efflorescences,  in  the  beds  and  on  the 
banks  of  springs  and  rivulets. 

Nttnms  /Sbi29**»Soils  impregnated  with  nitre  I  have  seen  only  on 
and  around  the  sites  of  old  towns,  villages,  &c.,  and  other  localities 
occupied  by  man  or  beast,  though  they  are  said  to  occur  in  the  deserts 
of  Ajmere,  and  other  localities  remote  from  the  impregnation  of  animal 
matter.  In  Egypt  I  observed  that  the  richest  nitre  soils  were  inva- 
riably procured  from  .the  sites  of  old  cities,  Luxor,  Camac,  Dendera, 
Sakdra,  Memphis,  Ohizeh,  Old  Cairo,  &c.,  and  it  appears  to  me  that 
the  abundance  of  nitre  for  which  the  soil  of  Egypt  has  so  long  been 
famous,  is,  in  great  measure,  owing  to  so  enormously  dense  a  popu- 
lation being  confined  to  the  narrow  belt  of  cultivable  soil  deposited 
by  the  Nile. 

Here  a  vast  quantity  of  animal  matter  must  gradually  have  been 
blended  with  the  calcareous  and  vegetable  soil:  from  their  decom- 
position the  elements  of  new  combinations,  by  the  agency  of  new  affi- 
nities, are  generated; — ^nitrogen  from  the  animal,  and  oxygen,  &:c.  from 
the  vegetable  matter.  The  nitric  acid  thus  produced  combines  with  the 
vegetable  alkali,  forming  the  nitrate  of  potass,  while  its  excess,  if  any, 
combines  with  the  lime,  forming  a  deliquescent  salt, — ^the  nitrate  of 
lime.  The  affinity  lime  hajs  to  nitrogen  and  oxygen  materially  SJBsists 
the  formation  of  the  acid  by  their  combination. 

The  natives  of  India,  in  their  rude  manufactories  of  saltpetre,  act 
upon  these  principles  without  being  aware  of  their  rationale.  Having 
collected  the  earth  from  old  ruins,  or  from  places  where  animals  have 
been  long  in  the  habit  of  standing,  they  throw  it  into  a  heap  mingled 
with  wood  ashes,  old  mortar,  chunam,  and  other  village  refuse;  and 
allow  it  to  remain  exposed  to  the  sun's  rays  and  to  the  night  dews  for 
one  or  two  years,  when  it  is  lixiviated.     The  salt  obtained  is  not  very 

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266  SUMMARY   OF  THE   GEOLOGY 

pure^  oontaining  either  the  muriate  and  sulphate  of  soda  or  potash^  or 
nitrate  and  mnriate  of  lime. 

Moisture  and  a  certain  d^iee  of  heat  appear  to  be  necessary  con- 
ditions to  th